[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms for Fe(III) oxide reduction in Geobacter species are of interest because Fe(III) oxides are the most abundant form of Fe(III) in many soils and sediments and Geobacter species are prevalent Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in many of these environments. Protein abundance in G. sulfurreducens grown on poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxide or on soluble Fe(III) citrate was compared with a global accurate mass and time tag proteomic approach in order to identify proteins that might be specifically associated with Fe(III) oxide reduction. A total of 2991 proteins were detected in G. sulfurreducens grown with acetate as the electron donor and either Fe(III) oxide or soluble Fe(III) citrate as the electron acceptor, resulting in 86% recovery of the genes predicted to encode proteins. Of the total expressed proteins 76% were less abundant in Fe(III) oxide cultures than in Fe(III) citrate cultures, which is consistent with the overall slower rate of metabolism during growth with an insoluble electron acceptor. A total of 269 proteins were more abundant in Fe(III) oxide-grown cells than in cells grown on Fe(III) citrate. Most of these proteins were in the energy metabolism category: primarily electron transport proteins, including 13 c-type cytochromes and PilA, the structural protein for electrically conductive pili. Several of the cytochromes that were more abundant in Fe(III) oxide-grown cells were previously shown with genetic approaches to be essential for optimal Fe(III) oxide reduction. Other proteins that were more abundant during growth on Fe(III) oxide included transport and binding proteins, proteins involved in regulation and signal transduction, cell envelope proteins, and enzymes for amino acid and protein biosynthesis, among others. There were also a substantial number of proteins of unknown function that were more abundant during growth on Fe(III) oxide. These results indicate that electron transport to Fe(III) oxide requires additional and/or different proteins than electron transfer to soluble, chelated Fe(III) and suggest proteins whose functions should be further investigated in order to better understand the mechanisms of electron transfer to Fe(III) oxide in G. sulfurreducens.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies failed to detect c-type cytochromes in Pelobacter species despite the fact that other close relatives in the Geobacteraceae, such as Geobacter and Desulfuromonas species, have abundant c-type cytochromes. Analysis of the recently completed genome sequence of Pelobacter carbinolicus revealed 14 open reading frames that could encode c-type cytochromes. Transcripts for all but one of these open reading frames were detected in acetoin-fermenting and/or Fe(III)-reducing
cells. Three putative c-type cytochrome genes were expressed specifically during Fe(III) reduction, suggesting that the encoded proteins may participate
in electron transfer to Fe(III). One of these proteins was a periplasmic triheme cytochrome with a high level of similarity
to PpcA, which has a role in Fe(III) reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens. Genes for heme biosynthesis and system II cytochrome c biogenesis were identified in the genome and shown to be expressed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
gels of protein extracted from acetoin-fermenting P. carbinolicus cells contained three heme-staining bands which were confirmed by mass spectrometry to be among the 14 predicted c-type cytochromes. The number of cytochrome genes, the predicted amount of heme c per protein, and the ratio of heme-stained protein to total protein were much smaller in P. carbinolicus than in G. sulfurreducens. Furthermore, many of the c-type cytochromes that genetic studies have indicated are required for optimal Fe(III) reduction in G. sulfurreducens were not present in the P. carbinolicus genome. These results suggest that further evaluation of the functions of c-type cytochromes in the Geobacteraceae is warranted.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The proteome of Geobacter sulfurreducens, a model for the Geobacter species that predominate in many Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments, was characterized with ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry using accurate mass and time (AMT) tags as well as with more traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE). Cells were grown under six different growth conditions in order to enhance the potential that a wide range of genes would be expressed. The AMT tag approach was able to identify a much greater number of proteins than could be detected with the 2-D PAGE approach. With the AMT approach over 3,000 gene products were identified, representing about 90% of the total predicted gene products in the genome. A high proportion of predicted proteins in most protein role categories were detected; the highest number of proteins was identified in the hypothetical protein role category. Furthermore, 91 c-type cytochromes of 111 predicted genes in the G. sulfurreducens genome were identified. Differences in the abundance of cytochromes and other proteins under different growth conditions provided information for future functional analysis of these proteins. These results demonstrate that a high percentage of the predicted proteins in the G. sulfurreducens genome are produced and that the AMT tag approach provides a rapid method for comparing differential expression of proteins under different growth conditions in this organism.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outer membrane cytochromes are often proposed as likely agents for electron transfer to extracellular electron acceptors,
such as Fe(III). The omcF gene in the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing microorganism Geobacter sulfurreducens is predicted to code for a small outer membrane monoheme c-type cytochrome. An OmcF-deficient strain was constructed, and its ability to reduce and grow on Fe(III) citrate was found
to be impaired. Following a prolonged lag phase (150 h), the OmcF-deficient strain developed the ability to grow in Fe(III)
citrate medium with doubling times and yields that were ca. 145% and 70% of those of the wild type, respectively. Comparison
of the c-type cytochrome contents of outer membrane-enriched fractions prepared from wild-type and OmcF-deficient cultures confirmed
the outer membrane association of OmcF and revealed multiple changes in the cytochrome content of the OmcF-deficient strain.
These changes included loss of expression of two previously characterized outer membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcC, and overexpression
of a third previously characterized outer membrane cytochrome, OmcS, during growth on Fe(III) citrate. The omcB and omcC transcripts could not be detected in the OmcF-deficient mutant by either reverse transcriptase PCR or Northern blot analyses.
Expression of the omcF gene in trans restored both the capacity of the OmcF-deficient mutant to reduce Fe(III) and wild-type levels of omcB and omcC mRNA and protein. Thus, elimination of OmcF may impair Fe(III) reduction by influencing expression of OmcB, which has previously
been demonstrated to play a critical role in Fe(III) reduction.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Journal of Bacteriology