Adam D Lipworth

University of Pennsylvania, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (3)30.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Effective methods to control the emergence of extended-spectrum beta -lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species (ESBL-EK) remain unclear. Variations in the patient populations at different hospitals may influence the effect of antimicrobial formulary interventions. To examine variations across hospitals in the response to antimicrobial interventions (ie, restriction of ceftazidime and ceftriaxone) designed to curb the spread of ESBL-EK, we conducted a 5-year quasi-experimental study. This study was conducted at 2 hospitals within the same health system: Hospital A is a 625-bed academic medical center, and Hospital B is a 344-bed urban community hospital. All adult patients with a healthcare-acquired clinical culture of ESBL-EK from July 1, 1997 through December 31, 2002 were included. After the interventions, the use of ceftriaxone decreased by 86% at Hospital A and by 95% at Hospital B, whereas the use of ceftazidime decreased by 95% at Hospital A and by 97% at Hospital B. The prevalence of ESBL-EK at Hospital A decreased by 45% (P < .001), compared with a 22% decrease at Hospital B (P = .36). The following variables were significantly more common among ESBL-EK-infected patients at Hospital B: residence in a long-term care facility (adjusted odds ratio, 3.77 [95% confidence interval, 1.70-8.37]), advanced age (adjusted odds ratio, 1.04 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.06]), and presence of a decubitus ulcer (adjusted odds ratio, 4.13 [95% confidence interval, 1.97-8.65]). The effect of antimicrobial formulary interventions intended to curb emergence of ESBL-EK may differ substantially across institutions, perhaps as a result of differences in patient populations. Variability in the epidemiological profiles of ESBL-EK isolates at different hospitals must be considered when designing interventions to respond to these pathogens.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Infections due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species (ESBL-EK) have increased markedly in recent years. Risk factors for mortality among ESBL-EK infections have not been studied. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a 625-bed tertiary care medical center and a 344-bed urban community hospital to determine whether inadequate initial antimicrobial therapy (IIAT) (>48 hours between the time a culture was obtained and initiation of an agent to which the infecting organism was susceptible) is associated with mortality in ESBL-EK infections. All hospitalized patients with an ESBL-EK infection between June 1, 1997, and December 31, 2002, were eligible for inclusion. Subsequently, we conducted a nested case-control study to identify risk factors for IIAT. Of 187 subjects, 32 (17.1%) died while in the hospital. Clinical site of infection was a significant effect modifier in the association between IIAT and mortality. The presence of IIAT was an independent risk factor for mortality, but only for nonurinary ESBL-EK infections (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 10.04 [1.90-52.96]). Independent risk factors for IIAT were (1) infection with a multidrug-resistant ESBL-EK (ie, resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, aminoglycosides, and quinolones) (14.58 [1.91-111.36]) and (2) health care-acquired ESBL-EK infection (4.32 [1.49-12.54]). Inadequate initial antimicrobial therapy is an independent risk factor for mortality in ESBL-EK infections, but only among nonurinary infections. Multidrug resistance was a strong risk factor for IIAT.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Archives of Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of infections due to extended-spectrum beta -lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species (ESBL-EK) has been increasingly recognized in recent years. ESBL-EK infections are of clinical concern, because few antimicrobials are available as therapeutic options. Increased reliance on carbapenems has led to increasing carbapenem resistance. Efforts to maintain current therapeutic options for ESBL-EK infections are essential. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for multidrug resistance (MDR) among ESBL-EK. All patients at our institution who had an inpatient clinical culture result positive for an ESBL-EK during the period of 1 June 1997 through 31 December 2002 were eligible for inclusion. An MDR ESBL-EK was defined as ESBL-EK demonstrating resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, aminoglycosides, and quinolones. All available ESBL-EK isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of 361 total ESBL-EK isolates, 68 (18.8%) were MDR. During the study period, the prevalence of MDR among ESBL-EK isolates increased from 12.5% to 26.9%. The only independent risk factor for MDR ESBL-EK was the infecting organism (i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae; adjusted odds ratio, 11.7; 95% confidence interval, 4.77-28.51; P < .001). Prior antibiotic use was not independently associated with MDR ESBL-EK. PFGE patterns from K. pneumoniae isolates indicated close genetic relatedness among a substantial proportion of isolates. The emergence of MDR among ESBL-EK has important implications for the future ability to treat these infections. The strong association between the species of infecting organism and MDR suggests that the epidemiology in K. pneumoniae may be unique. PFGE results suggest that horizontal spread is important in the emergence of MDR ESBL-EK.
    Preview · Article · May 2005 · Clinical Infectious Diseases