T. Dwelly

Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Arching, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (75)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SPIDERS (The SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources) is a program dedicated to the homogeneous and complete spectroscopic follow-up of X-ray AGN and galaxy clusters over a large area ($\sim$7500 deg$^2$) of the extragalactic sky. SPIDERS is part of the SDSS-IV project, together with the Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) and the Time-Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). This paper describes the largest project within SPIDERS before the launch of eROSITA: an optical spectroscopic survey of X-ray selected, massive ($\sim 10^{14}$ to $10^{15}~M_{\odot}$) galaxy clusters discovered in ROSAT and XMM-Newton imaging. The immediate aim is to determine precise ($\Delta_z \sim 0.001$) redshifts for 4,000-5,000 of these systems out to $z \sim 0.6$. The scientific goal of the program is precision cosmology, using clusters as probes of large-scale structure in the expanding Universe. We present the cluster samples, target selection algorithms and observation strategies. We demonstrate the efficiency of selecting targets using a combination of SDSS imaging data, a robust red-sequence finder and a dedicated prioritization scheme. We describe a set of algorithms and work-flow developed to collate spectra and assign cluster membership, and to deliver catalogues of spectroscopically confirmed clusters. We discuss the relevance of line-of-sight velocity dispersion estimators for the richer systems. We illustrate our techniques by constructing a catalogue of 230 spectroscopically validated clusters ($0.031 < z < 0.658$), found in pilot observations. We discuss two potential science applications of the SPIDERS sample: the study of the X-ray luminosity-velocity dispersion ($L_X-\sigma$) relation and the building of stacked phase-space diagrams.
    Article · Aug 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the Data Release 12 Quasar catalog (DR12Q) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the SDSS-III. This catalog includes all SDSS-III/BOSS objects that were spectroscopically targeted as quasar candidates during the full survey and that are confirmed as quasars via visual inspection of the spectra, have luminosities Mi[z=2]<-20.5 (in a LCDM cosmology with H_0 = 70 km/s/Mpc, Omega_M = 0.3, and Omega _L=0.7), and either display at least one emission line with a full width at half maximum (FWHM)larger than 500 km/s or, if not, have interesting/complex absorption features. The catalog also includes previously known quasars (mostly from SDSS-I and II) that were reobserved by BOSS. The catalog contains 297,301 quasars detected over 9,376 square degrees with robust identification and redshift measured by a combination of principal component eigenspectra. The number of quasars with z>2.15 is about an order of magnitude greater than the number of z>2.15 quasars known prior to BOSS. Redshifts and FWHMs are provided for the strongest emission lines (CIV, CIII], MgII). The catalog identifies 29,580 broad absorption line quasars and lists their characteristics. For each object, the catalog presents five-band (u, g, r, i, z) CCD-based photometry together with some information on the optical morphology and the selection criteria. When available, the catalog also provides information on the optical variability of quasars using SDSS and PTF multi-epoch photometry. The catalog also contains X-ray, ultraviolet, near-infrared, and radio emission properties of the quasars, when available, from other large-area surveys. The calibrated digital spectra, covering the wavelength region 3,600-10,500A at a spectral resolution in the range 1,300<R<2,500, can be retrieved from the SDSS Catalog Archive Server.
    Full-text available · Article · Aug 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an overview of the 4MOST project at the Preliminary Design Review. 4MOST is a major new wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of ESO. 4MOST has a broad range of science goals ranging from Galactic Archaeology and stellar physics to the high-energy physics, galaxy evolution, and cosmology. Starting in 2021, 4MOST will deploy 2436 fibres in a 4.1 square degree field-of-view using a positioner based on the tilting spine principle. The fibres will feed one high-resolution (R~20,000) and two medium resolution (R~5000) spectrographs with fixed 3-channel designs and identical 6k x 6k CCD detectors. 4MOST will have a unique operations concept in which 5-year public surveys from both the consortium and the ESO community will be combined and observed in parallel during each exposure. The 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of this observing concept, showing that we can expect to observe more than 25 million objects in each 5-year survey period and will eventually be used to plan and conduct the actual survey.
    Conference Paper · Aug 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) began observations in July 2014. It pursues three core programs: APOGEE-2, MaNGA, and eBOSS. In addition, eBOSS contains two major subprograms: TDSS and SPIDERS. This paper describes the first data release from SDSS-IV, Data Release 13 (DR13), which contains new data, reanalysis of existing data sets and, like all SDSS data releases, is inclusive of previously released data. DR13 makes publicly available 1390 spatially resolved integral field unit observations of nearby galaxies from MaNGA, the first data released from this survey. It includes new observations from eBOSS, completing SEQUELS. In addition to targeting galaxies and quasars, SEQUELS also targeted variability-selected objects from TDSS and X-ray selected objects from SPIDERS. DR13 includes new reductions of the SDSS-III BOSS data, improving the spectrophotometric calibration and redshift classification. DR13 releases new reductions of the APOGEE-1 data from SDSS-III, with abundances of elements not previously included and improved stellar parameters for dwarf stars and cooler stars. For the SDSS imaging data, DR13 provides new, more robust and precise photometric calibrations. Several value-added catalogs are being released in tandem with DR13, in particular target catalogs relevant for eBOSS, TDSS, and SPIDERS, and an updated red-clump catalog for APOGEE. This paper describes the location and format of the data now publicly available, as well as providing references to the important technical papers that describe the targeting, observing, and data reduction. The SDSS website, http://www.sdss.org, provides links to the data, tutorials and examples of data access, and extensive documentation of the reduction and analysis procedures. DR13 is the first of a scheduled set that will contain new data and analyses from the planned ~6-year operations of SDSS-IV.
    Full-text available · Article · Aug 2016
  • Article · Jul 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 4MOST instrument is a multi-object spectrograph to be mounted to the VISTA telescope at ESOs La- Silla-Paranal observatory. 4MOST will deliver several 10s of millions of spectra from surveys typically lasting 5 years. 4MOST will address Galactic and extra-galactic science cases simultaneously, i.e. by observing targets from a large number of different surveys within one science exposure. This parallel mode of operations as well as the survey nature of 4MOST require some 4MOST-specific operations features within the overall operations model of ESO. These features are necessary to minimize any changes to the ESO operations model at the La- Silla-Paranal observatory on the one hand, and to enable parallel science observing and thus the most efficient use of the instrument on the other hand. The main feature is that the 4MOST consortium will not only deliver the instrument, but also contractual services to the user community, which is why 4MOST is also described as a 'facility'. We describe the operations model for 4MOST as seen by the consortium building the instrument. Among others this encompasses: 1) A joint science team for all participating surveys (i.e. including community surveys as well as those from the instrument-building consortium). 2) Common centralized tasks in observing preparation and data management provided as service by the consortium. 3) Transparency of all decisions to all stakeholders. 4) Close interaction between science and facility operations. Here we describe our efforts to make parallel observing mode efficient, flexible, and manageable.
    Conference Paper · Jul 2016
  • Conference Paper: eROSITA on SRG
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian/German Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission which is now officially scheduled for launch on September 2017, eROSITA will perform a deep survey of the entire X-ray sky. Within the first 4 years of the mission the sky will be scanned 8 times. In the soft band (0.5-2 keV), it will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT, while in the hard band (2-8 keV) it will provide the first ever true imaging survey of the sky. eROSITA is currently (June 2016) in its final integration and test phase. All seven FM Mirror Assemblies and Camera Assemblies (+ 1 spare) have been tested and calibrated. All subsystems and components are well within their expected performances.
    Conference Paper · Jul 2016
  • Tom Dwelly · Andrea Merloni · Jakob C. Walcher · [...] · Cristina Chiappini
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 4MOST multi-object spectroscopic instrument (to be mounted on the ESO/VISTA telescope) will be used to conduct an ambitious multi-year wide area sky survey. A disparate set of science goals, requiring observation of tens of millions of galactic and extragalactic targets, must be satisfied by a unified program of observations. The 4MOST Operations System is designed to facilitate this complex task by i) providing sophisticated simulation tools that allow the science team to plan and optimise the 4MOST survey, ii) carrying out optimised mediumterm scheduling using survey forecasting tools and feedback from previous observations, and iii) producing sets of observation blocks ready for execution at the telescope. We present an overview of the Operations System, highlighting the advanced facility simulator tool and the novel strategies that will enable 4MOST to achieve its challenging science goals.
    Conference Paper · Jul 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a survey of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) with optical spectroscopic follow-up in a $\sim 18\, \rm{deg^2}$ area of the equatorial XMM-XXL north field. A sample of 8445 point-like X-ray sources detected by XMM-Newton above a limiting flux of $F_{\rm 0.5-10\, keV} > 10^{-15} \rm\,erg\, cm^{-2}\, s^{-1}$ was matched to optical (SDSS) and infrared (WISE) counterparts. We followed up 3042 sources brighter than $r=22.5$ mag with the SDSS BOSS spectrograph. The spectra yielded a reliable redshift measurement for 2578 AGN in the redshift range $z=0.02-5.0$, with $0.5-2\rm\, keV$ luminosities ranging from $10^{39}-10^{46}\rm\,erg\,s^{-1}$. This is currently the largest published spectroscopic sample of X-ray selected AGN in a contiguous area. The BOSS spectra of AGN candidates show a bimodal distribution of optical line widths allowing a separation between broad- and narrow-emission line AGN. The former dominate our sample (70 per cent) due to the relatively bright X-ray flux limit and the optical BOSS magnitude limit. We classify the narrow emission line objects (22 per cent of full sample) using standard BPT diagnostics: the majority have line ratios indicating the dominant source of ionization is the AGN. A small number (8 per cent of full sample) exhibit the typical narrow line ratios of star-forming galaxies, or only have absorption lines in their spectra. We term the latter two classes "elusive'' AGN. We also compare X-ray, optical and infrared color AGN selections in this field. X-ray observations reveal, the largest number of AGN. The overlap between the selections, which is a strong function of the imaging depth in a given band, is also remarkably small. We show using spectral stacking that a large fraction of the X-ray AGN would not be selectable via optical or IR colours due to host galaxy contamination.
    Full-text available · Article · Nov 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a new "changing-look" quasar, SDSS J101152.98+544206.4, through repeat spectroscopy from the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey. This is an addition to a small but growing set of quasars whose blue continua and broad optical emission lines have been observed to decline by a large factor on a time scale of approximately a decade. The 5100 Angstrom monochromatic continuum luminosity of this quasar drops by a factor of > 9.8 in a rest-frame time interval of < 9.7 years, while the broad H-alpha luminosity drops by a factor of 55 in the same amount of time. The width of the broad H-alpha line increases in the dim state such that the black hole mass derived from the appropriate single-epoch scaling relation agrees between the two epochs within a factor of 3. The fluxes of the narrow emission lines do not appear to change between epochs. The light curve obtained by the Catalina Sky Survey suggests that the transition occurs within a rest-frame time interval of approximately 500 days. We examine three possible mechanisms for this transition suggested in the recent literature. An abrupt change in the reddening towards the central engine is disfavored by the substantial difference between the timescale to obscure the central engine and the observed timescale of the transition. A decaying tidal disruption flare is consistent with the decay rate of the light curve but not with the prolonged bright state preceding the decay, nor can this scenario provide the power required by the luminosities of the emission lines. An abrupt drop in the accretion rate onto the supermassive black hole appears to be the most plausible explanation for the rapid dimming.
    Full-text available · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The uncertain origin of the recently-discovered 'changing-looking' quasar phenomenon - in which a luminous quasar dims significantly to a quiescent state in repeat spectroscopy over ~10 year timescales - may present unexpected challenges to our understanding of quasar accretion. To better understand this phenomenon, we take a first step to building a statistical sample of changing-look quasars with a systematic but simple archival search for these objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. By leveraging the >10 year baselines for objects with repeat spectroscopy, we uncover two new changing-look quasars. Decomposition of the multi-epoch spectra and analysis of the broad emission lines suggest that the quasar accretion disk emission dims due to rapidly decreasing accretion rates, while disfavoring changes in intrinsic dust extinction. Narrow emission line energetics also support intrinsic dimming of quasar emission as the origin for this phenomenon rather than transient tidal disruption events. Although our search criteria included quasars at all redshifts and quasar transitions from either quasar-like to galaxy-like states or the reverse, all the most confident changing-look quasars discovered thus far have been relatively low-redshift (z ~ 0.2 - 0.3) and only exhibit quasar-like to galaxy-like transitions.
    Article · Sep 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) will conduct novel cosmological observations using the BOSS spectrograph at Apache Point Observatory. Observations will be simultaneous with the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS) designed for variability studies and the Spectroscopic Identification of eROSITA Sources (SPIDERS) program designed for studies of X-ray sources. eBOSS will use four different tracers to measure the distance-redshift relation with baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the clustering of matter. Using more than 250,000 new, spectroscopically confirmed luminous red galaxies at a median redshift z=0.72, we project that eBOSS will yield measurements of $d_A(z)$ to an accuracy of 1.2% and measurements of H(z) to 2.1% when combined with the z>0.6 sample of BOSS galaxies. With ~195,000 new emission line galaxy redshifts, we expect BAO measurements of $d_A(z)$ to an accuracy of 3.1% and H(z) to 4.7% at an effective redshift of z= 0.87. A sample of more than 500,000 spectroscopically-confirmed quasars will provide the first BAO distance measurements over the redshift range 0.9<z<2.2, with expected precision of 2.8% and 4.2% on $d_A(z)$ and H(z), respectively. Finally, with 60,000 new quasars and re-observation of 60,000 quasars known from BOSS, we will obtain new Lyman-alpha forest measurements at redshifts z>2.1; these new data will enhance the precision of $d_A(z)$ and H(z) by a factor of 1.44 relative to BOSS. Furthermore, eBOSS will provide new tests of General Relativity on cosmological scales through redshift-space distortion measurements, new tests for non-Gaussianity in the primordial density field, and new constraints on the summed mass of all neutrino species. Here, we provide an overview of the cosmological goals, spectroscopic target sample, demonstration of spectral quality from early data, and projected cosmological constraints from eBOSS.
    Full-text available · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We combine deep X-ray survey data from the Chandra observatory and the wide-area/shallow XMM-XXL field to estimate the AGN X-ray luminosity function in the redshift range z=3-5. The sample consists of nearly 340 sources with either photometric (212) or spectroscopic (128) redshift in the above range. The combination of deep and shallow survey fields provides a luminosity baseline of three orders of magnitude, Lx(2-10keV)~1e43-1e46erg/s at z>3. We follow a Bayesian approach to determine the binned AGN space density and explore their evolution in a model-independent way. Our methodology accounts for Poisson errors in the determination of X-ray fluxes and uncertainties in photometric redshift estimates. We demonstrate that the latter is essential for unbiased measurement of space densities. We find that the AGN X-ray luminosity function evolves strongly between the redshift intervals z=3-4 and z=4-5. There is also suggestive evidence that the amplitude of this evolution is luminosity dependent. The space density of AGN with Lx<1e45erg/s drops by a factor of 5 between the redshift intervals above, while the evolution of brighter AGN appears to be milder. Comparison of our X-ray luminosity function with that of UV/optical selected QSOs at similar redshifts shows broad agreement at bright luminosities, Lx>1e45erg/s. The faint-end slope of UV/optical luminosity functions however, is steeper than for X-ray selected AGN. This implies that the type-I AGN fraction increases with decreasing luminosity at z>3, opposite to trends established at lower redshift. We also assess the significance of AGN in keeping the hydrogen ionised at high redshift. Our X-ray luminosity function yields ionising photon rate densities that are insufficient to keep the Universe ionised at redshift z>4. A source of uncertainty in this calculation is the escape fraction of UV photons for X-ray selected AGN.
    Full-text available · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • A. Merloni · T. Dwelly · M. Salvato · [...] · A. Rau
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We argue that the `changing look' AGN recently reported by LaMassa et al. could in fact be a luminous flare produced by the tidal disruption of a super-solar mass star passing just a few gravitational radii outside the event horizon of a $\sim 10^8 M_{\odot}$ nuclear black hole. This flare occurred in a massive, star forming galaxy at redshift $z=0.312$, which is robustly characterized thanks to repeated late-time photometric and spectroscopic observations. By taking difference-photometry of the well sampled multi-year SDSS Stripe-82 light-curve, we are able to probe the evolution of the nuclear spectrum over the course of the outburst. The tidal disruption event (TDE) interpretation is consistent with the very rapid rise and the decay time of the flare, which displays an evolution consistent with the well-known $t^{-5/3}$ behaviour, and would otherwise be inconsistent with a viscous draining of a large-scale accretion disc. Our analysis places strong constraints on the physical properties of the TDE, such as the putative disrupted star's mass and orbital parameters, as well as the size and temperature of the emitting material. Assuming standard (and conservative) bolometric corrections, this would be amongst the most luminous non-beamed tidal disruption flares discovered so far, and the only one observed from a black hole as massive as $\sim 10^8 M_{\odot}$. The properties of the broad and narrow emission lines observed in two epochs of SDSS spectra provide further constraints on the circum-nuclear structure, and could be indicative that the system hosted a moderate-luminosity AGN as recently as a few $10^4$ years ago. We discuss the complex interplay between tidal disruption events and gas accretion episodes in galactic nuclei, highlighting the implications for future TDE searches and for estimates of their intrinsic rates.
    Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • S. D. Connolly · I. M. McHardy · T. Dwelly
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present analysis of the long-term X-ray spectral variability of Seyfert galaxies as observed by Swift, which provides well-sampled observations over a much larger flux range and a much longer timescale than any other X-ray observatory. We examine long-term variability of three AGN: NGC 1365 (see Connolly et al. 2014), Mkn 335 and NGC 5548. At high fluxes, the 0.5-10 keV spectra soften with increasing flux, as seen previously within the 2-10 keV band. However, at very low fluxes the sources also become very soft. We have fitted a number of models to the data and find that both intrinsic luminosity variability and variable absorption are required to explain the observations. In some systems, e.g. NGC 1365, the best explanation is a two-component wind model in which one component represents direct emission absorbed by a disc wind wind, with the absorbing column inversely proportional to the intrinsic luminosity, and the second component represents unabsorbed emission reflected from the wind. In other AGN the situation is more complex.
    Article · Feb 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the largest Swift AGN monitoring program, concerning UV/optical variability in Seyferts. From 554 observations, over a 750d period, of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548, we see (McHardy et al. 2014) a good overall correlation between the X-ray and UV/optical bands,particularly on short timescales (tens of days). The UVOT bands are found to lag behind X-rays with a lag scaling as wavelength to the power 1.23 +/- 0.31, in excellent agreement with that expected (1.33) if UV/optical variability arises from reprocessing of X-rays by the accretion disc. However, the observed lags are ~3 times longer than expected from a standard Shakura-Sunyaev disc, raising real concerns about the detailed validity of this model. The results can be explained with a slightly larger mass and accretion rate, and a hotter disc, or if the disc is clumpy, thereby enhancing the emission from the outer regions.
    Article · Feb 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) took data from 2008 to 2014 using the original SDSS wide-field imager, the original and an upgraded multi-object fiber-fed optical spectrograph, a new near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph, and a novel optical interferometer. All the data from SDSS-III are now made public. In particular, this paper describes Data Release 11 (DR11) including all data acquired through 2013 July, and Data Release 12 (DR12) adding data acquired through 2014 July (including all data included in previous data releases), marking the end of SDSS-III observing. Relative to our previous public release (DR10), DR12 adds one million new spectra of galaxies and quasars from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over an additional 3000 sq. deg of sky, more than triples the number of H-band spectra of stars as part of the Apache Point Observatory (APO) Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), and includes repeated accurate radial velocity measurements of 5500 stars from the Multi-Object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS). The APOGEE outputs now include measured abundances of 15 different elements for each star. In total, SDSS-III added 5200 sq. deg of ugriz imaging; 155,520 spectra of 138,099 stars as part of the Sloan Exploration of Galactic Understanding and Evolution 2 (SEGUE-2) survey; 2,497,484 BOSS spectra of 1,372,737 galaxies, 294,512 quasars, and 247,216 stars over 9376 sq. deg; 618,080 APOGEE spectra of 156,593 stars; and 197,040 MARVELS spectra of 5,513 stars. Since its first light in 1998, SDSS has imaged over 1/3 the Celestial sphere in five bands and obtained over five million astronomical spectra.
    Full-text available · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    G. Ponti · S. Bianchi · T. Munoz-Darias · [...] · R. Terrier
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AX J1745.6-2901 is a high-inclination (eclipsing) neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) located less than ∼1.5 arcmin from Sgr A⋆. Ongoing monitoring campaigns have targeted Sgr A⋆ frequently and these observations also cover AX J1745.6-2901. We present here an X-ray analysis of AX J1745.6-2901 using a large data set of 38 XMM–Newton observations, including 11 which caught AX J1745.6-2901 in outburst. Fe K absorption is clearly seen when AX J1745.6-2901 is in the soft state, but disappears during the hard state. The variability of these absorption features does not appear to be due to changes in the ionizing continuum. The small Kα/Kβ ratio of the equivalent widths of the Fe xxv and Fe xxvi lines suggests that the column densities and turbulent velocities of the absorbing ionized plasma are in excess of NH ≃ 1023 cm−2 and vturb ≳ 500 km s−1. These findings strongly support a connection between the wind (Fe K absorber) and the accretion state of the binary. These results reveal strong similarities between AX J1745.6-2901 and the eclipsing neutron star LMXB, EXO 0748-676, as well as with high-inclination black hole binaries, where winds (traced by the same Fe K absorption features) are observed only during the accretion-disc-dominated soft states, and disappear during the hard states characterized by jet emission.
    Full-text available · Article · Sep 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are indisputably related to star formation, and their vast luminosity in gamma rays pin-points regions of star formation independent of galaxy mass. As such, GRBs provide a unique tool for studying star forming galaxies out to high-z independent of luminosity. Most of our understanding of the properties of GRB hosts (GRBHs) comes from optical and near-infrared (NIR) follow-up observations, and we therefore have relatively little knowledge of the fraction of dust-enshrouded star formation that resides within GRBHs. Currently ~20% of GRBs show evidence of significant amounts of dust along the line of sight to the afterglow through the host galaxy, and these GRBs tend to reside within redder and more massive galaxies than GRBs with optically bright afterglows. In this paper we present Herschel observations of five GRBHs with evidence of being dust-rich, targeted to understand the dust attenuation properties within GRBs better. Despite the sensitivity of our Herschel observations, only one galaxy in our sample was detected (GRBH 070306), for which we measure a total star formation rate (SFR) of ~100Mstar/yr, and which had a relatively high stellar mass (log[Mstar]=10.34+0.09/-0.04). Nevertheless, when considering a larger sample of GRBHs observed with Herschel, it is clear that stellar mass is not the only factor contributing to a Herschel detection, and significant dust extinction along the GRB sightline (A_{V,GRB}>1.5~mag) appears to be a considerably better tracer of GRBHs with high dust mass. This suggests that the extinguishing dust along the GRB line of sight lies predominantly within the host galaxy ISM, and thus those GRBs with A_{V,GRB}>1~mag but with no host galaxy Herschel detections are likely to have been predominantly extinguished by dust within an intervening dense cloud.
    Article · Aug 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 4MOST[1] instrument is a concept for a wide-field, fibre-fed high multiplex spectroscopic instrument facility on the ESO VISTA telescope designed to perform a massive (initially >25×106 spectra in 5 years) combined all-sky public survey. The main science drivers are: Gaia follow up of chemo-dynamical structure of the Milky Way, stellar radial velocities, parameters and abundances, chemical tagging; eROSITA follow up of cosmology with x-ray clusters of galaxies, X-ray AGN/galaxy evolution to z∼5, Galactic X-ray sources and resolving the Galactic edge; Euclid/LSST/SKA and other survey follow up of Dark Energy, Galaxy evolution and transients. The surveys will be undertaken simultaneously requiring: highly advanced targeting and scheduling software, also comprehensive data reduction and analysis tools to produce high-level data products. The instrument will allow simultaneous observations of ∼1600 targets at R∼5,000 from 390-900nm and ∼800 targets at R<18,000 in three channels between ∼395-675nm (channel bandwidth: 45nm blue, 57nm green and 69nm red) over a hexagonal field of view of ∼ 4.1 degrees. The initial 5-year 4MOST survey is currently expect to start in 2020. We provide and overview of the 4MOST systems: optomechanical, control, data management and operations concepts; and initial performance estimates.
    Article · Jul 2014