[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Internet and social computing technology have revolutionized our ability to gather information as well as enabled new modes of communication and forms of self-expression. As the popularity of social computing technologies has increased, our society has begun to witness modifications in socialization behaviors. Social psychology theory suggests that technological changes can influence an individual's expectation of privacy, through adaptive behaviors resulting from use (Laufer and Wolfe in J Soc Issues 33(3): 22–42 (1977)). We adapt traditional privacy theory to explore the influence of developmental and environmental factors on the individual's inner privacy identity, which is comprised of the individual's belief in his or her right to control (1) personal information and (2) interactions with others, and is continuously shaped by privacy experiences. We then use the inner privacy identity to examine interpersonal behaviors in the online context. We find that individuals' belief in their right to control their information impacts their information disclosure practices when consequences are implied and that their belief in their right to control the interaction impacts their online information sharing practices. We do not find support for a relationship between the interaction management component of the IPI and online interaction behavior, which considered in the presence of the relationship between interaction management and online information sharing, suggests that interaction behavior is more complicated in the online context. Insights from the model developed in this study can inform future studies of situ-ational privacy behaviors.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Information Technology and Management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Easily accessible patent databases and advances in technology have enabled the exploration of organizational innovation through the analysis of patent records. However, the textual content of patents presents obstacles to gleaning useful information. In this study, we develop an expert system framework that utilizes text and data mining procedures for analyzing innovation through textual patent data. Specifically, we use patent titles representing the innovation activity at one company (SAP) and perform a bibliometric analysis using our proposed framework. Enterprise software, of which SAP is a pioneering developer, must serve a wide assortment of functions for companies in many different industries. In addition, SAP's sole focus is on enterprise software and it is a market leader in the category with substantial patent activity over the last decade. Using our framework to analyze SAP's patent activity provides a demonstration of how our bibliometric analysis can summarize and identify trends in innovation in a large software company. Our results illustrate that SAP has a breadth of innovative activity spread over the three-tier software engineering architecture and a lack of topical repetition indicative of limited depth. SAP's innovation is also seen to emphasize data management and quickly integrate emerging technologies. Results of an analysis on any company following our framework could be used for a variety of purposes, including: to examine the scope and scale of innovation of an organization, to examine the influence of technological trends on businesses, or to gain insight into corporate strategy that could be used to aid planning, investment, and purchasing decisions.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Expert Systems with Applications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Privacy concerns in online social networks (OSN) use include the desire to control both information and interaction leading to the “dual privacy decision” in which individuals choose what information to release and who may view it. OSN privacy controls now offer more choices. We assess motivations that may override a user’s concept of privacy, and present four key motivations for OSN use: ability to (1) seek information, (2) socialize, (3) to express oneself to others, and (4) meet social expectations or please others. We find that the calculus constructs influence the manner in which OSN users handle different information categories.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Information & Management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The information age has increased our dependency on data, and consequently the economic value of information retrieval services (IRS) companies. While mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are a popular means to sustain growth for these companies, they often fail to fulfill the promise of shareholder value creation. This makes the inquiry into market valuation of M&As in the IRS industry timely and important. Using the concept of strategic complementarity that is relatively new in the M&A literature, we study industry and geographic complementarities between acquirers and targets as well as acquirer-and market-specific contingency factors to better understand market valuation of M&As. In an empirical study of 821 M&As by 150 firms in the US IRS industry between 1993 and 2006, we show that the two types of complementarities have contrasting effects on market valuation of M&As. While the effect is positive for geographic complementarity at both state and division levels, the effect of industry complementarity is found to be negative except for acquirers in the Internet software and services mid-industry. Additionally, our findings provide insights on the role of three contingent factors—acquirers' age, size and stock market growth—that can help better understand diverging effects of industry and geographic complementarities.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Information Technology and Management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the use of networked computers and digital data increase, so have the reports of data compromise and malicious cyber-attacks. Increased use and reliance on technologies complicate the process of providing information security. This expanding complexity in supplying data security requirements coupled with the increased recognition of the value of information, have led to the need to quickly advance the information security area. In this paper, we examine the maturation of the information security area by analyzing the innovation activity of one of the largest and most ubiquitous information technology companies, Microsoft. We conduct a textual analysis of their patent application activity in the information security domain since the early 2000's using a novel text analysis approach based on concepts from social network analysis and algorithmic classification. We map our analysis to focal areas in information security and examine it against Microsoft's own history, in order to determine the depth and breadth of Microsoft's innovations. Our analysis shows the relevance of using a network-based text analysis. Specifically, we find that Microsoft has increasingly emphasized topics that fall into the identity and access management area. We also show that Microsoft's innovations in information security showed tremendous growth after their Trustworthy Computing Initiative was announced. In addition, we are able to determine areas of focus that correspond to Microsoft's major vulnerabilities. These findings indicate that while Microsoft is still actively, albeit not always successfully, fighting vulnerabilities in their products, they are quite vigorously and broadly innovating in the information security area.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our increased reliance on digital information and our expansive use of the Internet for a steadily rising number of tasks requires that more emphasis be placed on digital information security. The importance of securing digital information is apparent but the success in persuading individual users to adopt and utilize tools to improve security has been arguably more difficult. In this study, we propose a number of factors that may influence individual security practices. These constructs are developed by adapting existing theory from information security and privacy research to examine information security behaviors in the general public dimension. The influence of these factors on perceived need and actual behavior is then examined. The resulting model is shown to fit well and support is found for many of the proposed relationships. The determination of the antecedents of individual digital security practices may provide useful insight to tailoring programs for adoption and utilization of security tools by individuals in the general public dimension.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Information Technology and Management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Title 1 of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was enacted to improve the portability of healthcare insurance coverage and Title II was intended to alleviate fraud and abuse. The development of a health information system was suggested in Title II of HIPAA as a means of promoting standardization to improve the efficiency of the healthcare system and ensure that electronic healthcare information is transferred securely and kept private. Since the legislation places the onus of providing the described improvements on healthcare institutions and part of these requirements relate to information technology (IT) and information security (IS), the process of complying with the legislation will necessitate acquiring products and services from IT/IS firms. From the viewpoint of stock market analysts, this increase in demand for IT/IS products and services has the potential to boost the profitability of public IT/IS firms, in turn positively enhancing their stock market valuation. Following the same logic, the legislation's compliance burdens shared by healthcare firms are expected to require hefty costs, thus potentially reducing the profitability of healthcare firms and reflecting negatively on their stock price. The intent of this paper is to evaluate the stock market reaction to the introduction of HIPAA legislation by evaluating the abnormal movement in the price of the stock of public healthcare institutions, IT, and IS firms. We conduct event-study analyses around the announcement dates of the various provisions of HIPAA. An event study is a standard statistical methodology used to determine whether the occurrence of a specific event or events results in a statistically significant reaction in financial markets. The advantage of the event study methodology for policy analysis is that it provides an anchor for determining value, which eliminates reliance on ad hoc judgments about the impact of specific events or policies on stock prices. While event studies have been conducted that examine the market effect of security and privacy breaches on firms, none has attempted to determine the impact, in terms of resulting market reaction, of the HIPAA legislation itself. The results of the study confirm the logic above, while also providing insight into specific stages of the legislative path of HIPAA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper examines the relationship between trust and risk perceptions of online activities. Specifically, we study the impact of an individual's trust of other people on the severity and certainty of risk, which in turn influence an individual's risk perception. We administer a 23-item survey to 386 participants at a large southeastern university, and test our model using structural equation modeling. We find evidence that supports the proposed relationship, implying that perceived certainty of risk is negatively associated with trust of individuals and that both certainty and severity of risk have a positive impact on an individual's risk perception. Our results indicate that users may underestimate risks when they interact with people they trust, suggesting the need for a higher level of protection for transactions between individuals who are familiar with each other. From a modeling perspective, our straightforward model of trust and risk could be used in future studies that examine specific online activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 2008 United States presidential election was a historic event in several ways. Among numerous other firsts, the 2008 election saw unprecedented use of technology to reach and influence the population. The 2008 election illustrated the many advantages of intelligent use of technologies to encourage involvement and to disseminate information. The use of technology in the election demonstrated how effective current technologies could be in organizing political efforts. This is especially true for young people who came into adulthood surrounded by technological advances and have become increasingly comfortable with their use. In this study, we empirically examine the influence of technology on youthful voters in the 2008 U.S. presidential election and draw insights into the impacts of technology usage on political interest and activism. The successes using technology to encourage involvement and the free exchange of information in politics could be recreated in other areas that require energizing and informing large numbers of individuals.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · IEEE Technology and Society Magazine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper introduces a new path relinking algorithm for the well-known quadratic assignment problem QAP in combinatorial optimization. The QAP has attracted considerable attention in research because of its complexity and its applicability to many domains. The algorithm presented in this study employs path relinking as a solution combination method incorporating a multistart tabu search algorithm as an improvement method. The resulting algorithm has interesting similarities and contrasts with particle swarm optimization methods. Computational testing indicates that this algorithm produces results that rival the best QAP algorithms. The authors additionally conduct an analysis disclosing how different strategies prove more or less effective depending on the landscapes of the problems to which they are applied. This analysis lays a foundation for developing more effective future QAP algorithms, both for methods based on path relinking and tabu search, and for hybrids of such methods with related processes found in particle swarm optimization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract – In ,this study ,we present ,a new ,tabu ,search ,algorithm ,for the ,quadratic assignment,problem,(QAP) that utilizes an embedded,neighborhood,construction,called anejection,chain. The,QAP is a,well known combinatorial,optimization,problem,most commonly,used,to model,a facility location,problem. The,acknowledged,difficulty of the QAP has,made,it the focus,of many,metaheuristic approaches.,A key component,of any metaheuristic,approach ,is the ,neighborhood ,definition. ,The ,most ,common neighborhood,applied ,to the ,QAP is a ,2-exchange ,(or swap) ,neighborhood. , Ejection chains,provide ,the ,ability ,to constructively create ,larger ,embedded ,neighborhood structures., We ,propose ,a move ,generation ,process ,that ,provides ,a combinatorial leverage effect, where the size of the neighborhood grows multiplicativelywhile the effort offinding,a best,move,in the,neighborhood,grows,only,additively. Our results,illustrate that significant,improvement,in solution quality over the traditional,swap,neighborhood can,be obtained,by the more,complex,moves,possible,with the ejection,chain,approach., Wealso develop two multi-start tabu search algorithms, utilizing the ejection chain approach, to demonstrate the power of embedding this neighborhood construction
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many areas of research examine the relationships between objects. A subset of these research areas focuses on methods for creating groups whose members are similar based on some specific attribute(s). The blockmodel problem has as its objective to group objects in order to obtain a small number of large groups of similar nodes. In this paper, a grouping genetic algorithm (GGA) is applied to the blockmodel problem. Testing on numerous examples from the literature indicates a GGA is an appropriate tool for solving this type of problem. Specifically, our GGA provides good solutions, even to large-size problems, in reasonable computational time.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we introduce a cooperative parallel tabu search algorithm (CPTS) for the quadratic assignment problem (QAP). The QAP is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that is widely acknowledged to be computationally demanding. These characteristics make the QAP an ideal candidate for parallel solution techniques. CPTS is a cooperative parallel algorithm in which the processors exchange information throughout the run of the algorithm as opposed to independent concurrent search strategies that aggregate data only at the end of execution. CPTS accomplishes this cooperation by maintaining a global reference set which uses the information exchange to promote both intensification and strategic diversification in a parallel environment. This study demonstrates the benefits that may be obtained from parallel computing in terms of solution quality, computational time and algorithmic flexibility. A set of 41 test problems obtained from QAPLIB were used to analyze the quality of the CPTS algorithm. Additionally, we report results for 60 difficult new test instances. The CPTS algorithm is shown to provide good solution quality for all problems in acceptable computational times. Out of the 41 test instances obtained from QAPLIB, CPTS is shown to meet or exceed the average solution quality of many of the best sequential and parallel approaches from the literature on all but six problems, whereas no other leading method exhibits a performance that is superior to this.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · European Journal of Operational Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is a well-known combinatorial optimization problem with a wide variety of applications, prominently including the facility location problem. The acknowledged difficulty of the QAP has made it the focus of many metaheuristic solution approaches. In this paper, we show the benefit of utilizing strategic diversification within the tabu search (TS) framework for the QAP, by incorporating several diversification and multistart TS variants. Computational results for an extensive and challenging set of QAP benchmark test problems demonstrate the ability of our TS variants to improve on a classic TS approach that is one of the principal and most extensively used methods for the QAP. We also show that our new procedures are highly competitive with the best recently introduced methods from the literature, including more complex hybrid approaches that incorporate the classic TS method as a subroutine.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · IEEE Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernetics - Part A Systems and Humans
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Social networks depict complex systems as graph theoretic models. The study of the formation of such systems (or networks) and the subsequent analysis of the network structures are of great interest. In the business disciplines, the ability to model and simulate a system of individuals interacting to achieve a certain socio-economic goal holds much promise for gathering beneficial insights. We use case-based decision theory to formulate a customizable model of information gathering in a social network. In this model, the agents in the network have limited awareness of the social network in which they operate and of the fixed, underlying payoff structure. Agents collect payoff information from neighbors within the prevailing social network, and they base their networking decisions on this information. Along with the introduction of the decision theoretic model, we developed software to simulate the formation of such networks in a customizable context to examine how the network structure can be influenced by the parameters that define social relationships. We present computational experiments that illustrate the growth and stability of the simulated social networks ensuing from the proposed model. The model and simulation capability allows for the customizable generation of social networks to be used as aids to study various socio-economic phenomena.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The machine-part cell formation problem consists of constructing a set of machine cells and their corresponding product families with the objective of minimizing the inter-cell movement of the products while maximizing machine utilization. This paper presents a hybrid grouping genetic algorithm for the cell formation problem that combines a local search with a standard grouping genetic algorithm to form machine-part cells. Computational results using the grouping efficacy measure for a set of cell formation problems from the literature are presented. The hybrid grouping genetic algorithm is shown to outperform the standard grouping genetic algorithm by exceeding the solution quality on all test problems and by reducing the variability among the solutions found. The algorithm developed performs well on all test problems, exceeding or matching the solution quality of the results presented in previous literature for most problems.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Computers & Operations Research