Ahmet Topuzoğlu

Marmara University, İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey

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Publications (37)37.62 Total impact

  • S Hidiroglu · A Topuzoglu · M F Onsuz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of an intervention programme based on the utilisation of the social learning concept which is practised through social networks among adult women in a suburban population in Turkey. The study was performed in two disadvantaged neighbourhoods of Umraniye, Istanbul. One of the neighbourhoods served as the intervention while the other as the control group. In order to document the efficacy of the intervention, baseline and evaluation surveys were carried out in both neighbourhoods. The most widely known hormonal contraceptive method was oral contraceptives, while emergency contraceptives were determined as the least known methods. The improvement was higher for the least known methods. Education with peer groups is shown to be effective in improving the knowledge of women about contraception. Information transfer through peer groups should be used more frequently particularly for emergency contraception.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To investigate the relationship between MBD and THOP. Methods: 124 infants, born in Marmara University Hospital with a gestational age ≤ 34 weeks, were enrolled. Clinical features were recorded. Serum TSH, free T4, total T4, calcium, phosphorus and total Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined in the first and third postnatal weeks. MBD was defined as a phosphorus level < 4.5 mg/dl and/or ALP >900 IU/L. THOP was defined as a serum free and/or total thyroxine level lower than -1 SD for gestational age at the 7(th) postnatal day. Result: THOP was diagnosed in nineteen (15,3 %) patients. MBD was diagnosed in 52 (41,9 %) at the 3(rd) month. Low birth weight, low gestational age and prolonged parenteral nutrition were associated with MBD. Multivariate analysis documented a significant relationship solely between MBD and gestational age. Conclusion: The risk of MBD does not increase significantly in babies with THOP.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
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    H. Ozdemir · H. Bilgen · S. Coskun · A. Topuzoglu · A. Ilki · G. Soyletir · E. Ozek
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aim There is still controversy regarding the optimal umbilical cord care and the relationship between cord separation and omphalitis. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of different umbilical cord care practices on the cord seperation time and omphalitis. Methods We included 514 newborns and randomly randomized them into six groups (Group 1: dry care (n:72); groups 2 (n:69), groups 3 (n:69) and 4 (n:76): a single application of 70% alcohol, 4% chlorhexidine or povidon-iodine in the delivery room, groups 5 (n:73) and 6 (n:62): a single application of 70% alcohol or 4% chlorhexidine in the delivery room and continued until discharge) and 421 of them completed the study. Umbilical cord was examined on the 2nd day and between 5–7 days of life for the signs of omphalitis. Babies were followed up for one month and cord seperation time was recorded. Results Cord separation time was the shortest for group one (6.40 ±1.36 day) and the longest for groups 3 and 6 (9.57±3.12 days and 9.58±4.07 days) (p<0.001). Omphalitis was detected in eight patients (1.9%) and there was no significant difference between the groups. There was no relationship between umbilical cord separation time and incidence of umbilical cord infection (p>0.05). Conclusion Our study showed that the mean time of cord separation was significantly shorter (6.40±1.36 days) in the dry cord care group and the longest in both chlorhexidine groups. However, cord seperation time did not have an impact on the rate of omphalitis.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Archives of Disease in Childhood
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    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Erciyes Tip Dergisi
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · Neuropsychiatrie de l Enfance et de l Adolescence
  • Ismail Gönen · Ahmet Soysal · Ahmet Topuzoğlu · Mustafa Bakir
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rabies is an endemic infectious disease and one of the most important causes of human mortality in both underdeveloped and developing countries. In Turkey, 167,000 individuals are believed to be victims of animal bites annually. In this study, we investigated Turkish physicians' knowledge and clinical awareness of rabies caused by animal bites. This was a cross-sectional, analytical study. We used questionnaires that collected demographic information and assessed the physicians' basic knowledge of rabies as well as the management of animal bites suspected of causing rabies. The questionnaires were completed in person with physicians who work in Istanbul. A total of 890 physicians responded to our cross-sectional questionnaires. The maximum possible scores for basic and clinical rabies- related knowledge was 100 points each. The average score for basic rabies knowledge was 64.5 ± 16, while the average score for clinical rabies knowledge was 62.8 ± 12. However, 68% of the physicians in the study were not aware of the proper method for cleaning wounds as a first-line treatment in postexposure prophylaxis. In addition, 38.4% of the physicians in the study did not understand the administration of vaccines together with immunoglobulin as part of postexposure prophylaxis. We also found that 79% of the physicians did not know the correct doses of vaccines, while 37.6% did not know the correct sites and routes of vaccine administration. Finally, 30% of the physicians were not aware of the correct vaccine schedules in postexposure prophylaxis. Our data indicate that Turkish physicians' basic and clinical knowledge of rabies was insufficient. Rabies prophylaxis educational programs should be designed to educate physicians on the guidelines provided by the World Health Organization and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices for the treatment of rabies caused by animal bites.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this population-based study, we aimed to determine the total sleep duration (TSD), its association with socio-economic status (SES) and behavioural symptoms among schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was performed among schoolchildren in Istanbul. A structured questionnaire evaluating the sleep schedule variables was filled out by their parents. SES was determined according to the Turkish SES scale. The mean age of 2669 children was 8.2 ± 2.4 years, and 51% of the students were girls. The mean TSD was 10.20 ± 1.04, and the mean bedtime was 21.57 ± 0.56 (both in hours, minutes ± SD). Boys tended to go bed later (p = 0.004) and slept less than girls (p = 0.02). The duration of sleep disruptions increased (p < 0.001), whereas TSD decreased with age (p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression revealed that waking time and TSD decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with higher SES among both girls and boys. Sleep fragmentation was associated with habitual snoring, parasomnias, daytime sleepiness and conduct symptoms. Decreased total sleep duration is more prominent in boys, older children and children among higher socio-economic status. Insufficient sleep attributed to shortened total sleep duration by age and higher socio-economic status might have a negative effect on both sleep hygiene and psychological well-being in schoolchildren.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Acta Paediatrica
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: Aim of the study was to determine medical school students' knowledge levels and attitudes who accomplished Obstetric and Gynecology clerkship in a medical school about HPV vaccination and intention to suggest HPV vaccine to their patients. METHOD: This descriptive study was carried out in a medical school among 166 medical students accomplishing their internship in the Obstetrics and Gynaecological Diseases Department. Study data had been collected by questionnaire which had three part and 30 question. The data were evaluated by descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Fifty five point four of the students stated that they felt informed about HPV vaccine, 72.9% of them stated that HPV was more serious for women. 95.8% of the participants thought they would suggest HPV vaccine to their patients and the most proposed group was adolescent girls (51.6%). 80.5% of students stated their possibility to suggest the vaccine would increase in case the vaccine would be free. The most important drawback points of the students in suggesting the vaccine to their patients were thinking high priced and not cost effectiveness of the vaccine (51.6%) and inducing unprotected, risky sexual intercourses (45.9%). CONCLUSION: In this study we determine the professional acception of HPV vaccine between students. Also we determine the most important factor in suggesting the HPV vaccine is the cost effectiveness of it.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · TAF preventive medicine bullletin
  • No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Fuel and Energy Abstracts
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to asses the accuracy of prediction equations in elderly patients with advanced renal disease (ARD). Twenty-three elderly patients (>60 years) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5 underwent technetium-99 m-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-99m-DTPA) radionuclide measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To predict GFR, estimation formulas [Cockcroft-Gault (CG), 6-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (6-var-MDRD) and the corrected 24-hour creatinine clearance (24-h CCL) method] were used. Estimates of bias and precision were obtained to compare prediction equations of GFR with standard radionuclide measurement. In the present study, all the prediction equations overestimated the GFR measured with the radionuclide method. Six-var-MDRD and 24-h CCL methods correlated better with standard radionuclide measurements compared to the CG formula (Rc of 0.53 and 0.50 vs. 0.41, respectively) as for GFR prediction, but they were still insufficiently accurate. Glomerular filtration rate prediction equations correlate poorly with standard radionuclide measurements and their use may lead to late initialization of renal replacement therapy in elderly patients with ARD. Therefore, measurement by standard radionuclide method (Tc-99m-DTPA) is recommended to accurately assess GFR in elderly patients with ARD.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · International Urology and Nephrology
  • Seyhan Hidiroglu · Pinar Ay · Ahmet Topuzoglu · Cem Kalafat · Melda Karavus
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the H1N1 pandemic, most healthcare workers in Turkey were not willing to take up the vaccine. This qualitative study aims to explore the factors that lead to vaccination resistance among a group of primary healthcare workers in Istanbul. Data were collected through focus group discussions. Thematic content analysis was conducted. All participants considered themselves at risk for infection, yet most of them were not vaccinated. Only persons with a "poor" immune system were considered by the respondents at risk for severe disease and death. Health personnel mostly did not realize their potential role in the transmission of influenza to patients. The decision of vaccination was dependent on the information source. The personnel who depended mainly on the media either did not accept vaccination or was undecided. They believed that the vaccine went through an accelerated authorization procedure. Yet the ones who accepted vaccination relied mostly on evidence-based sources and accessed information from the guidelines of the Ministry of Health, Professional Medical Associations and the World Health Organization. Social networks were also influential factors in the decision-making process. It is important to empower healthcare workers through supporting the skills of acquiring and using evidence-based information. This is particularly important for physicians who also serve as opinion leaders.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Vaccine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the urine levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as noninvasive markers of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal parenchymal scarring (RPS) in children in the absence of a recent urinary tract infection (UTI) episode. Urine concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 in 114 children aged 1 month to 16 years were evaluated. The children were divided into four groups: group 1, 26 children with VUR and RPS; group 2, 27 children with VUR without RPS; group 3, 34 children with RPS without VUR, group 4, 27 children without VUR and RPS, as the control group. After the first assessment, the children were divided into four larger groups for comparison purposes: group A (groups 1+2), 53 children with VUR; group B (groups 3+4), 61 children without VUR; group C (groups 1+3), 60 children with RPS; group D (groups 2+4), 54 children without RPS. Urinary IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were determined. To avoid dilution effects and to the standardize samples, urinary levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were expressed as the ratio of cytokine to urinary creatinine (pg/mg). The median urine IL-6/creatinine was significantly higher in patients with VUR than in those without VUR (5.72 vs. 3.73). In patients with VUR, there was a significant but rather weak correlation between IL-6/creatinine concentrations and there flux grade (p<0.05, R=0.305). The median urine IL-8/creatinine was significantly higher in patients with RPS than in those without RPS (43.12 vs. 16.36). In patients with RPS, there was a significant but rather weak correlation between IL-8/creatinine concentrations and the renal scar grade (p<0.05, R=0.251). The results of this study provide preliminary evidence that children with VUR have a high urine IL-6 concentration, whereas children with RPS have a high urine IL-8 concentration.
    No preview · Article · May 2010 · Pediatric Nephrology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the validity and the reliability of Turkish version of Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)-Abbreviated Form. Methods: The sample consisted of 1749 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade elementary schoolchildren. The parents were asked to complete the CSHQ, sociodemographic form, and a question list assessing the behavioral and emotional problems of children. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of the CSHQ were investigated. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient was determined as 0.78. The test retest correlation coefficient was 0.81 (p<0.001). As a result of factor analysis 11 factors were determined. Additional analysis regarding the construct validity indicated that the total sleep scores did not differ by age and gender (p>0.05), yet the scores tended to increase with decreasing socio-economic status (p<0.001). There were statistically significant relationships between all behavioral and emotional parameters and the presence of sleep problems. Conclusion: These results suggest that Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, which is a parent proxy-report, is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing sleep habits and screening possible sleep problems of Turkish children.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Transient hypothyroxinemia is the most common thyroid dysfunction in the preterm. Thyroid hormone is essential for normal bone maturation. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of transient hypothyroxinemia on osteopenia of prematurity. Methods: 113 infants, born at a gestational age of less than or equal to 34 weeks ,were enrolled. Demographic characteristics and clinical features were recorded. Thyroid Function Tests and Calcium, Phosphorus, serum total Alkalene Phosphatase levels were determined in the first and third week of life. An ALP level of 900 IU/L or more at the third week was accepted as an indicator of metabolic bone disease. Free T4 levels < 0,6 ng/dl for the infants born at 25-27 weeks of gestation, < 0,8 ng/dl for 28-30 weeks of gestation and < 1,2 ng/dl for 31-34 weeks of gestation at the seventh postnatal day were accepted as hypothyroxinemia. Cut-off values for free T4 levels were -1 SD of the mean for each gestational subgroup. SPSS 14.0 program was used for statistical analysis. Results: Forty three ( 38% ) babies had ALP values > 900 IU/L at third postnatal week. 22 (19,6%) babies had low free T4 at 1st week. Infants with hypothyroxinemia had lower gestational age than the infants without hypothyroxinemia .The mean gestational ages were 30,2±2,4 weeks and 31,1±2,2 weeks, respectively ( p=0.04). Full enteral feeding was achieved at 19,2±11,7 days in hypothyroxinemic infants, at 11,4±6,9 days in infants without hypothyroxinemia ( p=0,007).Duration of total parenteral nutrition infusion was longer in infants with hypothyroxinemia (17,3±12,3 days and 11,0±10 days respectively p==0.05 ). BPD was more frequent in patients with hypothyroxinemia ( p=0,006 ) The mean ALP levels was not different between the infants with or without hypothyroxinemia. Free T4 level and ALP levels did not have a statistically significant correlation. Conclusion: Both transient hypothyroxinemia and osteopenia are common problems of prematurity. Low free thyroxine levels do not seem to effect osteopenia in premature infants. Mild alterations of free T4 levels may be a minor contributor for normal bone maturation in premature babies. These findings should be explored with a larger sample size.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2009
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    Hülya Bilgen · Ahmet Topuzoğlu · Kemal Kuşçu · Emel Altuncu · Eren Ozek
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to assess the attitudes and practices of doctors and nurses about end-of-life decisions and compare our results with those observed in different European countries. The data was collected from nurses and doctors, using a standardized questionnaire adapted from the EURONIC study. A total of 250 structured questionnaires were delivered, and 135 (77%) of them were accepted for analysis. The end-of-life decision was taken in 39.4% of the hospitals and personal involvement was 40%. Although an ethical committee was present in the hospitals of 61.5% of responders, a written policy was present in only 3.1% of the units. The mean attitude score was 6.5. Seventy-five percent of the contributors agreed that everything possible should be done to ensure a neonate's survival regardless of the prognosis and 65.2% of responders believed that costs of health care should not affect nontreatment decisions. Most of the responders (65.2%) agreed that severe mental disability as an outcome was equal to or worse than death. In patients in whom medical intervention would be futile, or would not offer sufficient benefit to justify the burdens imposed, hospitals should set up a functional ethical committee in order to decide in matters of withholding or withdrawing intervention.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · The Turkish journal of pediatrics
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the impact of gender roles in relation to health seeking behaviour during pregnancy and childbirth. The study was conducted in neighbourhoods with low antenatal care rates in three provinces of Turkey. The study population consisted of pregnant women who never got or discontinued antenatal care and their peers, families and community leaders. Sixteen focus group discussions and 125 in-depth interviews were conducted with a total of 239 participants. Pregnancy and childbirth are interwoven strongly with gender roles. Since the patriarchal system acknowledges women through the means of childbirth, women are expected to have many children. Hence women experience pregnancy as a burden and are not motivated to seek antenatal care. During pregnancy, only 'serious' conditions are considered as legitimate reasons for accessing care. However, the decision regarding whether a pregnant woman is seriously sick or not belongs to the responsibilities of elder women, which delays service use. Providing information regarding the value of antenatal care also to elder women is essential in increasing the demand to the services. Incorporating gender perspectives into daily health practice and maintaining access to high quality reproductive care services are vital in reducing the gender based barriers to care.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The etiology and pathogenesis of migraine and other types of headache are still under discussion. An interaction of organic, psychological, and psychosocial factors is operative. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of headache and its association with socioeconomic status among schoolchildren. Study design: A cross-sectional study was performed on 2669 schoolchildren via a parental questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was determined according to the Turkish socioeconomic status scale. Results: The mean age of the students was 8.2 +/- 2.4 years. The headache prevalence was 46.2% (95% CI: 44.3-48.1). The prevalence of migraine was 3.4% (95% CI: 2.8-4.1), the prevalence of probable migraine was 8.7% (95% CI: 7.6-9.8), and that of non-migraine headache was 34.1% (95% CI: 32.3-35.9). Multivariate analysis revealed that older age, being a girl, having a family history of headache, and exposure to passive smoking at home were independently associated with headache. There was an inverse association between socioeconomic status and all 3 types of headaches after adjusting for age, sex, family history of headache, and presence of passive smoking. When the group with the lowest socioeconomic status was taken as the reference category, the odds ratios for the highest socioeconomic group were 0.33 (95% CI: 0.16-0.69, P = .003) for the migraine, 0.30 (95% CI: 0.11-0.89, P = .029) for the probable migraine, and 0.34 (95% CI: 0.16-0.72, P = 0.005) for the non-migraine headache. Conclusion: Headache is more common among children with lower socioeconomic groups. Social causation can play a role in the pathogenesis of headache.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Headache The Journal of Head and Face Pain
  • M. Fatih Onsuz · Ahmet Topuzoglu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. Evidences show that effective glycemic control is important in the management of diabetic patients. Our research aims to evaluate the quality of diabetes management and describes related factors with glysemic control in three different hospitals in Istanbul. Methods. The research was descriptive, and conducted in three different public, private and university hospitals in Istanbul. 392 outpatient type 2 diabetics were included to the study. Patients had type 2 diabetes for at least six months. Data was collected with a face to face questionnaire. Questionnaires included questions about patient’s demographic characteristics, disease history, complications, disease management, and medical therapy information. Descriptive statistics, chi square and logistic regression were used in statistical analysis. Findings. The mean age was 60.32±10.37 and the mean disease duration was 10.25±7.82 years. Mean HgbA1c level was 7.03±1.47, 59.2% of patients had a normal level. University hospital attendants were fount to have more normal HgbA1c levels (p<0.05). However, university hospital patients had more complications; more diet lists and glucometric devices. State hospital patients were found out to be more obese. Private hospital patients had more diet lists and took adequate diabetic patient education. Patients with low education and low socioeconomic level, had no diet list, received insufficient diet list practicing, and obesity was related with high blood HgbA1c levels (p<0.05). In multivariate analysis, attending a hospital, socioeconomic level, having a diet list and practicing the diet list, and having glucometric devices were related with glysemic control quality. Conclusion. There were important differences between hospitals concerning glysemic control program outcomes. Education and socioeconomic level, diet list practicing and obesity control are important factors for type 2 diabetes management and hospital intervention programs should focus on these factors for diabetes management. There is need for standardized diabetes management programs for hospitals.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2009
  • M. Fatih Onsuz · Ahmet Topuzoglu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction. In this research were aimed to assess the cost effectiveness of type 2 diabetes patients glysemic control therapies. Methods. Cost effectiveness analysis, and the study was conducted public, private and university hospitals in Istanbul. 392 type 2 diabetics were included to the study. Drugs, glucometric devices, laboratory tests, outpatient control costs, specialist doctor and nurse salaries, and patient training costs are included to the total costs of glycemic control. HgbA1c levels were used for the calculation of effectivenes. State hospital was taken control for incremental cost-effectiveness calculation. Findings. Insulin theraphy per capita costs (pcc) and effectivenes (eff) values were as follows: 316.05 TL pcc, 3.62 eff in the state hospital; 323.44 TL pcc, 10.94 eff in the university hospital; 562.70 TL pcc, 5.32 eff in the private hospital. The incremental cost ratios were 1 and 123 in the university and private hospital respectively. Oral antidiabetic therapy pcc and eff values were as follows: pcc; 228.38 TL eff; 3.48 in the state hospital, pcc; 213.56 TL eff; 10.74 in the university hospital, and pcc;465.45 TL, eff; 9.47 in the private hospital. Oral antidiabetic therapy, incremental cost ratios for the university hospital and private hospital were -2 and 40 respectively. Mixed therapy pcc; 347.25 TL, eff; 3.46 in the state hospital, pcc; 400.60 TL, eff; 3.23 in the university hospital, pcc; 620.72 TL, eff; 7.12 in the private hospital. Mixed therapy, incremental cost ratios for the university hospital and private hospital were 3 and 17 respectively. In multivariate analysis diet list practicing was found to be a significant cost decreasing factor. Conclusion. Only the oral antidiabetic therapy in the university hospital was found to be cost effective. Costs effective therapy schemes should be regulated for all hospitals. and disease management activities and behavioural therapies should be implemented in hospitals.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2009
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    H. Taskin · M. Karavus · P. Ay · A. Topuzoglu · S. Hidiroglu · G. Karahan
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to evaluate and map soil radionuclides' activity concentrations and environmental outdoor gamma dose rates (terrestrial and cosmic) in Kirklareli, Turkey. The excess lifetime cancer risks are also calculated. Outdoor gamma dose rates were determined in 230 sampling stations and soil samples were taken from 177 locations. The coordinates of the readings were determined by the Global Positioning System (GPS). The outdoor gamma dose rates were determined by Eberline smart portable device (ESP-2) and measurements were taken in air for two minutes at 1 m from the ground. The average outdoor gamma dose rate was 118 ± 34 nGy h−1. Annual effective gamma dose of Kirklareli was 144 μSv and the excess lifetime cancer risk of 5.0 × 10−4. Soil samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. The average 226Ra, 238U, 232Th, 137Cs, and 40K activities were 37 ± 18 Bq kg−1, 28 ± 13 Bq kg−1, 40 ± 18 Bq kg−1, 8 ± 5 Bq kg−1 and 667 ± 281 Bq kg−1, respectively. The average soil radionuclides' concentrations of Kirklareli were within the worldwide range although some extreme values had been determined. Annual effective gamma doses and the excess lifetime risks of cancer were higher than the world's average.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Environmental Radioactivity