[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic outcome of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients in different risk groups in one institute.
A total of 1,759 PTC patients were categorized into low- (n = 1,123), intermediate- (n = 75), and high-risk (n = 561) groups according to tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage.
Of the patients, 15.1% presented with lymph node metastases, and 4.6% presented with distant metastases at the time of thyroid operation. After 8.0 ± 0.1 years of follow-up, 73 (4.2%) patients died of thyroid cancer. Tumor size, local invasion, and lymph node metastases adversely influenced recurrence and survival. Of the patients in the 3 groups, 9 (0.8%), 8 (10.7%), and 56 (10.0%) died of thyroid cancer, respectively. In addition, 88 (7.8%), 14 (18.7%), and 144 (25.8%) patients showed recurrence during the follow-up period. Patients with highly aggressive histological patterns showed increased recurrence and cancer mortality compared with the low-risk group; otherwise, values were not higher than those of the high-risk group.
The cancer-related mortality was nearly 10% in the intermediate- and high-risk groups, and the patients in these groups required aggressive surgical and postoperative adjuvant therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) are the most common differentiated thyroid cancers. Previous studies report that Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) concomitant with PTC is unusual and improves prognosis compared to classical PTC. Few previous studies address FTC concomitant with HT. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed data from one institution and compared clinical presentations and results of treatment of PTC and FTC with and without HT. In addition, studies comparing presentation and long term follow-up prognosis in classical PTC and FTC were conducted. A total of 1,788 PTC patients and 209 FTC patients underwent thyroidectomy with or without lymph node dissection and follow-up at Chang Gung Medical Center in Linkou, Taiwan. All thyroid carcinomas were pathologically classified according to World Health Organization criteria. Histological patterns of PTC were categorized as classical PTC, or PTC with HT. Follicular thyroid carcinoma patients were categorized as FTC or FTC with HT. The dataset contained a total of 1,703 PTC cases categorized as classical PTC, 85 cases of PTC with HT, 201 cases of FTC and eight cases of FTC with HT. Analysis of Classification of Malignant Tumors (TNM) stage revealed a higher percentage of classical PTC in stage IV than HT group (12.03% vs. 4.70%). Mean tumor size of classical PTC was larger than HT group. Although 42.3% of FTC cases presented with distant metastases, no cases of FTC with HT presented with distant metastasis. Cancer-specific mortality was higher in classical PTC group than in PTC with HT. There was 53.2% of FTC without HT assigned recurrent status, and six of them died of thyroid cancer. No cancer mortality or recurrence in HT with FTC. PTC and FTC with HT presented with better clinical stage and better prognosis after same therapeutic modality. In conclusions, both PTC and FTC with HT have less aggressive clinical presentation and better prognosis.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Endocrine Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging is the most commonly used model for evaluating therapeutic strategies for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Additionally, different histopathological patterns and variants of PTC have been reported to influence the prognosis of these patients. We reviewed the clinical presentation, cancer recurrence, and cancer-specific mortality of the most frequent histological patterns, including the follicular variant (FVPTC), insular pattern, tall cell pattern, diffuse sclerosing type, PTC with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and multicentric PTC. The tall cell variant of PTC is a more aggressive variant than classical PTC and has a poor prognosis. The high expression of Muc 1 and type IV collagenase in these tumors may facilitate stromal degradation and increase the invasive potential. In contrast, approximately 18% of PTC patients have been identified as having FVPTC. FVPTC patients have a better survival rate than those with follicular thyroid cancer, and fewer instances of lymph node or soft tissue invasion than control patients with classical PTC. The diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC predominantly observed in young patients is a rare aggressive tumor that requires intensive treatment. Despite characteristic clinical and histological features that facilitate easy diagnosis, pre-operative fine needle aspiration cytological diagnosis of this variant is often challenging. Different histological variants of PTC with other histological patterns are important for predicting cancer recurrence. In addition to TNM staging, high-risk histological patterns of PTC require more aggressive follow-up examinations and postoperative adjuvant therapies.
Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Chang Gung medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was to investigate the relationship between diabetes mellitus ( DM), specific cancers, age, and gender.
This was a retrospective study that examined the frequency of different forms of cancer among male and female patients with or without DM admitted to a single hospital in Taiwan between January 2009 and June 2010.
Of 101,002 study patients admitted to the hospital, 15,901 (15.74%) were diagnosed with DM and 16,748 (16.58%) with a malignancy. The frequency of DM differed between males and females (17.5% vs 14.2%; P<0.001), and males had a higher cancer incidence than females (20.2% vs 13.5%; P<0.001). Patients with DM had a greater frequency of cancer diagnosis than non-DM patients (18.1% vs 16.3%, respectively), with pancreatic, liver, uterine, urinary tract, lung, and secondary cancers being more frequent in DM compared with non-DM patients. In contrast, the proportion of patients with thyroid, esophagus, breast, NPC, and other cancers was lower in DM versus non-DM patients.
This study found that DM was associated with the incidence of specific cancers and that males had a higher frequency of cancer than females. The association of DM and cancer depended upon cancer type, gender, and age.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To correlate sonographic (US) characteristics and results of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules in autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) with surgical pathological findings.
Forty AT patients with 40 nodular lesions were analyzed retrospectively. Five sonographic characteristics were recorded for each nodule: diameter, echogenicity, microcalcification, halo sign, and margin. Preoperative sonograms and FNAB results were compared with postoperative histopathological findings.
Twenty-four of the 40 nodules were malignant, including 20 papillary carcinomas, 3 follicular carcinomas, and 1 medullary carcinoma. Of the 16 benign nodules, 8 were nodular hyperplasia, 6 lymphocytic thyroiditis, and 1 each follicular adenoma and Hürthle cell adenoma. The only US parameter that was significant in malignant vs. benign nodules was the presence of poorly defined margins. Based on preoperative cytology, 22 of the 23 malignant nodules were correctly diagnosed, and 10 of the 14 benign nodules were correctly identified. The positive predictive value was 78.6%, and the negative predictive value was 93.7%.
No single US parameter can predict thyroid malignancy in patients with AT. A combination of US and FNAB provides the most sensitive and specific approach available preoperatively.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Clinical Ultrasound
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid nodule is common disorder in endocrine clinics. In Taiwan, thyroid ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the first-line examination procedure. Data in large series on the incidence of thyroid malignancy presenting with thyroid nodules are lacking in this area. To determine the incidence of malignancy in thyroid nodules and compare the results with other populations, this investigation retrospectively reviewed 21,748 subjects who were examined in one medical center from January 1986 to December 1999. All patients underwent thyroid ultrasonography studies using a real-time ultrasonographic machine and a 10-MHz transducer. Fine-needle aspirations were made in the suspected thyroid nodule and stained using the Romanowsky- based method developed by Liu. By the end of 2002, some 3629 patients (16.7%) had thyroid nodules after surgical treatment. This group comprised 3011 women with a mean age of 41.5 +/- 13.9 years, and 618 men with a mean age of 45.7 +/- 14.9 years. Of patients undergoing surgical treatment, 2761 (76.1%) patients were diagnosed with benign nodules, 858 (23.6%) with malignant nodules, and 10 (0.3%) with atypical adenoma (7 follicular and 3 Hürthle cells). The percentages of thyroid malignancy in each age group revealed two peaks in both genders, namely in patients aged 20 to 29 years and in elderly patients (aged over 65 years). The peak age for thyroid malignancy in both genders was 41 to 60 years (male) and 21 to 40 years (female). The highest ratio of malignancy occurred in the elderly group (37.2%) receiving surgical treatment. In young patients (below 19 years) the percentage of malignancy was no greater than for the whole age group (20.2% versus 25.6%). Anaplastic and metastatic cancers affecting the thyroid were the main subjects in the age group. The present results demonstrated a younger distribution for well-differentiated thyroid cancer, particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, compared to previous studies. This outcome may have resulted from the routine application of ultrasonography with FNAC in assessing the thyroid nodules, possibly helping to achieve more timely detection. The incidence of thyroid malignancy in young patients was no higher than in adults. Early detection of thyroid malignancy may be the main reason for this phenomenon. Male subjects with thyroid nodules displayed a higher incidence of this malignancy than females. Aging subjects with thyroid nodules suffered a higher rate of malignancy and were poorly differentiated. In conclusion, this retrospective large-series study demonstrated that 3.9% (858/21,748 cases) of patients with thyroid nodules showed histopathologically proven malignancy. Thyroid cancer detected by ultrasonography with FNAC occurred an average of 10 years younger than in prior studies.