M. Hartmann

Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Tautenburg, Thuringia, Germany

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Publications (39)144.36 Total impact

  • M. Hartmann · A. P. Hatzes
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Chemically peculiar Ap stars are main-sequence stars of spectral type B8-F3 which show large overabundances of some chemical elements (e.g., Si, Sr, Cr), especially of rare-earth elements, compared to normal A-type stars. Furthermore, they have strong, global magnetic fields and low rotational velocities. Some Ap stars exhibit high-overtone, low-degree, non-radial p-mode pulsations with periods of 6-24 min and are called rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars. Interestingly, no roAp star is known to be a spectroscopic binary (SB), while many non-oscillating Ap (noAp) stars are found in SB systems. Aims. The goal of this survey was to carry out a systematic search for sub-stellar and stellar companions around Ap stars. Methods. Between 2004 and 2009, we observed 65 chemically peculiar stars with the HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile). The radial-velocity (RV) measurements were obtained using a new software called HARPS-TERRA which is based on a least-squares matching of each individual spectrum to a high signal-to-noise ratio template for each star. Results. We find significant variability with a period of 93.2 days and a semi-amplitude of 11.85 km s-1 in the RVs of HD 42659, a star of our sample that belongs to the group of roAp stars. This variability is caused by a stellar companion with a minimum mass of 0.47 M⊙ in a slightly eccentric (e = 0.146) orbit at a separation of 0.55 AU. Conclusions. This detection makes HD 42659 the first confirmed SB around a roAp star in a relatively close orbit. It shows that tidal interactions in binaries do not necessarily inhibit pulsations in Ap stars.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We analysed an extended time series of high-resolution spectra of the δ Sct star WASP-33 with the aim to determine the effect of its planet WASP-33b. We found ten frequencies in the measured radial velocities. Three of them we can attribute to previously observed photometric oscillations due to non-radial pulsations. One frequency exactly agrees with the orbital period of the planet. The semi-amplitude of the corresponding variation is 304 ± 20 m s-1. This finding allows us to give a new estimate of the mass of WASP-33b of 2.1 ± 0.2 Jupiter masses. Its mean density probably is at least 0.6 g cm-3, a value that can be expected for a planet of its mass that orbits an A-type star in 1.22 d.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the nature of the long-period radial velocity variations in Alpha Tau first reported over 20 years ago. We analyzed precise stellar radial velocity measurements for Alpha Tau spanning over 30 years. An examination of the Halpha and Ca II 8662 spectral lines, and Hipparcos photometry was also done to help discern the nature of the long-period radial velocity variations. Our radial velocity data show that the long-period, low amplitude radial velocity variations are long-lived and coherent. Furthermore, Halpha equivalent width measurements and Hipparcos photometry show no significant variations with this period. Another investigation of this star established that there was no variability in the spectral line shapes with the radial velocity period. An orbital solution results in a period of P = 628.96 +/- 0.90 d, eccentricity, e = 0.10 +/- 0.05, and a radial velocity amplitude, K = 142.1 +/- 7.2 m/s. Evolutionary tracks yield a stellar mass of 1.13 +/- 0.11 M_sun, which corresponds to a minimum companion mass of 6.47 +/- 0.53 M_Jup with an orbital semi-major axis of a = 1.46 +/- 0.27 AU. After removing the orbital motion of the companion, an additional period of ~ 520 d is found in the radial velocity data, but only in some time spans. A similar period is found in the variations in the equivalent width of Halpha and Ca II. Variations at one-third of this period are also found in the spectral line bisector measurements. The 520 d period is interpreted as the rotation modulation by stellar surface structure. Its presence, however, may not be long-lived, and it only appears in epochs of the radial velocity data separated by $\sim$ 10 years. This might be due to an activity cycle. The data presented here provide further evidence of a planetary companion to Alpha Tau, as well as activity-related radial velocity variations.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Detached eclipsing binaries (dEBs) are ideal targets for accurate measurement of masses and radii of ther component stars. If at least one of the stars has evolved off the main sequence (MS), the masses and radii give a strict constraint on the age of the stars. Several dEBs containing a bright K giant and a fainter MS star have been discovered by the Kepler satellite. The mass and radius of a red giant (RG) star can also be derived from its asteroseismic signal. The parameters determined in this way depend on stellar models and may contain systematic errors. It is important to validate the asteroseismically determined mass and radius with independent methods. This can be done when stars are members of stellar clusters or members of dEBs. KIC 8410637 consists of an RG and an MS star. The aim is to derive accurate masses and radii for both components and provide the foundation for a strong test of the asteroseismic method and the accuracy of the deduced mass, radius and age. We analyse high-resolution spectra from three different spectrographs. We also calculate a fit to the Kepler light curve and use ground-based photometry to determine the flux ratios between the component stars in the BVRI passbands. We measured the masses and radii of the stars in the dEB, and the classical parameters Teff, log g and [Fe/H] from the spectra and ground-based photometry. The RG component of KIC 8410637 is most likely in the core helium-burning red clump phase of evolution and has an age and composition very similar to the stars in the open cluster NGC 6819. The mass of the RG in KIC 8410637 should therefore be similar to the mass of RGs in NGC 6819, thus lending support to the most up-to-date version of the asteroseismic scaling relations. This is the first direct measurement of both mass and radius for an RG to be compared with values for RGs from asteroseismic scaling relations.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: MOST time series photometry of μ Eri, an SB1 eclipsing binary with a rapidly rotating SPB primary, is reported and analysed. The analysis yields a number of sinusoidal terms, mainly due to the intrinsic variation of the primary, and the eclipse light curve. New radial-velocity observations are presented and used to compute parameters of a spectroscopic orbit. Frequency analysis of the radial-velocity residuals from the spectroscopic orbital solution fails to uncover periodic variations with amplitudes greater than 2 km s-1. A Rossiter-McLaughlin anomaly is detected from observations covering ingress. From archival photometric indices and the revised Hipparcos parallax, we derive the primary's effective temperature, surface gravity, bolometric correction and the luminosity. An analysis of a high signal-to-noise spectrogram yields the effective temperature and surface gravity in good agreement with the photometric values. From the same spectrogram, we determine the abundance of He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl and Fe. The eclipse light curve is solved by means of EBOP. For a range of mass of the primary, a value of mean density, very nearly independent of assumed mass, is computed from the parameters of the system. Contrary to a recent report, this value is approximately equal to the mean density obtained from the star's effective temperature and luminosity. Despite limited frequency resolution of the MOST data, we were able to recover the closely spaced SPB frequency quadruplet discovered from the ground in 2002-2004. The other two SPB terms seen from the ground were also recovered. Moreover, our analysis of the MOST data adds 15 low-amplitude SPB terms with frequencies ranging from 0.109 to 2.786 d-1.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Context: CoRoT is a pioneering space mission whose primary goals are stellar seismology and extrasolar planets search. Its surveys of large stellar fields generate numerous planetary candidates whose lightcurves have transit-like features. An extensive analytical and observational follow-up effort is undertaken to classify these candidates. Aims: The list of planetary transit candidates from the CoRoT LRa01 star field in the Monoceros constellation towards the Galactic anti-center is presented. The CoRoT observations of LRa01 lasted from 24 October 2007 to 3 March 2008. Methods: 7470 chromatic and 3938 monochromatic lightcurves were acquired and analysed. Instrumental noise and stellar variability were treated with several filtering tools by different teams from the CoRoT community. Different transit search algorithms were applied to the lightcurves. Results: Fifty-one stars were classified as planetary transit candidates in LRa01. Thirty-seven (i.e., 73 % of all candidates) are "good" planetary candidates based on photometric analysis only. Thirty-two (i.e., 87 % of the "good" candidates) have been followed-up. At the time of this writing twenty-two cases have been solved and five planets have been discovered: three transiting hot-Jupiters (CoRoT-5b, CoRoT-12b, and CoRoT-21b), the first terrestrial transiting planet (CoRoT-7b), and another planet in the same system (CoRoT-7c, detected by radial velocity survey only). Evidences of another non-transiting planet in the CoRoT-7 system, namely CoRoT-7d, have been recently found.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Hierarchical triple systems comprise a close binary and a more distant component. They are important for testing theories of star formation and of stellar evolution in the presence of nearby companions. We obtained 218 days of Kepler photometry of HD 181068 (magnitude of 7.1), supplemented by ground-based spectroscopy and interferometry, which show it to be a hierarchical triple with two types of mutual eclipses. The primary is a red giant that is in a 45-day orbit with a pair of red dwarfs in a close 0.9-day orbit. The red giant shows evidence for tidally induced oscillations that are driven by the orbital motion of the close pair. HD 181068 is an ideal target for studies of dynamical evolution and testing tidal friction theories in hierarchical triple systems.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Science
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    ABSTRACT: Direct imaging of the HR8799 system was a major achievement in the study of exoplanets. HR8799 is a $\gamma$\,Doradus variable and asteroseismology can provide an independent constraint on the inclination. Using 650 high signal-to-noise, high resolution, full visual wavelength spectroscopic observations obtained over two weeks at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP) with the SOPHIE spectrograph we find that the main frequency in the radial velocity data is 1.9875 d$^{-1}$. This frequency corresponds to the main frequency as found in previous photometric observations. Using the FAMIAS software to identify the pulsation modes, we find this frequency is a prograde $\ell$=1 sectoral mode and obtain the constraint that inclination $i\gtrsim$40$^{\circ}$.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: G and K giants are a class of radial velocity (RV) variables. One reason for this variability are planetary companions which are indicated in time series of stellar spectra. Since 2004 these spectra in the visual range were obtained with the high resolution coudé échelle spectrograph mounted on the 2 m telescope of the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (TLS) for a northern sample of 62 very bright K giants. In the South around 300 G and K giants were observed with HARPS mounted on the 3.6 m telescope on La Silla. The TLS sample contains at least 11 stars (18%) which show low‐amplitude, long‐period RV variations most likely due to planets. This percentage of planet frequency is confirmed by preliminary results of the HARPS study. Moreover the TLS survey seems to indicate that giant planets do not favour metal‐rich stars, are more massive, and have longer periods than those found around solar‐type host stars.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2011
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: The CoRoT exoplanet science team announces the discovery of CoRoT-11b, a fairly massive hot-Jupiter transiting a V=12.9 mag F6 dwarf star (M*=1.27 +/- 0.05 Msun, R*=1.37 +/- 0.03 Rsun, Teff=6440 +/- 120 K), with an orbital period of P=2.994329 +/- 0.000011 days and semi-major axis a=0.0436 +/- 0.005 AU. The detection of part of the radial velocity anomaly caused by the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect shows that the transit-like events detected by CoRoT are caused by a planet-sized transiting object in a prograde orbit. The relatively high projected rotational velocity of the star (vsini=40+/-5 km/s) places CoRoT-11 among the most rapidly rotating planet host stars discovered so far. With a planetary mass of mp=2.33+/-0.34 Mjup and radius rp=1.43+/-0.03 Rjup, the resulting mean density of CoRoT-11b (rho=0.99+/-0.15 g/cm^3) can be explained with a model for an inflated hydrogen-planet with a solar composition and a high level of energy dissipation in its interior. Comment: 15 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in A&A
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: CoRoT-7b, the first transiting ``superearth'' exoplanet, has a radius of 1.7 R_Earth and a mass of 4.8 M_Earth. Ground-based radial velocity measurements also detected an additional companion with a period of 3.7 days (CoRoT-7c) and a mass of 8.4 M_Earth. The mass of CoRoT-7b is a crucial parameter for planet structure models, but is difficult to determine because CoRoT-7 is a modestly active star and there is at least one additional companion. A Fourier analysis was performed on spectral data for CoRoT-7 taken with the HARPS spectrograph. These data include RV measurements, spectral line bisectors, the full width at half maximum of the cross-correlation function, and Ca II emission. The latter 3 quantities vary due to stellar activity and were used to assess the nature of the observed RV variations. An analysis of a sub-set of the RV measurements where multiple observations were made per night was also used to estimate the RV amplitude from CoRoT-7b that was less sensitive to activity variations. Our analysis indicates that the 0.85-d and 3.7-d RV signals of CoRoT-7b and CoRoT-7c are present in the spectral data with a high degree of statistical significance. We also find evidence for another significant RV signal at 9 days. An analysis of the activity indicator data reveals that this 9-d signal most likely does not arise from activity, but possibly from an additional companion. If due to a planetary companion the mass is m = 19.5 M_Earth, assuming co-planarity with CoRoT-7b. A dynamical study of the three planet system shows that it is stable over several hundred millions of years. Our analysis yields a RV amplitude of 5.04 +/- 1.09 m/s for CoRoT-7b which corresponds to a planet mass of m = 6.9 +/- 1.4 M_Earth. This increased mass would make the planet CoRoT-7b more Earth-like in its internal structure.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The system AR Aur is a young late B-type double-lined eclipsing binary with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity. We applied the Doppler imaging method to reconstruct the distribution of Fe and Y over the surface of the primary using spectroscopic time series obtained in 2005 and from 2008 October to 2009 February. The results show a remarkable evolution of the element distribution and overabundances. Measurements of the magnetic field with the moment technique using several elements reveal the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred gauss in both stellar components and a quadratic field of the order of 8 kG on the surface of the primary star.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    Michael Hartmann · Eike W. Guenther · and Artie P. Hatzes
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    ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the dependence of planet formation on stellar mass, we have been monitoring a sample of F-type main-sequence stars with the 2.0 m Alfred-Jensch telescope of the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg. This survey is based on high-precision radial velocity (RV) measurements using the coudé échelle spectrograph and an iodine absorption cell. We present RV measurements of the F7 V star HD 8673 that show a long-term variability of 1634 days with a semi-amplitude K = 288 m s-1 that can be explained most reasonably by an orbiting sub-stellar companion with a minimum mass of 14.2 M Jup in a high-eccentricity (e = 0.723) Keplerian orbit.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Most of our knowledge of extrasolar planets rests on precise radial-velocity measurements, either for direct detection or for confirmation of the planetary origin of photometric transit signals. This has limited our exploration of the parameter space of exoplanet hosts to solar- and later-type, sharp-lined stars. Here we extend the realm of stars with known planetary companions to include hot, fast-rotating stars. Planet-like transits have previously been reported in the lightcurve obtained by the SuperWASP survey of the A5 star HD15082 (WASP-33; V=8.3, v sin i = 86 km/sec). Here we report further photometry and time-series spectroscopy through three separate transits, which we use to confirm the existence of a gas giant planet with an orbital period of 1.22d in orbit around HD15082. From the photometry and the properties of the planet signal travelling through the spectral line profiles during the transit we directly derive the size of the planet, the inclination and obliquity of its orbital plane, and its retrograde orbital motion relative to the spin of the star. This kind of analysis opens the way to studying the formation of planets around a whole new class of young, early-type stars, hence under different physical conditions and generally in an earlier stage of formation than in sharp-lined late-type stars. The reflex orbital motion of the star caused by the transiting planet is small, yielding an upper mass limit of 4.1 Jupiter masses on the planet. We also find evidence of a third body of sub-stellar mass in the system, which may explain the unusual orbit of the transiting planet. In HD 15082, the stellar line profiles also show evidence of non-radial pulsations, clearly distinct from the planetary transit signal. This raises the intriguing possibility that tides raised by the close-in planet may excite or amplify the pulsations in such stars. Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in MNRAS
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We have analyzed data from a multi-site campaign to observe oscillations in the F5 star Procyon. The data consist of high-precision velocities that we obtained over more than three weeks with eleven telescopes. A new method for adjusting the data weights allows us to suppress the sidelobes in the power spectrum. Stacking the power spectrum in a so-called echelle diagram reveals two clear ridges that we identify with even and odd values of the angular degree (l=0 and 2, and l=1 and 3, respectively). We interpret a strong, narrow peak at 446 muHz that lies close to the l=1 ridge as a mode with mixed character. We show that the frequencies of the ridge centroids and their separations are useful diagnostics for asteroseismology. In particular, variations in the large separation appear to indicate a glitch in the sound-speed profile at an acoustic depth of about 1000 s. We list frequencies for 55 modes extracted from the data spanning 20 radial orders, a range comparable to the best solar data, which will provide valuable constraints for theoretical models. A preliminary comparison with published models shows that the offset between observed and calculated frequencies for the radial modes is very different for Procyon than for the Sun and other cool stars. We find the mean lifetime of the modes in Procyon to be 1.29 +0.55/-0.49 days, which is significantly shorter than the 2-4 days seen in the Sun.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The system ARAur is a young late B-type double-lined eclipsing binary with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity. We applied the Doppler imaging method to reconstruct the distribution of Fe and Y over the surface of the primary using spectroscopic time series obtained in 2005 and from 2008 October to 2009 February. The results show a remarkable evolution of the element distribution and overabundances. Measurements of the magnetic field with the moment technique using several elements reveal the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred gauss in both stellar components and a quadratic field of the order of 8kG on the surface of the primary star. Based on observations obtained at the 2.56-m Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, the Karl-Schwarzschild-Observatorium in Tautenburg and the STELLA robotic telescope on Tenerife. E-mail: shubrig@aip.de
    No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The 11408 targets observed by CoRoT were selected using the information gathered in the database Exo-Dat (Deleuil et al. 2009AJ....138..649D; Meunier et al. 2007, ASP Conf., 376, 339), built with dedicated ground based photometric observations in the visible and near IR bands from 2MASS catalog. (1 data file).
    No preview · Article · Dec 2009
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Most current radial velocity planet search programs have concentrated on stars of one solar mass. Our knowledge on the frequency of giant planets and brown dwarf companions to more massive stars is thus rather limited. In the case of solar-like stars, the frequency of short-period brown dwarf companions and very massive planets seems to be low. Aims: Here we present evidence for a substellar companion to 30 Ari B, an F-star of 1.16±0.04 M_&sun; that is a member of a hierarchical triple system. Methods: The companion was detected by means of precise radial velocity measurements using the 2-m Alfred-Jensch telescope and its échelle spectrograph. An iodine absorption cell provided the wavelength reference for precise stellar radial velocity measurements. Results: We analyzed our radial velocity measurements and derived an orbit to the companion with period, P = 335.1±2.5 days, eccentricity e = 0.289±0.092, and mass function f(m) = (6.1±1.7)×10-7 M_&sun;. Conclusions: We conclude that the radial velocity variations of 30 Ari B are due to a companion with m sin i of 9.88±0.94 MJup that is either a massive planet or a brown dwarf. The object thus belongs to the rare class of massive planets and brown dwarfs orbiting main- sequence stars. Based on observations obtained at the 2-m Alfred-Jensch telescope at the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg. Table 3 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/507/1659 Visitor at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/ Vía Láctea, s/n, 38205 La Laguna (Tenerife), Spain.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Context: 11 UMi and HD 32518 belong to a sample of 62 K giant stars that has been observed since February 2004 using the 2m Alfred Jensch telescope of the Thüringer Landessternwarte (TLS) to measure precise radial velocities (RVs). Aims: The aim of this survey is to investigate the dependence of planet formation on the mass of the host star by searching for planetary companions around intermediate-mass giants. Methods: An iodine absorption cell was used to obtain accurate RVs for this study. Results: Our measurements reveal that the RVs of 11 UMi show a periodic variation of 516.22 days with a semiamplitude of K = 189.70 m s-1. An orbital solution yields a mass function of f(m) = (3.608 ± 0.441) × 10-7 solar masses (M⊙) and an eccentricity of e = 0.083 ± 0.03. The RV curve of HD 32518 shows sinusoidal variations with a period of 157.54 days and a semiamplitude of K = 115.83 m s-1. An orbital solution yields an eccentricity, e = 0.008 ± 0.03 and a mass function, f(m) = (2.199 ± 0.235) × 10-8 M⊙. The HIPPARCOS photometry as well as our Hα core flux measurements reveal no variability with the RV period. Thus, Keplerian motion is the most likely explanation for the observed RV variations for both giant stars. Conclusions: An exoplanet with a “minimum mass” of m sin i = 10.50 ± 2.47 Jupiter masses (MJup) orbits the K giant 11 UMi. The K1 III giant HD 32518 hosts a planetary companion with a “minimum mass” of m sin i = 3.04 ± 0.68 MJup in a nearly circular orbit. These are the 4th and 5th planets published from this TLS survey. Tables 2 and 5 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/505/1311
    Preview · Article · Oct 2009 · Astronomy and Astrophysics