Amy Hamilton

Procter & Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

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Publications (3)8.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To compare the effects of an experimental mouth rinse containing 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) (Crest Pro-Health) with those provided by a commercially available mouth rinse containing essential oils (EOs) (Listerine) on dental plaque accumulation and prevention of gingivitis in an unsupervised 6-month randomized clinical trial. This double-blind, 6-month, parallel group, positively controlled study involved 151 subjects balanced and randomly assigned to either positive control (EO) or experimental (CPC) mouth rinse treatment groups. At baseline, subjects received a dental prophylaxis procedure and began unsupervised rinsing twice a day with 20 ml of their assigned mouthwash for 30 s after brushing their teeth for 1 min. Subjects were assessed for gingivitis and gingival bleeding by the Gingival index (GI) of Löe & Silness (1963) and plaque by the Silness & Löe (1964) Plaque index at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of rinsing. At 3 and 6 months, oral soft tissue health was assessed. Microbiological samples were also taken for community profiling by the DNA checkerboard method. Results show that after 3 and 6 months of rinsing, there were no significant differences (p=0.05) between the experimental (CPC) and the positive control mouth rinse treatment groups for overall gingivitis status, gingival bleeding, and plaque accumulation. At 6 months, the covariant (baseline) adjusted mean GI and bleeding sites percentages for the CPC and the EO rinses were 0.52 and 0.53 and 8.7 and 9.3, respectively. Both mouth rinses were well tolerated by the subjects. Microbiological community profiles were similar for the two treatment groups. Statistically, a significant greater reduction in bleeding sites was observed for the CPC rinse versus the EO rinse. The essential findings of this study indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in the anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis benefits between the experimental CPC mouth rinse and the positive control EO mouth rinse over a 6-month period.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Journal Of Clinical Periodontology
  • Jon Witt · Samer Bsoul · Tao He · Roger Gibb · John Dunavent · Amy Hamilton
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various toothbrushing regimens with a standard fluoride dentifrice on the plaque inhibitory properties of an alcohol-free, high bioavailable 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthrinse. The study was a randomized, single-centre, examiner blind, four-period cross-over study involving 29 healthy subjects. Four treatment regimens were evaluated: (1) Toothbrushing with dentifrice followed by a water rinse (B-W, negative control); (2) Toothbrushing with dentifrice followed by a CPC mouthrinse use (B-CPC); (3) Toothbrushing with dentifrice followed by a water rinse and then a CPC mouthrinse use (B-W-CPC); and (4) Toothbrushing with dentifrice and waiting 60 min. prior to a CPC mouthrinse use (B-60 min.-CPC). Three days before the baseline exam of treatment periods, subjects were instructed to brush only the lingual surfaces of their teeth for up to 60 s twice daily. At baseline, subjects received a plaque exam using the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein index (MQH) followed by a polishing on the lingual and buccal surfaces of their teeth. During treatment periods, subjects were asked to brush only the lingual surfaces of their teeth with a standard fluoride dentifrice. Rinsing with 20 ml of the experimental CPC solution was done for 30 s twice daily. The evening before the last day of treatment periods (Day 4), subjects were asked to refrain from any oral hygiene, eating, and drinking after brushing. On Day 4, plaque was scored using the MQH Index. A 10-day wash-out of normal oral hygiene was allowed between each of the four treatment periods. The data were analysed using analysis of covariance for cross-over designs. Twenty-five to 29 subjects were evaluable at any given visit. With respect to unbrushed buccal and brushed lingual surfaces, all three CPC regimens had highly significantly (p < or = 0.0006) lower mean plaque scores than the B-W regimen, reductions ranging from 20% to 38% in magnitude. With respect to unbrushed surfaces, there was a significant difference between the B-CPC regimen and the B-60 min.-CPC regimen (p < 0.01) in favour of the latter regimen. No other pairwise treatment comparisons were statistically significant for unbrushed sites. Results for brushed surfaces and all sites combined showed that both the B-W-CPC and the B-60 min.-CPC groups reduced mean plaque levels significantly (p < or = 0.013) more than B-CPC. There were no statistically significant differences between B-W-CPC and B-60 min.-CPC for measurements of brushed, unbrushed, or all sites combined. Results show that the alcohol-free, 0.07% high bioavailable CPC rinse provides an additive anti-plaque benefit beyond toothbrushing with a standard fluoride dentifrice regardless of the regimen. Of the regimens, a water rinse between toothbrushing and CPC rinsing enhances therapeutic efficacy while fitting into the patient's typical oral hygiene routine.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Journal Of Clinical Periodontology
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of a novel mouthrinse containing 0.07% high bioavailable cetylpyridinium chloride (Crest Pro-Health Rinse) on the development of gingivitis and plaque versus a placebo control over a period of 6 months. This was a randomized, 6-month, placebo-controlled, parallel groups, double blind, single center clinical trial. One hundred thirty-nine generally healthy adults with mild-to-moderate gingivitis were enrolled in the study. Subjects were given Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (MQH) examinations followed by a dental prophylaxis. Subjects were then randomly assigned to either the cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) rinse or placebo rinse and instructed to begin rinsing twice a day with 20 ml of their assigned mouthrinse for 30 seconds after brushing their teeth. Subjects were assessed for MGI, GBI and MQH scores after 3 and 6 months of product use. Oral hard and soft tissue examinations were also performed at all visits. 124 subjects were evaluable at Month 3 and 119 at Month 6. After 6 months, subjects rinsing with the CPC rinse showed 15.4% less gingival inflammation, 33.3% less gingival bleeding, and 15.8% less plaque relative to the placebo group. All reductions were highly statistically significantly different (P< 0.01). Results were similar at 3 months. Both treatments were well-tolerated. This study demonstrates that the Crest Pro-Health 0.07% CPC mouthrinse provided significant antiplaque and antigingivitis benefits when used twice daily for 6 months as an adjunct to toothbrushing.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2005 · American journal of dentistry