[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with Th2 and Th1 differentiated T cells. The cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) promotes differentiation of Th2 T cells and secretion of chemokines which preferentially attract them. We hypothesized that there is distinct airways expression of TSLP and chemokines which preferentially attract Th1- and Th2-type T cells, and influx of T cells bearing their receptors in asthma and COPD. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA were used to examine the expression and cellular provenance of TSLP, Th2-attracting (TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, I-309/CCL1), and Th1-attracting (IP-10/CXCL10, I-TAC/CXCL11) chemokines in the bronchial mucosa and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of subjects with moderate/severe asthma, COPD, and controls. Cells expressing mRNA encoding TSLP, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IP-10/CXCL10, but not I-TAC/CXCL11 and I-309/CCL1, were significantly increased in severe asthma and COPD as compared with non-smoker controls (p < 0.02). This pattern was reflected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein concentrations. Expression of the same chemokines was also increased in ex- and current smokers. The cellular sources of TSLP and chemokines were strikingly similar in severe asthma and COPD. The numbers of total bronchial mucosal T cells expressing the chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR8, and CXCR3 did not significantly differ in asthma, COPD, and controls. Both asthma and COPD are associated with elevated bronchial mucosal expression of TSLP and the same Th1- and Th2-attracting chemokines. Increased expression of these chemokines is not, however, associated with selective accumulation of T cells bearing their receptors.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is said to increase expression of chemokines attracting Th2 T cells. We hypothesized that asthma is characterized by elevated bronchial mucosal expression of TSLP and Th2-attracting, but not Th1-attracting, chemokines as compared with controls, with selective accumulation of cells bearing receptors for these chemokines. We used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to examine the expression and cellular provenance of TSLP, Th2-attracting (thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL17, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC)/CCL22, I-309/CCL1) and Th1-attracting (IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10)/CXCL10, IFN-inducible T cell alpha-chemoattractant (I-TAC)/CXCL11) chemokines and expression of their receptors CCR4, CCR8, and CXCR3 in bronchial biopsies from 20 asthmatics and 15 normal controls. The numbers of cells within the bronchial epithelium and submucosa expressing mRNA for TSLP, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IP-10/CXCL10, but not I-TAC/CXCL11 and I-309/CCL1, were significantly increased in asthmatics as compared with controls (p </= 0.018). TSLP and TARC/CCL17 expression correlated with airway obstruction. Although the total numbers of cells expressing CCR4, CCR8, and CXCR3 did not significantly differ in the asthmatics and controls, there was evidence of selective infiltration of CD4(+)/CCR4(+) T cells in the asthmatic biopsies which correlated with TARC and MDC expression and airway obstruction. Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells were significant sources of TSLP and chemokines. Our data implicate TSLP, TARC/CCL17, MDC/CCL22, and IP-10/CXCL10 in asthma pathogenesis. These may act partly through selective development and retention, or recruitment of Th2 cells bearing their receptors.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · The Journal of Immunology