Henning Bundgaard

Statens Serum Institut, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (159)870.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Aims Guidelines recommend evaluation of family members of sudden cardiac death victims. However, initiation of cascade screening in families with uncertain diagnoses is not cost-effective and may cause unnecessary concern. For these reasons, we set out to assess to what extent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) would increase the diagnostic precision and thereby possibly change the indication for family screening in patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Methods and results We retrospectively collected data from 79 patients hospitalized with aborted cardiac arrest (resuscitated from a cardiac arrest), ventricular tachycardia (VT), or syncope who underwent a CMR at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Besides CMR, the patients were evaluated with an electrocardiogram, echocardiogram (both 100%), coronary angiogram (CAG)/coronary computed tomography scan (CT-CAG) (81%), exercise stress test (47%), late potentials (54%), electrophysiological study (44%), pharmacological provocation (44%), and/or myocardial biopsy (16%). Family screening was indicated for 53 probands (67%) prior to CMR. After full workup, only 43 cases (54%) warranted evaluation of relatives (19% decrease, P = 0.034). The full evaluation changed whether family screening was indicated in 18 probands (14/18 moved to no indication for family screening). In the 18 where recommendations on family screening changed, CMR findings were the major driver for re-classification in 17 cases. Conclusion Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging re-defines the cardiac diagnoses in a significant proportion of cases and reduces the number of patients in whom family screening is warranted. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is highly relevant for optimal care and resource allocation when an inherited heart disease is the presumed cause of life-threatening arrhythmias.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Europace
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    ABSTRACT: Aims Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among the young (SCDY). The aim of this study was to characterize symptoms before SCDY due to HCM. Methods and results Through review of all death certificates, we identified all SCDs in Danes aged 1–35 years in 2000–2009. Nationwide we included all deaths (n = 8756) and identified 431 autopsied SCDYs. All available records from hospitals and general practitioners were retrieved. To compare symptoms, we included a control groups consisting of traffic accident victims (n = 74). In the 10-year study period, 431 autopsied SCDY cases were reviewed and 38 cases (9%) were included, of which 22 (58%) had morphologic findings diagnostic of HCM and 16 (42%) had findings suggestive, but not diagnostic, of HCM (‘possible HCM’). Cardiac symptoms >1 h prior to death were reported in 21 (55%) of cases, and 16 (42%) sought medical attention. One (1%) control had cardiac symptoms before death. Consequently, a significantly higher proportion of cases had cardiac symptoms before death and cases more often sought medical attention than controls (P < 0.001). Conclusion In conclusion, this nationwide study demonstrates a high frequency of cardiac symptoms prior to death in SCDY cases who died of HCM, as 55% had cardiac symptoms and nearly half of the cases sought medical attention.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Europace
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The first cases of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) were published two decades ago. Although the outcomes of single-centre and national ASA registries have been published, the long-term survival and clinical outcome of the procedure are still debated. Methods and results: We report long-term outcomes from the as yet largest multinational ASA registry (the Euro-ASA registry). A total of 1275 (58 ± 14 years, median follow-up 5.7 years) highly symptomatic patients treated with ASA were included. The 30-day post-ASA mortality was 1%. Overall, 171 (13%) patients died during follow-up, corresponding to a post-ASA all-cause mortality rate of 2.42 deaths per 100 patient-years. Survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years after ASA were 98% (95% CI 96-98%), 89% (95% CI 87-91%), and 77% (95% CI 73-80%), respectively. In multivariable analysis, independent predictors of all-cause mortality were age at ASA (P < 0.01), septum thickness before ASA (P < 0.01), NYHA class before ASA (P = 0.047), and the left ventricular (LV) outflow tract gradient at the last clinical check-up (P = 0.048). Alcohol septal ablation reduced the LV outflow tract gradient from 67 ± 36 to 16 ± 21 mmHg (P < 0.01) and NYHA class from 2.9 ± 0.5 to 1.6 ± 0.7 (P < 0.01). At the last check-up, 89% of patients reported dyspnoea of NYHA class ≤2, which was independently associated with LV outflow tract gradient (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The Euro-ASA registry demonstrated low peri-procedural and long-term mortality after ASA. This intervention provided durable relief of symptoms and a reduction of LV outflow tract obstruction in selected and highly symptomatic patients with obstructive HCM. As the post-procedural obstruction seems to be associated with both worse functional status and prognosis, optimal therapy should be focused on the elimination of LV outflow tract gradient.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · European Heart Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Objective There is a lack of disease-modifying treatments in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The aim of this randomised, placebo-controlled study was to assess if losartan could improve or ameliorate deterioration of cardiac function and exercise capacity. Methods Echocardiography, exercise test and MRI or CT were performed at baseline and after 12 months in 133 patients (52±13 years, 35% female) randomly allocated to losartan (100 mg/day) or placebo. Results Losartan had no effect on systolic function compared with placebo (mean difference for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 0% (95% CI −3% to 4%), p=0.84 or global longitudinal strain 0.7% (95% CI −0.2% to 1.6%), p=0.13). Neither Doppler measures of diastolic function, left atrial volume (mean difference 2 mL/m2 (95% CI −4 to 8 mL/m2) p=0.53) nor exercise capacity (mean difference −0.3 metabolic equivalents (METS) (95% CI −1.0 to 0.3 METS), p=0.28) differed between the treatment groups. At follow-up, there was further progression of disease, with the most prominent impairment being an increase in left atrial volume of 6 mL/m2 (95% CI 3 to 9 mL/m2, p<0.0001) in both groups combined. LVEF decreased (mean change −2%, (95% CI −3% to −1%), p=0.037) and 4% of patients had end-stage HCM with a LVEF of less than 50% at the end of the study. Conclusion Treatment with losartan had no effect on cardiac function or exercise capacity compared with placebo. Losartan fail to improve myocardial performance and failed to alter the progression of the disease. These findings do not support the use of angiotensin II receptor blockers as disease modifiers in adult patients with overt HCM. Trial registration number NCT01447654-results.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Heart (British Cardiac Society)

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Dec 2015

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: A common underlying mechanism with a genetic component could link pregnancy losses with vascular disease. We examined whether pregnancy losses (miscarriages and stillbirths) and atherosclerotic outcomes co-aggregated in families. Methods and results: Using Danish registers, we identified women with pregnancies in 1977-2008, and their parents (>1 million) and brothers (>435 000). We followed parents for incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular infarction (CVI), and brothers for a broader combined atherosclerotic endpoint. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each outcome by history of pregnancy loss in daughters/sisters. Overall, parents whose daughters had 1, 2, and ≥3 miscarriages had 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.04], 1.07 (95% CI 1.02-1.11), and 1.10 (95% CI 1.02-1.19) times the rate of MI, respectively, as parents whose daughters had no miscarriages. For parents with ≥3 daughters, the HRs were 1.12 (95% CI 1.02-1.24), 1.29 (95% CI 1.13-1.48), and 1.33 (95% CI 1.12-1.57). Effect magnitudes did not differ for fathers and mothers. We observed similar patterns for IHD and CVI (parents) and the atherosclerotic endpoint (brothers). Parents whose daughters had stillbirths had 1.14 (95% CI 1.05-1.24) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.96-1.18) times the rates of MI and CVI, respectively, as parents whose daughters had no stillbirths. Conclusion: Certain pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic diseases in both heart and brain may have a common aetiologic mechanism. Women in families with atherosclerotic disease may be predisposed to pregnancy loss; conversely, pregnancy losses in first-degree relatives may have implications for atherosclerotic disease risk.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · European Heart Journal

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Europace
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    ABSTRACT: Letter to the editor. In press
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Legal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections are increasing in numbers. The objective was to review the clinical presentation and outcome in patients affected with CIED infections with either local pocket or systemic presentation. Design: All device removals due to CIED infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. Results: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic and 39 pocket infections) were recorded during the study period. Median follow-up time was 26 (IQR 9-41) months, 30 day and 12 month mortality were 4% and 14%, respectively. There was no long-term difference in mortality between patients with pocket vs. systemic infection (p = 0.48). During follow-up no relapses and two cases of new infections were noted (2.8%). Conclusions: CIED infection with systemic or pocket infection was difficult to distinguish in clinical presentation and outcome. Complete device removal and antibiotic treatment of long duration was safe and without relapses.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Scandinavian cardiovascular journal: SCJ
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    ABSTRACT: The empiric treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) varies widely and, in some places, a regimen of penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside is administered. The increasing incidence of Staphylococcus aureus IE, poor tissue penetration by aminoglycosides and low frequency of penicillin-susceptible S. aureus may potentially lead to functional tobramycin monotherapy. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate tobramycin monotherapy in an experimental S. aureus IE rat model. Catheter-induced IE at the aortic valves were established with S. aureus (NCTC 8325-4) and rats were randomised into untreated (n = 22) or tobramycin-treated (n = 13) groups. The treatment group received tobramycin once-daily. Animals were evaluated at 1 day post infection (DPI), 2 DPI or 3 DPI. Quantitative bacteriology and cytokine expression were measured for valves, myocardium and serum. A decrease of bacterial load was observed in valves and the spleens of the treated (n = 6) compared to the untreated group at 2 DPI (n = 8) (p ≤ 0.02 and p ≤ 0.01, respectively), but not at 3 DPI (n = 7). Quantitative bacteriology in the myocardium was not different between the groups. Keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) in the aortic valves was significantly reduced at 2 DPI in the tobramycin-treated group (p ≤ 0.03). However, the expression of interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6 and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the valves was not different between the two groups. In the myocardium, a significant reduction in IL-1b was observed at 2 DPI (p ≤ 0.001) but not at 3 DPI. Tobramycin as functional monotherapy only reduced bacterial load and inflammation transiently, and was insufficient in most cases of S. aureus IE.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · European Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Diagnostics of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) are complex, and based on the 2010 Task Force document including different diagnostic modalities. However, recommendations for clinical management and follow-up of patients with ARVC and their relatives are sparse. This paper aims to give a practical overview of management strategies, risk stratification, and selection of appropriate therapies for patients with ARVC and their family members. Design: This paper summarizes follow-up and treatment strategies in ARVC patients in the Nordic countries. The author group represents cardiologists who are actively involved in the Nordic ARVC Registry which was established in 2009, and contains prospectively collected clinical data from more than 590 ARVC patients from Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Results: Different approaches of management and follow-up are required in patients with definite ARVC and in genetic-mutation-positive family members. Furthermore, ARVC patients with and without implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) require different follow-up strategies. Conclusion: Careful follow-up is required in patients with ARVC diagnosis to evaluate the need of anti-arrhythmic therapy and ICD implantation. Mutation-positive family members should be followed regularly for detection of early disease and risk stratification of ventricular arrhythmias.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Scandinavian cardiovascular journal: SCJ
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In sudden, unexpected, non-traumatic death in young individuals, structural abnormalities of the heart are frequently identified at autopsy. However, the findings may be unspecific and cause of death may remain unclear. A significant proportion of these cases are most likely caused by inherited cardiac diseases, and the cases are categorized as sudden cardiac death (SCD). The purpose of this study was to explore the added diagnostic value of genetic testing by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of a broad gene panel, as a supplement to the traditional forensic investigation in cases with non-diagnostic structural abnormalities of the heart. Methods and results: We screened 72 suspected SCD cases (<50 years) using the HaloPlex Target Enrichment System (Agilent) and NGS (Illumina MiSeq) for 100 genes previously associated with inherited cardiomyopathies and channelopathies. Fifty-two cases had non-diagnostic structural cardiac abnormalities and 20 cases, diagnosed with a cardiomyopathy post-mortem (ARVC = 14, HCM = 6), served as comparators. Fifteen (29 %) of the deceased individuals with non-diagnostic findings had variants with likely functional effects based on conservation, computational prediction, allele-frequency and supportive literature. The corresponding frequency in deceased individuals with cardiomyopathies was 35 % (p = 0.8). Conclusion: The broad genetic screening revealed variants with likely functional effects at similar high rates, i.e. in 29 and 35 % of the suspected SCD cases with non-diagnostic and diagnostic cardiac abnormalities, respectively. Although the interpretation of broad NGS screening is challenging, it can support the forensic investigation and help the cardiologist's decision to offer counselling and clinical evaluation to relatives of young SCD victims.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin
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    ABSTRACT: -Recommendations for pre-symptomatic screening of relatives of cardiomyopathy patients are based on findings from tertiary centers. Cardiomyopathy inheritance patterns are fairly well understood, but how cardiomyopathy in younger persons (<50 years) aggregates in families at the population level is unclear. In a nationwide cohort, we examined the risk of cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death (<60 years) from cardiomyopathy. -By linking Danish national register data, we constructed a cohort of 3.9 million persons born from 1950 to 2008. We ascertained family history of premature (<60yrs) death from cardiomyopathy or other conditions, and cohort members were followed from 1977 to 2008 for cardiomyopathy diagnosed at <50 years. We identified 3,890 cardiomyopathies in 89 million person-years of follow-up. Using Poisson regression, we estimated incidence rate ratios for cardiomyopathy by family history of premature death. Premature cardiomyopathy deaths in first- and second-degree relatives were associated with 29- and 6-fold increases in the rate of cardiomyopathy, respectively. If the first-degree relative died aged <35yrs, the rate of cardiomyopathy increased 100-fold; given ≥2 premature deaths in first-degree relatives, the rate increased more than 400-fold. In contrast, a family history of premature death from other cardiac or non-cardiac conditions increased the rate of cardiomyopathy 3-fold at most. -A family history of premature cardiomyopathy death was associated with an increase in risk of cardiomyopathy ranging from 6- to 400-fold, depending on age, kinship, gender and number of affected family members. Our general population-based results support recommendations for pre-symptomatic screening of relatives of cardiomyopathy patients.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Circulation
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    ABSTRACT: A rare genetic variant in the desmosomal gene plakophilin-2 (PKP2) c.419C>T(p.(S140F)) has repeatedly been identified in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Whether this is a disease-causing variant remains highly controversial. We tested this hypothesis using three approaches. Initially, in a prospective study of 10 407 individuals from the general population, including 2688 who developed heart failure or arrhythmias during >14 years of follow-up, PKP2 c.419C>T was identified in 98 individuals (0.94%). PKP2 genotype was not associated with electrocardiographic or echocardiographic changes, or with plasma levels of probrain natriuretic peptide (all P≥0.05). In c.419C>T carriers versus non-carriers, multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios were 1.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.77–2.07) for heart failure, 1.40 (0.90–2.17) for arrhythmias, 1.15 (0.78–1.71) for end points combined, and 1.33 (0.98–1.80) for all-cause mortality. The cumulative survival as a function of age and PKP2 genotype was similar among carriers and non-carriers (P=0.14). Second, comparing 517 patients referred for genetic testing with 1918 matched controls, odds ratios as a function of c.419C>T genotype were 2.11 (0.50–8.99) for ARVC, 0.72 (0.16–3.28) for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)/DCM, and 1.28 (0.46–3.54) for end points combined. Third, in in vitro studies cellular localization of plakophilin-2, plakoglobin, connexin-43, or N-cadherin were similar in cells transfected with wild-type or mutant plakophilin-2. In conclusion, combining epidemiological data, with data on patients referred for genetic testing for ARVC or HCM/DCM, and data from in vitro studies, PKP2 c.419C>T did not associate with heart failure, arrhythmias, or premature death, with ARVC or HCM/DCM, or with effects in vitro, suggesting that this is not a disease-causing variant.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of the first echocardiographic manifestations of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may be important for clinical management and our understanding of the pathogenesis. We studied the development of pre-diagnostic echocardiographic changes in young relatives to HCM patients during long-term years follow-up. HCM-relatives not fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for HCM and age of <18 years were included in this study. We performed echocardiographic evaluations at inclusion and after 12 ± 1 years follow-up. Based on family screening of 11 sarcomere genes, CRYAB, α-GAL, and titin, we evaluated: (1) non-carriers (known family mutation ruled out-controls), (2) carriers (phenotype negative gene mutation carriers) and (3) phenotype negative relatives with unknown genetic status (relatives from families without identified mutations). At inclusion (age 11 ± 5 years), there were no differences in echocardiographic chamber dimensions, systolic or diastolic function between the three groups. During follow-up (age 23 ± 5 years), carriers (n = 8) developed lower left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd) compared to non-carriers (n = 23) (41 ± 4 vs. 46 ± 4 mm; p = 0.04) and a higher ratio of early left ventricular filling velocity and early diastolic velocity of lateral mitral annulus (E/e' 6 ± 1 vs. 5 ± 1; p = 0.003). No significant differences in LVEDd or E/e' were found between relatives with unknown genetic status (n = 24) and non-carriers though Z-scores for these parameters were >2 in a subset of relatives with unknown genetic status. Children carrying pathogenic sarcomere gene mutations develop reduced LVEDd and increased E/e' as first pre-diagnostic echocardiographic manifestations during follow-up into adulthood.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The international journal of cardiovascular imaging

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Family history of myocardial infarction (MI) is an independent risk factor for MI. Several genetic variants are associated with increased risk of MI and family history of MI in a first-degree relative doubles MI risk. However, although family history of MI is not a simple dichotomous risk factor, the impact of specific, detailed family histories has not received much attention, despite its high clinical relevance. We examined risk of MI by MIs in first- and second-degree relatives and by number and age of affected relatives. Methods and Findings Using Danish national registers, we established a nationwide cohort of persons born between 1930 and 1992 with identifiable first- or second-degree relatives. Incident MIs in both cohort members and relatives aged ≥20 years were identified. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for MI by family history of MI, by Poisson regression. In 4.4 million persons followed for 104 million person-years, we identified 128,384 incident MIs. IRRs with 95% confidence intervals [CIs] for MI by history of MI in 1, 2 or ≥3 first-degree relatives were 1.46 (1.42-1.49), 2.38 (2.22-2.56) and 3.58 (2.66-4.81), respectively. Corresponding estimates for second-degree relatives were 1.17 (1.05-1.30), 1.87 (1.46-2.38) and 2.18 (1.09-4.36). A history of MI in combinations of first- and second-degree relatives increased risks 1.8- to 7-fold in middle-aged persons (36 to 55 years). Estimates were robust to adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and use of cardiovascular medications. Conclusion A detailed family history, particularly number of affected first- and second-degree relatives, contributes meaningfully to risk assessment, especially in middle-aged persons. Future studies should test for potential improvement of risk algorithm prediction using detailed family histories.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic cardiac disease primarily caused by mutations in genes coding for sarcomeric proteins. A molecular-genetic etiology can be established in ~60% of cases. Evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are susceptibility factors for HCM. Several polymorphic mtDNA variants are associated with a variety of late-onset degenerative diseases and affect mitochondrial function. We examined the role of private, non-haplogroup associated, mitochondrial variants in the etiology of HCM. In 87 Danish HCM patients, full mtDNA sequencing revealed 446 variants. After elimination of 312 (69.9%) non-coding and synonymous variants, a further 109 (24.4%) with a global prevalence > 0.1%, three (0.7%) haplogroup associated and 19 (2.0%) variants with a low predicted in silico likelihood of pathogenicity, three variants: MT-TC: m.5772G>A, MT-TF: m.644A>G, and MT-CYB: m.15024G>A, p.C93Y remained. A detailed analysis of these variants indicated that none of them are likely to cause HCM. In conclusion, private mtDNA mutations are frequent, but they are rarely, if ever, associated with HCM.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an advancing mode of treatment for inoperable or high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) after TAVI is a serious complication, but only limited data exist on its incidence, outcome, and procedural risk factors. Observational single-center study of 509 consecutive patients treated with a transcatheter implanted self-expandable aortic valve prosthesis (Medtronic CoreValve). We identified 18 patients diagnosed with TAVI-PVE during a median follow-up period of 1.4 years (interquartile range, 0.5-2.5 years; longest follow-up was 6.3 years). TAVI-PVE was most frequent in the first year after implantation (first-year incidence, 3.1% [confidence interval, 1.4%-4.8%]); the overall annualized rate was 2.1% per patient-year (confidence interval, 1.2%-3.3%). Seventeen patients (94%) were treated conservatively and 1 with surgery. Four patients (22%) died from endocarditis or complications to treatment, 2 of those (11%) during initial hospitalization for PVE. An increased risk of TAVI-PVE was seen in patients with low implanted valve position (hazard ratio, 2.8 [1.1-7.2]), moderate or worse postprocedural paravalvular regurgitation (hazard ratio, 4.0 [1.5-11]), implantation of >1 prosthesis (hazard ratio, 5.2 [1.5-18]), and any vascular complication (hazard ratio, 3.8 [1.5-9.8]). TAVI-PVE occurred at a slightly higher rate than reported for surgically implanted valves. Conservative treatment was associated with an acceptable outcome. Suboptimal valve deployment and vascular complications were associated with an increased risk of TAVI-PVE. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Circulation Cardiovascular Interventions

Publication Stats

2k Citations
870.36 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • Statens Serum Institut
      • • Department of Epidemiology Research
      • • Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Slovak Academy of Sciences
      Presburg, Bratislavský, Slovakia
  • 2000-2015
    • Children's Heart Center
      Las Vegas, Nevada, United States
  • 1997-2015
    • Copenhagen University Hospital
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1995-2014
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2013
    • University of Copenhagen Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2012-2013
    • Rigshospitalet
      • Department of Cardiology
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2000-2013
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2005
    • Royal North Shore Hospital
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia