[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine plus cisplatin is active in malignant mesothelioma (MM), although single-arm phase II trials have reported variable outcomes. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors have activity against MM in preclinical models. We added the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab to gemcitabine/cisplatin in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized phase II trial in patients with previously untreated, unresectable MM.
Eligible patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 to 1 and no thrombosis, bleeding, or major blood vessel invasion. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Patients were stratified by ECOG performance status (0 v 1) and histologic subtype (epithelial v other). Patients received gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every 21 days, cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) every 21 days, and bevacizumab 15 mg/kg or placebo every 21 days for six cycles, and then bevacizumab or placebo every 21 days until progression.
One hundred fifteen patients were enrolled at 11 sites; 108 patients were evaluable. Median PFS time was 6.9 months for the bevacizumab arm and 6.0 months for the placebo arm (P = .88). Median overall survival (OS) times were 15.6 and 14.7 months in the bevacizumab and placebo arms, respectively (P = .91). Partial response rates were similar (24.5% for bevacizumab v 21.8% for placebo; P = .74). A higher pretreatment plasma VEGF concentration (n = 56) was associated with shorter PFS (P = .02) and OS (P = .0066), independent of treatment arm. There were no statistically significant differences in toxicity of grade 3 or greater.
The addition of bevacizumab to gemcitabine/cisplatin in this trial did not significantly improve PFS or OS in patients with advanced MM.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment options for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) are limited after a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan; novel agents need to be explored in this setting. Dasatinib, an oral inhibitor of Src family kinases, inhibits proliferation in CRC cell lines and has antitumor activity in CRC xenograft models.
We conducted a multi-center phase II trial of dasatinib in unresectable, previously-treated metastatic CRC patients. No more than 2 prior chemotherapy regimens were permitted, which must have contained a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 4 months. The Simon two-stage design required that at least 5 of the first 19 patients be progression-free at 4 months to expand to a second stage.
Nineteen patients enrolled at 9 centers. The study was terminated after the first stage due to lack of efficacy. There were no objective responses; 1 patient (5%) had stable disease for 7.3 months. The PFS rate at 4 months was 5.3% (90% CI: 0.3, 22.6). Median PFS was 1.6 months (90% CI: 1.4, 1.8). Median overall survival was 5.1 months (90% CI: 2.4, 6.3). Grade 3/4 toxicities included fatigue in 16% of patients, and anemia, anorexia, nausea/vomiting and dyspnea in 11%.
Dasatinib is inactive as a single agent in previously treated metastatic CRC patients.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sunitinib is an orally administered multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor of RET, VEGFR, PDGFR, and c-KIT. We conducted a phase II trial to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of sunitinib in metastatic and/or recurrent SCCHN patients.
Patients who had received no more than two prior chemotherapy regimens were eligible and, depending on ECOG performance status (PS), were entered into either Cohort A (PS 0-1) or Cohort B (PS 2). Sunitinib was administered in 6-week cycles at 50 mg daily for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks off. Primary endpoint for Cohort A was objective tumor response. A Simon two-stage design required twelve patients to be enrolled in the first stage and if 1 or fewer responses were observed, further study of this cohort would be terminated due to lack of treatment efficacy. Primary endpoint of Cohort B was to determine the feasibility of sunitinib in patients with ECOG performance status 2.
Twenty-two patients were accrued (Cohort A - 15 patients, Cohort B - 7 patients). Median age in cohort A and B was 56 and 61 years, respectively. Grade 3 hematologic toxicities encountered were lymphopenia (18%), neutropenia (14%) and thrombocytopenia (5%). There was only one incidence of grade 4 hematologic toxicity which was thrombocytopenia. Fatigue and anorexia were the most common non-hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 fatigue occurred in 23% of patients. The only grade 4 non-hematologic toxicity was one incidence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Non-fatal hemorrhagic complications occurred in 8 patients: epistaxis (3 patients), pulmonary hemorrhage (2 patients), gastrointestinal hemorrhage (2 patients) and tumor hemorrhage (1 patient). Four patients were not evaluable for tumor response (Cohort A - 3patients, Cohort B - 1 pt). One partial response was observed in the entire study. Dose reduction was required in 5 patients (Cohort A - 3 patients for grd 3 fatigue, grd 3 mucositis and recurrent grd 3 neutropenia; Cohort B - 2 patients for grd 3 fatigue and grd 3 nausea). Median time to progression for cohort A and B were 8.4 and 10.5 weeks, respectively. Median overall survival for cohort A and B was 21 and 19 weeks, respectively.
Sunitinib had low single agent activity in SCCHN necessitating early closure of cohort A at interim analysis. Sunitinib was well tolerated in PS 2 patients. Further evaluation of single agent sunitinib in head and neck is not supported by the results of this trial.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatobiliary cancers respond poorly to cytotoxic chemotherapy. We evaluated the activity and safety of ixabepilone, an epothilone B analogue which stabilizes microtubules, in a phase II trial in patients with advanced cancers of the gallbladder, bile duct, and liver.
Eligible patients had previously-untreated, histologically-proven unresectable hepatobiliary cancer. Ixabepilone, 40 mg/m(2), was administered intravenously over 3 h every 21 days.
Between January 2002 and April 2005, 54 patients (19 hepatocelluar carcinoma, 13 cholangiocarcinomas, 22 gallbladder carcinomas) were enrolled; 47 patients were evaluable for efficacy. The objective response rate was 8.5%; 51% had stable disease. Median overall survival was 7.0 months (95% CI, 5.0 to 10.8 months) and median progression-free survival was 2.6 months (95% CI, 1.4 to 4.1 months). Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia (39%), fatigue (9%), allergic/hypersensitivity reaction (4%) and sensory neuropathy (4%).
Single agent ixabepilone has limited activity in advanced hepatobiliary cancers.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Investigational New Drugs
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in the biology and prognosis of pancreatic cancer. Inhibitors of VEGF suppress the growth of pancreatic cancer in preclinical models. The objectives of this phase II study were to assess the response rate and overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients who received gemcitabine with the recombinant humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab.
Patients with previously untreated advanced pancreatic cancer received gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) intravenously over 30 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days. Bevacizumab, 10 mg/kg, was administered after gemcitabine on days 1 and 15. Tumor measurements were assessed every two cycles. Plasma VEGF levels were obtained pretreatment.
Fifty-two patients were enrolled at seven centers between November 2001 and March 2004. All patients had metastatic disease, and 83% had liver metastases. Eleven patients (21%) had confirmed partial responses, and 24 (46%) had stable disease. The 6-month survival rate was 77%. Median survival was 8.8 months; median progression-free survival was 5.4 months. Pretreatment plasma VEGF levels did not correlate with outcome. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities included hypertension in 19% of the patients, thrombosis in 13%, visceral perforation in 8%, and bleeding in 2%.
The combination of bevacizumab plus gemcitabine is active in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Additional study is warranted. A randomized phase III trial of gemcitabine plus bevacizumab versus gemcitabine plus placebo is ongoing in the Cancer and Leukemia Group B.
Preview · Article · Dec 2005 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the extensive clinical experience with irinotecan, significant concerns remain regarding its toxicity. In a phase I trial, we modulated irinotecan pharmacokinetics by inhibiting biliary excretion of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, using cyclosporine. The modulation appeared to decrease the gastrointestinal toxicity of irinotecan and suggested that irinotecan activity might also be retained. Hence, we conducted this phase II trial in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) to further evaluate the toxicity and activity of irinotecan modulated with cyclosporine.
Sixteen patients with 5-fluorouracil refractory CRC were treated. Cyclosporine (5 mg/kg) was administered as a 6-h infusion and irinotecan (60 mg/m2/day, 90-min infusion) was started 3 h after initiation of the Cyclosporine. Both agents were given weekly for 4 weeks, every 6 weeks. Responses were assessed every 12 weeks, and toxicity was monitored weekly.
Sixteen patients were evaluable for toxicity and 11 for response. There was 1 partial response (6%). Five patients had SD lasting a median of 12 weeks. Grade 3/4 diarrhea was observed in only 13% of the patients.
Pharmacokinetic modulation of irinotecan using parenteral cyclosporine appears to decrease the incidence of diarrhea in CRC patients. Given the modest activity of irinotecan monotherapy, a larger study would be required to assess if the modulation improves the toxicity without compromising this activity. The available clinical data suggest that pharmacokinetic modulation of irinotecan should be evaluated further to define its optimal clinical utility.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of breast cancer increases with age. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral UFT (ftorafur plus uracil) plus leucovorin in elderly patients with advanced breast cancer. Eligibility criteria included age > or =65 years, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, < or =1 prior chemotherapy regimens in the setting of metastatic disease, performance status 0-2, and adequate end-organ function. UFT at 300 mg/m2 per day as 2 divided doses and 30 mg leucovorin with each dose were administered orally daily for 21 days, followed by a 7-day rest period. Ten patients were accrued. Six patients received treatment in their first relapse and 3 in their second. One patient was chemotherapy-naive. The dose-limiting toxicity was diarrhea with grade 3 or 4 diarrhea occurring more often in the oldest patients (1 of 6 patients between 65 and 69 vs. 3 of 4 patients > or =70 years old). Protocol treatment was discontinued in 2 patients (ages 78 and 83) secondary to severe gastrointestinal toxicity. One patient achieved a partial response. Although UFT/leucovorin had efficacy in 1 patient, toxicity in the patients over 70 years of age was increased. Careful evaluation of anticancer drug toxicity in very elderly patients is important as our population ages.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · American journal of clinical oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of breast cancer increases with age. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral UFT (ftorafur plus uracil) plus leucovorin in elderly patients with advanced breast cancer. Eligibility criteria included age ≥65 years, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer, ≤1 prior chemotherapy regimens in the setting of metastatic disease, performance status 0-2, and adequate end-organ function. UFT at 300 mg/m2 per day as 2 divided doses and 30 mg leucovorin with each dose were administered orally daily for 21 days, followed by a 7-day rest period. Ten patients were accrued. Six patients received treatment in their first relapse and 3 in their second. One patient was chemotherapy-naive. The dose-limiting toxicity was diarrhea with grade 3 or 4 diarrhea occurring more often in the oldest patients (1 of 6 patients between 65 and 69 vs. 3 of 4 patients ≥70 years old). Protocol treatment was discontinued in 2 patients (ages 78 and 83) secondary to severe gastrointestinal toxicity. One patient achieved a partial response. Although UFT/leucovorin had efficacy in 1 patient, toxicity in the patients over 70 years of age was increased. Careful evaluation of anticancer drug toxicity in very elderly patients is important as our population ages.
No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · American Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determine response rate, time to disease progression, and toxicity of the proteasome inhibitor PS-341 in patients with stage IV renal cell cancer.
PS-341 1.5 mg/m(2) was administered intravenously twice weekly for 2 weeks every 21 days. Dose escalation to 1.7 mg/m(2) ensued in the absence of grade 3 to 4 toxicities. Re-evaluation took place after three cycles. To assess proteasome inhibition, patients were randomly assigned to tumor core biopsy either before the first dose or after the third cycle of PS-341. Additionally, whole blood was collected at the same time intervals.
Twenty-three patients were enrolled; 21 were assessable for response. Two patients were never treated (one patient refused treatment and one had insufficient tumor for biopsy). Eighteen patients completed at least three cycles of therapy; three patients experienced disease progression after two cycles. Grade 4 toxicities were arthralgia, diarrhea, and vomiting. Grade 3 toxicities included thrombocytopenia with one hemorrhage, anemia, febrile neutropenia, gastrointestinal toxicity, pain, fatigue, neuropathy (one sensory, one mixed sensorimotor), and electrolyte disturbances. Grade 1 to 2 neuropathy occurred in seven patients. One case of thrombosis and one case of pleural effusion occurred. Only one objective response was seen. Proteasome activity was measured by specific chymotryptic activity (SpA) and chymotryptic/tryptic activity (ChT:T). After PS-341, there was a decrease in mean whole blood SpA and ChT:T (P =.07 and.11, respectively).
Evidence is lacking for clinically significant activity of PS-341 in metastatic renal cell cancer. Insufficient biopsy and whole blood sample numbers preclude conclusions regarding proteasome inhibition within tumor. Further evaluation in this disease setting is not recommended.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate feasibility and tolerability of the three-drug combination of paclitaxel, ifosfamide and carboplatin (TIC) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. The specific objectives of the study were: (i) to define the dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and the maximum-tolerated dose of ifosfamide administered as part of the combination; and (ii) to determine the overall response rate and overall survival of patients treated with this regimen.
Patients with untreated, stage IIIB (pleural effusion) or stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer were enrolled in one of three cohorts. Patients received paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) as a 1-h infusion on day 1 with carboplatin at an area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of 6 mg.min/ml on day 2. For dose level I, ifosfamide was administered at a dose of 2 g/m(2) on days 1 and 2. For dose levels II and III, the dose of ifosfamide was decreased to 1.5 g/m(2) on days 1 and 2 and the dose of carboplatin was decreased to AUC 5 mg.ml/min. Therapy for dose levels I and III included filgrastim support (5 micro g/kg/day), which was initiated on day 3 and continued until after day 11 or until an absolute neutrophil count >10 000/ micro l. Treatment cycles were repeated every 21 days. Once the phase II dose was established, a full cohort of patients received therapy at this dose level to examine further the regimen's activity and tolerability.
Neutropenia was the DLT encountered for dose levels I and II. No DLT was encountered in the initial six patients treated at dose level III, and therefore this dose level was declared the recommended phase II dose. A total of 49 patients were treated at the recommended phase II dose. The predominant non-hematological toxicity encountered with this triplet regimen was cumulative peripheral neuropathy. Of the 65 eligible patients enrolled in this study, 17 (26%) responded. There were 15 patients with partial responses (23%), two with regression, and 26 with stabilization of disease (40%). Median progression-free and overall survival were 4.8 and 9.4 months, respectively.
The combination TIC is well-tolerated. This triplet regimen produced response and survival rates in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer similar to those of other current combination chemotherapy regimens.
No preview · Article · May 2003 · Annals of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the clinical response rate of the combination of weekly intravenous (IV) gemcitabine with continuous infusion fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
Between June 1998 and February 1999, 41 patients with metastatic RCC were enrolled onto this multi-institutional phase II study of gemcitabine 600 mg/m(2) over 30 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15 and 5-FU 150 mg/m(2)/d via continuous IV infusion through a permanent catheter on days 1 to 21 of a 28-day cycle. Patients had a Cancer and Leukemia Group B performance status of 0 or 1, with a median time since diagnosis of metastatic disease of 10 months (range, 0 to 129 months). Thirty-three patients (80%) had multiple metastatic sites, and 34 patients (83%) had prior chemotherapy or immunotherapy.
Of the 39 assessable patients, there were no complete responses but seven partial responses (objective response rate = 17%; 95% confidence interval, 8% to 34%). Five minor responses (25% to 50% decreased tumor size) were also observed. The duration of response for the seven partial responders was 2, 3, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 14 months. Median progression-free survival for the gemcitabine/5-FU group was 28.7 weeks versus 8 weeks for a similar cohort of patients treated on previous phase II studies at the University of Chicago (P =.008). The regimen was well tolerated, with fatigue, mucositis, nausea/vomiting, and grade 2 hematologic toxicities being most common.
Weekly gemcitabine with continuous infusion 5-FU is an active combination in patients with metastatic RCC. Therapy was well tolerated and produced an improvement in progression-free survival over historical controls.
No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flavopiridol is the first cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor to enter clinical trials. Serum levels of flavopiridol obtained during phase I studies were sufficient to inhibit in vitro cancer cell growth. Because responses were observed in kidney cancer patients in the phase I trials, we performed a phase II trial of flavopiridol in this patient population.
Thirty-five minimally pretreated patients were accrued using a standard two-step mechanism. Flavopiridol (50 mg/m(2)/d) was administered by continuous infusion for 72 hours every 2 weeks, and response was evaluated every 8 weeks. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected at baseline, at completion of drug infusion, and on day 7 of the first therapy cycle, and cell cycle parameters after phytohemagglutinin and interleukin-2 stimulation were assessed.
There were two objective responses (response rate = 6%, 95% confidence interval, 1% to 20%). The most common toxicities were asthenia, occurring in 83% of patients (grade 3 or 4 in 9%), and diarrhea, occurring in 77% of patients (grade 3 or 4 in 20%). Also, nine patients (26%) experienced grade 3 or 4 vascular thrombotic events, including one myocardial infarction, two transient neurologic ischemic attacks, four deep venous thrombosis, and two pulmonary emboli. Cell cycle studies did not reveal any effect of flavopiridol on stimulated PBMCs.
Flavopiridol, at the dose and schedule administered in this trial, is ineffective in metastatic renal cancer. In addition to the diarrhea observed in phase I studies, we also observed a higher incidence of asthenia and serious vascular thrombotic events than expected.
No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrazine diazohydroxide (PZDH) is a novel antitumor agent that forms DNA adducts via the reactive pyrazine diazonium ion. In a recent Phase I study of PZDH, we identified a recommended Phase II dose of 100 mg/m2/day x 5, given as a 5-min i.v. bolus with the cycles repeated every 42 days (N. J. Vogelzang, et al, Cancer Res., 54: 114-119, 1994). There was a moderate negative correlation between serum chloride concentration and logarithm platelet nadir, suggesting the hypothesis that PZDH is activated in an acidic environment, leading to more toxicity in acidotic patients. Therefore, the University of Chicago Phase II cooperative network conducted two Phase II studies of PZDH in renal cancer (15 patients, 2 with liver metastases) and in 5-fluorouracil-refractory colorectal cancer (14 patients, 13 with liver metastases) to determine efficacy in each disease and to correlate safety and tolerance of the drug with PZDH pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and with arterial blood gas measurements. There were no responses seen in either tumor type. The primary toxicity of PZDH was myelosuppression with neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count, < 1000/microl) and thrombocytopenia (<50,000 cells/microl), seen in 41 and 24% of all cycles, respectively. Other grade 3 and 4 toxicities were rare. Pharmacodynamic analysis revealed no significant correlation between plasma levels at 5, 60, and 120 min; WBCs; absolute neutrophil and platelet count nadirs; and initial serum chloride or blood pH levels. The colorectal patients experienced significantly more thrombocytopenia than did the renal cancer patients (median platelet nadir after cycle 1 was 151 x 10(3)/microl for renal patients versus 76 x 10(3)/microl for colon patients; P = 0.04), suggesting either that prior 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin reduced bone marrow reserve or that colorectal patients with liver metastases experienced more PZDH toxicity. Regression analyses revealed a possible relationship (P = 0.06) between serum pH and thrombocytopenia (i.e., for each increase of 0.03 in pH, there was a 34% increase in the platelet nadir), but there was no relationship between serum chloride and thrombocytopenia. Curiously, an increase in alkaline phosphatase was associated with an increase in the platelet nadir (P = 0.02). If PZDH continues to be developed as an antineoplastic agent, further studies of these relationships are suggested.
Full-text · Article · May 1998 · Clinical Cancer Research