[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo noninvasive study.
To properly quantify pedicle anatomic parameters, using subject-based CT three-dimensional models and compare the data from 2-dimensional transverse-CT images.
Accurate measurement of morphometric parameters of pedicle isthmus is important for transpedicular procedures. Anatomically, the lumbar pedicle is known to be elliptical cross-sectionally and slightly inclined in the vertical plane in the lower lumbar levels. Therefore, measurement of the pedicle isthmus may be overestimated when transverse images are used. More accurate measurement of the 3-dimensional geometry of the pedicle is therefore needed. To the best of our knowledge, 3-dimensional geometry of the pedicle has not been reported as the literature values are based on 2-dimensional image data.
In vivo measurements of the lumbar pedicle isthmus were performed on the 3-dimensional subject-based CT models, using custom-developed software in 89 volunteers.
The least axis of pedicle, the longest axis of pedicle and the transverse plane width were largest at L5 in both genders. The isthmus angle declined in the lower levels. The ratio of the transverse plane width to the least axis of pedicle was largest at L5.
Our results showed that the least axis of pedicle, the longest axis of pedicle and the transverse plane width peaked at L5, and the transverse plane width became approximately twice as long in the lower levels compared to the upper levels. The ratio of the transverse plane width to the least axis of pedicle increased by about 40% at L5. These findings highlight the fact that measuring the isthmus width from CT transverse images leads to overestimation, especially in the lower lumbar spine. Therefore, a 3-dimensional inclination of the least axis of the pedicle should be taken into account for the determination of the pedicle diameter in the lower lumbar vertebrae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morbidity associated with autologous bone graft harvest is an important factor in determining the utility of expensive alternatives such as recombinant bone morphogenic protein. The most frequently reported complication associated with graft harvest is chronic pain.
To prospectively determine the degree of pain and morbidity associated with autologous iliac crest bone graft harvest and its effect on activities of daily living.
Prospective observational cohort study.
One hundred ten adult patients undergoing elective posterior lumbar spinal fusion surgery involving autologous iliac crest bone graft harvest.
Patient self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for pain and a study-specific questionnaire regarding activities of daily living.
One hundred ten patients were prospectively enrolled. Postoperative VAS scores (0-100) for harvest site pain were obtained at 6-week, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Patients completed a 12-month questionnaire regarding the persistence of specific symptoms and resulting limitation of specific activities.
One hundred four patients were available for 1-year follow-up. Mean VAS pain scores (scale 0-100) at 6 weeks, 6 and 12 months were 22.7 (standard deviation [SD], 25.9), 15.9 (SD, 21.5), and 16.1 (SD, 24.6), respectively. At 12 months, 16.5% reported more severe pain from the harvest site than the primary surgical site, 29.1% reported numbness, and 11.3% found the degree of numbness bothersome, whereas 3.9% were bothered by scar appearance. With respect to activity limitations resulting from harvest site pain at 1 year, 15.1% reported some difficulty walking, 5.2% with employment, 12.9% with recreation, 14.1% with household chores, 7.6% with sexual activity, and 5.9% irritation from clothing.
There is a significant rate of persistent pain and morbidity from iliac crest bone graft harvest when associated with elective spine surgery. Mean pain scores progressively decline over the first postoperative year. Nevertheless, harvest site pain remains functionally limiting in a significant percentage of patients 1 year after surgery. Rates of functional limitation are higher than previously reported and may be because of increased sensitivity of the prospective study design and targeted investigation of these specific symptoms. Validity of these findings is necessarily limited by patient ability to discriminate harvest site pain from alternative sources of back and buttock pain.
Preview · Article · Jul 2009 · The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society