[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.
This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.
The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).
UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The possible association between low skeletal muscle mass and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors necessitates estimation of muscle mass even in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI). This study was aimed to investigate optimal cutoffs for skeletal muscle mass reflecting CVD risk factors and to evaluate the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and CVD risk factors in the general population and in subjects with normal BMI using these cutoffs. This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. We enrolled 5120 men and 6559 women aged ≥20 years. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was defined as the weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses, SMI cutoffs associated with CVD risk factors were determined. Lower SMI was significantly associated with an increased prevalence of CVD risk factors. The first cutoffs in men and women were 32 and 25 %, respectively, and the second cutoffs were 30 and 23.5 %. Subjects in stage I and stage II SMI categories showed increased prevalence and risk for several CVD risk factors. These tendencies persisted in the association between cardiometabolic characteristics and SMI even in subjects with normal BMI. Using cutoffs of low skeletal muscle mass reflecting CVD risk factors, lower skeletal muscle mass was associated with increased prevalence and risk of several CVD risk factors. A higher prevalence of cardiometabolic abnormalities was observed among subjects with normal BMI but low skeletal muscle mass.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate recent trends in the prevalence and parameters of dyslipidemia and rates of lipid-lowering medication use in Korean adults. Trends in lipid profiles in subjects with hypertension, diabetes or obesity were also studied.
Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005, 2008 and 2010 were used in this study. A total of 17 009 subjects participated in this study.
There was a declining trend in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and an increasing trend in the rates of use of lipid-lowering medication among Korean adults. In both men and women, the age-adjusted mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level linearly increased. There was a significantly decreasing trend in the age-adjusted mean triglycerides in women and age-adjusted mean lipid-related ratios in both sexes. The age-adjusted mean total cholesterol level showed a slightly increasing trend and the age-adjusted mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not changed in both sexes. These patterns persisted among subjects not taking lipid-lowering medication. The favorable trends were also observed in subjects with hypertension, diabetes and obesity.
Our study showed favorable trends in the prevalence of dyslipidemia and in several lipid profiles among Korean adults.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aims:
Albuminuria is known to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality even in the general population. We aimed at investigating the prevalence and related risk factors of albuminuria among Korean adults.
This study was based on data collected during the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5,365 Korean adults were included in the general population group, and 3,282 of these participants were included in the nondiabetic, nonhypertensive population group. Albuminuria was defined by a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio value within the range of 3.4-34 mg/mmol (30-300 µg/mg).
The overall prevalence of albuminuria was 5.2% of the general population and 2.1% of the nondiabetic, nonhypertensive population. Factors associated with the risk of albuminuria in the general population were age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level in men, and SBP and HbA1c level in women. In the nondiabetic, nonhypertensive population, age and fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased risk for albuminuria in men, and with central obesity, triglyceride level and smoking status in women.
Albuminuria is prevalent in the nondiabetic, nonhypertensive population as well as general population of Korea. The increased risk of albuminuria was independently associated with several cardiovascular risk factors in the general population, and also in the nondiabetic, nonhypertensive population.
No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Nephron Clinical Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A possible negative effect of iron overload on bone metabolism has been suggested by the fact that patients with hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia have lower bone mineral density than the general population. However, the influence of iron overload on bone health in the general population is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Koreans. A total of 2,943 subjects aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were included in this study. Age, physical activity, current smoking status, alcohol consumption, education level, household income, and dietary assessment were surveyed by a face-to-face interview. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and other biochemical markers, including serum ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone, were assayed. After adjusting for age and body mass index, we found an association between BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck and levels of alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and daily intake of calcium and protein. Serum ferritin levels were positively associated with BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck after adjusting for all covariates in men, but not in women. This study suggests a positive association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in elderly South Korean men without hematologic disorders. Further study is warranted to verify the effects of iron on bone metabolism.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The effects of obesity on the kidney, apart from diabetes or hypertension, have not drawn much attention. Moreover, only a few studies have reported the relationship between obesity status and albuminuria in Asian countries, including South Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between obesity status and albuminuria in Korean adults.
We analyzed data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Of the 4,979 subjects included in the general-population group, 3,274 were sorted into a nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population group. Obesity status was measured by body mass index and waist circumference. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g.
Abdominally obese women were at higher risk for albuminuria than were women without abdominal obesity both in the general population (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.08 [1.04-4.16]) and in the nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population (OR [95% CI]: 6.96 [2.34-20.64]) after further adjustment for confounders. Among generally nonobese women, abdominally obese women were at higher risk for albuminuria than were women without abdominal obesity both in the general population (OR [95% CI]: 2.82 [1.51-5.29]) and in the nondiabetic and nonhypertensive population (OR [95% CI]: 5.32 [1.47-19.22]).
Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk for albuminuria in Korean women, independently of diabetes or hypertension. Screening for abdominal obesity, especially in women, may therefore provide earlier identification of individuals at risk for developing renal disease and cardiovascular disease, even those who are nondiabetic and nonhypertensive.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Women's Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract A wearable ambulatory intravenous infusion device (AIVD) has been developed to facilitate the ambulation of patients. To enhance ambulation, a wearable AIVD was designed and a prototype was developed that consists of an air bag, a reciprocating air pump, a drip rate sensor, and a microprocessor-based controller. Using air pressure as a source for actuation greatly contributes to decreasing the weight of the proposed device and the power consumption. Experimental results show that the proposed infusion device can provide a variety of flow rates ranging from 36-90 mL h(-1) with less than a 10% error. A series of experiments were performed with the prototype of the proposed device at a wide range of flow rates and the results verify that the accuracy and controllability of the prototype is comparable with those of the current intravenous infusion devices available. It is expected that the AIVD significantly contributes to the early recovery of patients by offering a convenient and cost-effective means of ambulation.
No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
This study investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and dyslipidemia and various parameters of dyslipidemia among Korean adults.
Data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used in this study. A total of 19,041 Korean adults greater than 19years old participated in the study. The SES was assessed by monthly household income and education level. The relationship of SES to the risk of dyslipidemia was assessed with multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for potential confounders.
The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 37.4% among Korean adults. In men, household income level was positively associated with prevalence and risks of several parameters of dyslipidemia, and education level had positive associations with the risks of dyslipidemia and parameters of dyslipidemia. However, low SES was linked to increased prevalence and risks of dyslipidemia (P for trend<0.05) and parameters of dyslipidemia in women.
Socioeconomic disparities in dyslipidemia were found in the Korean population. Also, there were gender differences in the relationship between SES and dyslipidemia. These disparities should be considered when performing risk calculations and screening for dyslipidemia, which will ultimately help prevent cardiovascular disease.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Preventive Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Persistent elevation of urinary albumin excretion (UAE), even within normal range, is an independent predictor for cardiovascular disease. Accumulating research suggests that low levels of vitamin D and high levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) also increase cardiovascular disease risk. This study is intended to investigate the relationship between PTH, vitamin D levels and UAE.
We examined 2897 adults aged 50 and above, participating in the second year of the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2). Anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed. Elevated UAE was defined as spot urinary albumin creatinine ratio equal or above 10.
The proportion of elevated UAE (21·8%, 23·2%, 23·2%, 31·8%; P for trend = 0·002) rose with increasing quartiles of PTH. The odds ratio for elevated UAE in the highest quartile of PTH was 72% higher than the lowest quartile group. There was no relationship between vitamin D and elevated UAE.
Elevated PTH levels are associated with elevated UAE in Korean adults aged 50 and above. Additional studies are needed to clarify this relationship.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Clinical Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Vitamin D insufficiency is known to be related to cardiometabolic disorders; however, the associations among serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents have not yet been clearly delineated. For this reason, we investigated the relationship among serum 25(OH)D concentration and metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adolescents.DesignWe performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariate logistic regression analysis models to adjust for confounding variables.SettingWe used the data gathered during the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).SubjectsOur subjects included 1504 Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years who participated in the KNHANES.ResultsVitamin D insufficiency, defined as 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/l, was found in 753 % of Korean adolescents and was associated with an increased risk of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference and BMI were the most closely correlated cardiometabolic components of metabolic syndrome according to serum 25(OH)D status, but no significant relationship was found between serum 25(OH)D concentration and insulin resistance or for the risks for high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, reduced HDL-cholesterol or hypertriacylglycerolaemia, with or without adjustment for confounding variables.Conclusions
Low serum 25(OH)D concentration appears to be associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors and an increased risk of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Public Health Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is a serious global issue. Although the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] test is generally the most accurate way to assess vitamin D levels, the optimal range of 25(OH)D has yet to be established. Moreover, the optimal level may vary according to race, region, and age. Suboptimal vitamin D status is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, which are the major risk factors for cardiovascular disorders; however, these relationships in children and adolescents have yet to be clearly determined. Therefore, we identified the best predictive cut-off value for reflecting abdominal obesity and, based on this value, we investigated the relationship between suboptimal 25(OH)D status and the risk for having abdominal obesity, being overweight or obese, and having metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 713 Korean adolescents, between 12-19 years of age, and used data collected from the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Receiver operation characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the cut-off value that reflected abdominal obesity. The cut-off value of serum 25(OH)D that reflected abdominal obesity in Korean adolescents was 17.6 ng/mL. After making adjustments for gender, age, and regular physical exercise, the group that had lower levels of serum 25(OH)D compared to the cut-off value had a significantly higher risk for abdominal obesity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome than the group with 25(OH)D levels higher than the cut-off value. Suboptimal vitamin D status based on this value is associated with increased risk for abdominal obesity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome among Korean adolescents.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Nutrition research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested associations between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and osteoporosis and between serum lipids and osteoporosis. However, there are only a few studies about the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipids in Koreans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of serum lipid levels with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a branch of neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), which is very rare soft tissue sarcoma. We report a case of EES/PNET arising is the lung of a 67-yr-old man. Computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and positron emission tomography confirmed the mass to have a primary pulmonary origin. The mass showed positive reactivity in the Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain and MIC-2 immunoreactivity in immunohistochemical stain. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed, which revealed an EWSR1 (Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1) 22q12 rearrangement. The diagnosis was confirmed both pathologically and genetically. The mass lesion was resected, and the patient is currently undergoing chemotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Journal of Korean Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension, and their association with the risk factors in a Korean population.
The Korean Nation Health and Nutrition Survey 2001, a cross-sectional survey, was a nationally representative survey in which a stratified multistage sampling design was used.
Data from a comprehensive questionnaire, together with a physical examination and blood sample, were obtained from 6074 Korean adults (2620 men and 3454 women) aged > or = 20 years, and analysed.
The estimated age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was 22.9% (26.9% in men, 20.5% in women) and 31.6% (41.9% in men, 25.9% in women), respectively, in the Korean population according to Joint National Committee 7 criteria. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, gender, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, total-cholesterol and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with hypertension. Overall, only 30.2% of the hypertensive individuals had been previously diagnosed. Furthermore, 22.9% of the hypertensive individuals were being treated with antihypertensive medication, but only 10.7% had their blood pressure adequately controlled. The rates of awareness, treatment and control were higher for the women than for the men, and these rates increased with age.
Hypertension and prehypertension are common in Korea, and more than one-half of the hypertensive patients have not been diagnosed. These results place great emphasis on the urgent need for a public health program to improve the detection, prevention and treatment of hypertension and prehypertension.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of Hypertension
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and the parameters of the metabolic syndrome among Koreans. In 67 male and 115 female subjects, aged from 30 to 70 years, plasma adiponectin levels were positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels (r = 0.295, P<0.001), but negatively correlated with waist circumference (r = -0.140, P = 0.020), triglycerides (r = -0.174, P = 0.021), fasting plasma glucose (r = -0.159, P = 0.036), fasting plasma insulin (r = -0.172, P = 0.023) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.182, P<0.001), after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that HDL-cholesterol, sex, and HOMA-IR were the independent associated factors for plasma adiponectin levels. Multiple logistic analyses demonstrated that HOMA-IR, BMI, and age were the predominant independent factors associated with the metabolic syndrome, while plasma adiponectin levels exhibited a protective effect against the presence of the metabolic syndrome according to both NCEP ATP III criteria and IDF definition. Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with the phenotype of the metabolic syndrome as well as components of the metabolic syndrome.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Endocrine Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and plasma adiponectin levels and insulin resistance. We recruited study subjects among one hundred and eighty one persons who were examined abdominal ultrasound at routine screening tests. A standard interview (consumption of alcohol and medical history), physical examination (height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure), and biochemical study (lipid parameters, aminotransferases, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, and plasma adiponectin) were performed. Subjects who consumed alcohol more than moderate, evidence of viral hepatitis, toxic hepatitis, and serious cardiac, renal, or hepatic disease were excluded. Thirty-eight NAFLD patients and 53 control subjects diagnosed by ultrasound were finally analyzed. The plasma adiponectin level was significantly correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0. 38, p<0.001), triglycerides (r=-0.22, p=0.04), fasting insulin (r=-0.37, p<0.01), and insulin resistance by homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMAIR) (r=-0.39, p<0.01), after adjusting for age, sex, and adiposity. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that HOMA-IR was a significant predictor of having NAFLD (odds ratio [OR]=2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-5.74), while adiponectin had a protective effect against NAFLD (OR=0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.55). We demonstrated that hypoadiponectinemia and insulin resistance are associated with NAFLD independent of obesity.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Korean Medical Science