[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Deamination of adenine can occur spontaneously under physiological conditions generating the highly mutagenic lesion, hypoxanthine. This process is enhanced by ROS from exposure of DNA to ionizing radiation, UV light, nitrous acid, or heat. Hypoxanthine in DNA can pair with cytosine which results in A:T to G:C transition mutations after DNA replication. In Escherichia coli, deoxyinosine (hypoxanthine deoxyribonucleotide, dI) is removed through an alternative excision repair pathway initiated by endonuclease V. However, the correction of dI in mammalian cells appears more complex and was not fully understood.
All four possible dI-containing heteroduplex DNAs, including A-I, C-I, G-I, and T-I were introduced to repair reactions containing extracts from human cells. The repair reaction requires magnesium, dNTPs, and ATP as cofactors. We found G-I was the best substrate followed by T-I, A-I and C-I, respectively. Moreover, judging from the repair requirements and sensitivity to specific polymerase inhibitors, there were overlapping repair activities in processing of dI in DNA. Indeed, a hereditable non-polyposis colorectal cancer cell line (HCT116) demonstrated lower dI repair activity that was partially attributed to lack of mismatch repair.
A plasmid-based convenient and non-radioisotopic method was created to study dI repair in human cells. Mutagenic dI lesions processed in vitro can be scored by restriction enzyme cleavage to evaluate the repair. The repair assay described in this study provides a good platform for further investigation of human repair pathways involved in dI processing and their biological significance in mutation prevention.
Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Cell and Bioscience
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Let-7a-3 transcribes the miRNA let-7a, of which the expression is dysregulated in cancer. We evaluated the significance of let-7a-3 gene methylation in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Let-7a-3 was methylated in 81.1% (73/90), partially methylated in 12.2% (11/90), or unmethylated in 6.7% (6/90) of patients. Let-7a-3 methylation correlated with AML karyotyping and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (CEBPA) methylation. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis predicted that let-7a-3 hypermethylation correlated with better survival in AML with hypomethylated CEBPA or with hypomethylated CEBPA without the favorable karyotype. We conclude that let-7a-3 methylation is a positive prognosticator for AML patients with hypomethylated CEBPA.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Leukemia research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA repair mechanisms are essential for preservation of genome integrity. However, it is not clear how DNA are selected and processed at broken ends by exonucleases during repair pathways. Here we show that the DnaQ-like exonuclease RNase T is critical for Escherichia coli resistance to various DNA-damaging agents and UV radiation. RNase T specifically trims the 3' end of structured DNA, including bulge, bubble, and Y-structured DNA, and it can work with Endonuclease V to restore the deaminated base in an inosine-containing heteroduplex DNA. Crystal structure analyses further reveal how RNase T recognizes the bulge DNA by inserting a phenylalanine into the bulge, and as a result the 3' end of blunt-end bulge DNA can be digested by RNase T. In contrast, the homodimeric RNase T interacts with the Y-structured DNA by a different binding mode via a single protomer so that the 3' overhang of the Y-structured DNA can be trimmed closely to the duplex region. Our data suggest that RNase T likely processes bulge and bubble DNA in the Endonuclease V-dependent DNA repair, whereas it processes Y-structured DNA in UV-induced and various other DNA repair pathways. This study thus provides mechanistic insights for RNase T and thousands of DnaQ-like exonucleases in DNA 3'-end processing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deamination of adenine can occur spontaneously under physiological conditions, and is enhanced by exposure of DNA to ionizing radiation, UV light, nitrous acid, or heat, generating the highly mutagenic lesion of deoxyinosine in DNA. Such DNA lesions tends to generate A:T to G:C transition mutations if unrepaired. In Escherichia coli, deoxyinosine is primarily removed through a repair pathway initiated by endonuclease V (endo V). In this study, we compared the repair of three mutagenic deoxyinosine lesions of A-I, G-I, and T-I using E. coli cell-free extracts as well as reconstituted protein system. We found that 3'-5' exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase I (pol I) was very important for processing all deoxyinosine lesions. To understand the nature of pol I in removing damaged nucleotides, we systemically analyzed its proofreading to 12 possible mismatches 3'-penultimate of a nick, a configuration that represents a repair intermediate generated by endo V. The results showed all mismatches as well as deoxyinosine at the 3' penultimate site were corrected with similar efficiency. This study strongly supports for the idea that the 3'-5' exonuclease activity of E. coli pol I is the primary exonuclease activity for removing 3'-penultimate deoxyinosines derived from endo V nicking reaction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is no detailed analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 3 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Our aim was to define frequently deleted loci on chromosome 3 and to explore novel prognostic markers and the locations of candidate tumor suppressor genes associated with CRC.
LOH at 23 microsatellite markers spanning on chromosome 3 was determined in 112 sporadic CRC by automated fluorescence-based polymerase chain reaction. Genetic loss was assessed for the clinicopathological significance by univariate and multivariate analyses.
Fifty-eight (51.8%) of 112 carcinomas exhibited LOH at one or more loci tested. Among seven loci with high LOH rates, allelic losses at D3S1297 and D3S1266 occurred more frequently in younger patients. A marked gender distortion for genetic deletion was observed at six loci, where LOH was identified more frequently in male cases. For clinical outcome, LOH solely at D3S1297 (3p26.3) was significantly associated with distant metastasis (P = 0.001) and was indicative of a shorter overall survival (P = 0.014). In addition, loss of one common deletion region at 3p25-pter was significantly correlated to distant metastasis (P = 0.009) and had an adverse effect on patients' overall survival in univariate and multivariate tests (P = 0.009 and 0.001, respectively).
Loss of chromosome 3p25-pter could act as an independent predicator of poor prognosis in CRC, suggesting that microsatellite analysis is a useful means to stratify patients into different risk groups. In addition, inactivation of candidate tumor suppressor genes in this region might involve in CRC progression.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stilbenoids, arachidin-1 (Ara-1), arachidin-3, isopentadienylresveratrol, and resveratrol, have been isolated from germinating peanut kernels and characterized as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. Resveratrol possesses anticancer activity, and studies have indicated that it induces programmed cell death (PCD) in human leukemia HL-60 cells. In this study, the anticancer activity of these stilbenoids was determined in HL-60 cells. Ara-1 had the highest efficacy in inducing PCD in HL-60 cells, with an approximately 4-fold lower EC(50) than resveratrol. Ara-1 treatment caused mitochondrial membrane damage, activation of caspases, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, resulting in chromosome degradation and cell death. Therefore, Ara-1 induces PCD in HL-60 cells through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Ara-1 demonstrates its efficacy as an anticancer agent by inducing caspase-independent cell death, which is an alternative death pathway of cancer cells with mutations in key apoptotic genes. These findings indicate the merits of screening other peanut stilbenoids for anticancer activity.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deoxyinosine (dI) in DNA can arise from hydrolytic or nitrosative deamination of deoxyadenosine. It is excised in a repair pathway that is initiated by endonuclease V, the nfi gene product, in Escherichia coli. Repair was studied in vitro using M13mp18 derived heteroduplexes containing a site-specific deoxyinosine. Unpaired dI/G mismatch resides within the recognition site for XhoI restriction endonucleases, permitting evaluation of repair occurring on deoxyinosine-containing DNA strand. Our results show that dI lesions were efficiently repaired in nfi(+)E. coli extracts but the repair level was much reduced in nfi mutant extracts. We subjected the deoxyinosine-containing heteroduplex to a purified system consisting of soluble endonuclease V fusion protein, DNA polymerase I, and DNA ligase, along with the four deoxynucleoside triphosphates. Interestingly we found these three proteins alone are sufficient to process the dI lesion efficiently. We also found that the 3'-exonuclease activity of DNA polymerase I is sufficient to remove the dI lesion in this minimum reconstituted assay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malfunction of mismatch repair (MMR) system and p53 produces nuclear genomic instability and is involved in colorectal tumorigenesis. In addition to a nuclear genome, eukaryotic cells have cytoplasmic genomes that are compartmentalized in the mitochondria. The aims of this study were to detect the mitochondrial genomic instability (mtGI) in colorectal carcinomas, and to explore its relationship with nuclear genetic alterations and its prognostic meaning.
Eighty-three colorectal carcinomas with corresponding normal mucosa were analyzed for mtGI, nuclear microsatellite instability (nMSI), and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of hMSH2, hMLH1, and p53 genes. Mitochondrial and nuclear alterations were examined for mutual correlation and for associations with clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes.
Out of 83 cases, mtGI was identified in 23 carcinomas (27.7%), whereas nMSI was detected in 11 (13.3%). Of the 23 cases with mtGI, only two showed nMSI simultaneously. The frequencies of LOH of hMSH2, hMLH1, and p53 were 16.1%, 11.6%, and 65.3%, respectively. There was no significant association between mtGI and these allelic losses. Notably, Dukes' C patients with mtGI had better disease-free and overall survival than those lacking this feature (p = 0.0516 and 0.0313, respectively).
Mitochondrial genomic instability occurs with a high frequency in colorectal carcinomas but is independent of nMSI and allelic deletion of hMSH2, hMLH1, and p53 genes. The results suggest that, instead of nuclear MMR system, there might be different mechanisms involving mitochondrial genomic integrity, and mtGI confers a better prognosis in Dukes' C colorectal cancer.
Preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to modulate plasma triglyceride concentrations. We investigated 2 distinct APOA1/C3/A5 haplotypes roles for hypertriglyceridemia.
We recruited 308 cases of hypertriglyceridemia and 281 normal controls from a hospital. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the APOA1/C3/A5 gene region were genotyped.
One haplotype containing the minor alleles of the APOA5 (-1131T>C, c.553G>T) and APOA1 (-3013C>T,-75G>A) was more prevalent in cases than in controls (11.3% vs. 1.1%, respectively) and was statistically significantly associated with high triglycerides (adjusted odds ratio: 12.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1-32.4, P<0.001). Another haplotype that was associated with hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted odds ratio 2.13, 95% CI, 1.37-3.29, P=0.001). Participants carrying both minor alleles of APOA5-1131CC and c.553TT had a 116% higher triglyceride concentration compared with those carrying common allele.
The APOA1/C3/A5 haplotype represents an important locus for predicting risk of hypertriglyceridemia among Taiwanese.
Full-text · Article · May 2008 · Clinica Chimica Acta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo IIalpha activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC50 of 0.9 microM, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC50 of 9.6 microM, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 microM. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC50 about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lanostanoid triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma amboinense were found to inhibit the growth of numerous cancer cell lines, and some of them inhibited the activities of topoisomerases I and IIalpha in vitro. Among the bioactive isolates, one of the most potent triterpene was identified to be 3 alpha-hydroxy-15 alpha-acetoxy-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid, ganoderic acid X (GAX). Treatment of human hepatoma HuH-7 cells with GAX caused immediate inhibition of DNA synthesis as well as activation of ERK and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases, and cell apoptosis. Molecular events of apoptosis including degradation of chromosomal DNA, decrease in the level of Bcl-xL, the disruption of mitochondrial membrane, cytosolic release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3 were elucidated. The ability of GAX to inhibit topoisomerases and to sensitize the cancer cells toward apoptosis fulfills the feature of a potential anticancer drug.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Palindromic sequences present in DNA may form secondary structures that block DNA replication and transcription causing adverse effects on genome stability. It has been suggested that hairpin structures containing mispaired bases could stimulate the repair systems in human cells. In this study, processing of variable length of palindromic loops in the presence or absence of single-base mismatches was investigated in human cell extracts. Our results showed that hairpin structures were efficiently processed through a nick-directed mechanism. In a similar sequence context, mismatch-containing hairpins have higher repair efficiencies. We also found that shorter hairpins are generally better repaired. A strand break located either 3' or 5' to the loop is sufficient to activate hairpin repair on the nicked strand. The reaction requires Mg(2+), the four dNTPs and hydrolysis of ATP for efficient repair on both palindromic loop insertions and deletions. Correction of each of these heteroduplexes was abolished by aphidicolin but was relatively insensitive to the presence of ddTTP, suggesting involvement of polymerase(s) alpha and/or delta. These findings are most consistent with the nick-directed loop repair pathway being responsible for processing hairpin heterologies in human cells.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Biomedical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In human cells, large DNA loop heterologies are repaired through a nick-directed pathway independent of mismatch repair. However, a 3'-nick generated by bacteriophage fd gene II protein heterology is not capable of stimulating loop repair. To evaluate the possibility that a mismatch near a loop could induce both repair types in human cell extracts, we constructed and tested a set of DNA heteroduplexes, each of which contains a combination of mismatches and loops. We have demonstrated that a strand break generated by restriction endonucleases 3' to a large loop is capable of provoking and directing loop repair. The repair of 3'-heteroduplexes in human cell extracts is very similar to that of 5'-heteroduplex repair, being strand-specific and highly biased to the nicked strand. This observation suggests that the loop repair pathway possesses bidirectional repair capability similar to that of the bacterial loop repair system. We also found that a nick 5' to a coincident mismatch and loop can apparently stimulate the repair of both. In contrast, 3'-nick-directed repair of a G-G mismatch was reduced when in the vicinity of a loop (33 or 46 bp between two sites). Increasing the distance separating the G-G mismatch and loop by 325 bp restored the efficiency of repair to the level of a single base-base mismatch. This observation suggests interference between 3'-nick-directed large loop repair and conventional mismatch repair systems when a mispair is near a loop. We propose a model in which DNA repair systems avoid simultaneous repair at adjacent sites to avoid the creation of double-stranded DNA breaks.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nick-directed DNA repair efficiency of a set of M13mp18-derived heteroduplexes containing 8-, 12-, 16-, 22-, 27-, 45-, and 429-nucleotide loops was determined by in vitro assay. Unpaired nucleotides of each heteroduplex reside within overlapping recognition sites for two restriction endonucleases, permitting independent evaluation of repair occurring on either DNA strand. Our results show that a strand break located either 3' or 5' to the loop is sufficient to direct heterology repair to the nicked strand in Escherichia coli extracts. Strand-specific repair by this system requires Mg2+ and the four dNTPs and is equally efficient on insertions and deletions. This activity is distinct from the MutHLS mismatch repair pathway. Strand specificity and repair efficiency are largely independent of the GATC methylation state of the DNA and presence of the products of mismatch repair genes mutH, mutL, and mutS. This study provides evidence for a loop repair pathway in E. coli that is distinct from conventional mismatch repair.