Susan A Casey

University of Minnesota Medical Center, Fairview, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (50)

  • Angie Lobo · Susan Casey · Barry Maron
    Article · Apr 2016 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a relatively common genetic heart disease encumbered throughout much of its almost 60-year history by a large measure of misunderstanding and the perception of a grim outcome without effective treatment options. However, it is now apparent that the majority of patients affected with HCM can achieve normal or near-normal life expectancy without disability, and usually do not require major treatment interventions. Nevertheless, for those patients with HCM who are at risk for (or experience) disease-related complications, a constellation of comprehensive nonpharmacologic management strategies have evolved over the last 15 years, altering the natural history and disease course for many, including implantable defibrillators, heart transplant, external defibrillation/therapeutic hypothermia, advances in surgical myectomy, and alcohol ablation. In particular, expanded contemporary risk stratification strategies have led to a more reliable selection of patients likely to achieve primary prevention of sudden death with implantable defibrillators. Most recently, large cohort studies using current management strategies and therapeutic measures have shown that it is now possible to achieve significantly improved survival with a low HCM-related mortality of 0.5% per year across all ages, and including children and young adults characteristically with the most aggressive disease course. These clinical management initiatives, instituted by the practicing cardiology community, have succeeded in preserving life and restoring an active lifestyle for thousands of patients with HCM, while providing many with a measure of reassurance and a reasonable expectation for an extended (if not normal) life span.
    Article · Mar 2016 · JAMA Cardiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular outflow tract gradients are absent in an important proportion of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, the natural course of this important patient subgroup remains largely unresolved.
    Article · Mar 2016 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • Barry J. Maron · Ethan J. Rowin · Susan A. Casey · [...] · Martin S. Maron
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) has become a contemporary and treatable genetic heart disease, now with disease-related mortality reduced to as low as 0.5% per year, based largely on more effective risk stratification and the use of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for primary prevention of sudden death. This paradigm change in the natural history of HC has caused us to reconsider the overall mortality risk in this disease. We interrogated the databases of 2 HC referral centers, Minneapolis Heart Institute and Tufts Medical Center. Of 1,902 consecutive patients evaluated between 1992 and 2013, 1,653 patients (87%) have survived to the end of follow-up and 249 patients (13%) have died. Most deaths (178 of 249; 72%) were unrelated to HC, commonly because of cancer and predominantly in older patients. Non-HC mortality was significantly more common in adults presenting ≥60 years and least common in the youngest patients aged <30 years (p <0.001). Notably, deaths from non-HC causes substantially exceeded HC-related causes by 2.6-fold (p <0.001). In conclusion, only about 25% of patients with HC ultimately died of their disease, including predominantly those who were <30 years of ages. These data allow patients with HC to develop a more realistic and reassured perception of their disease.
    Article · Nov 2015 · The American journal of cardiology
  • Barry J Maron · Ethan J Rowin · Susan A Casey · [...] · Martin S Maron
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: -Youthful age has been considered the time of greatest risk for patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), largely the possibility of sudden death (SD). The last 2 decades have witnessed more reliable identification of at-risk patients and utilization of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) for prevention of SD, and other contemporary treatment options. Whether such management advances have significantly altered the considerable mortality rate for young HCM patients remain unresolved. Methods and results: -We studied long-term outcome in 474 consecutive HCM patients presenting at 2 referral institutions between 7 and 29 years of age. Over 7.1 ± 5.1 years follow-up (6.0 [3.0, 10.0] ), 452 patients (95%) survived, with 95% experiencing no or mild symptoms. HCM-related death occurred in 18 patients (3%; 0.54%/year): arrhythmic SD (n=12), progressive heart failure and heart transplant complications (n=5), or postoperatively (n=1). In contrast, aborted life-threatening events occurred in 63 other high-risk patients (13%) with ICD interventions for ventricular tachyarrhythmias [n=31], resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest [n=20], or heart transplant for advanced heart failure [n=12], 1.8%/year, 3-fold higher than HCM mortality. Five- and 10-year survival (considering only HCM deaths) was high (97% and 94%, respectively), virtually identical to that reported in middle-aged adult HCM patients (98% and 94%, p=0.23). Conclusions: -In a large hospital-based cohort of young HCM patients, representing an age group considered at greatest risk, low mortality rates can be achieved with application of contemporary cardiovascular treatment strategies, due largely to reliable identification of high-risk patients who benefited from ICDs for SD prevention, thereby creating the opportunity for extended longevity and good quality of life.
    Article · Oct 2015 · Circulation
  • Barry J Maron · Ethan J Rowin · Susan A Casey · [...] · Martin S Maron
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been prominently associated with adverse disease complications, including sudden death or heart failure death and a generally adverse prognosis, with annual mortality rates of up to 6%. This study determined whether recent advances in management strategy, including implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), heart transplantation, or other therapeutic measures have significantly improved survival and the clinical course of adult HCM patients. We addressed long-term outcomes in 1,000 consecutive adult HCM patients presenting at 30 to 59 years of age (mean 45 ± 8 years) over 7.2 ± 5.2 years of follow-up. Of 1,000 patients, 918 (92%) survived to 53 ± 9.2 years of age (range 32 to 80 years) with 91% experiencing no or only mild symptoms at last evaluation. HCM-related death occurred in 40 patients (4% [0.53%/year]) at 50 ± 10 years from the following events: progressive heart failure (n = 17); arrhythmic sudden death (SD) (n = 17); and embolic stroke (n = 2). In contrast, 56 other high-risk patients (5.6%) survived life-threatening events, most commonly with ICD interventions for ventricular tachyarrhythmias (n = 33) or heart transplantation for advanced heart failure (n = 18 [0.79%/year]). SD occurred in patients who declined ICD recommendations, had evaluations before application of prophylactic ICDs to HCM, or were without conventional risk factors. The 5- and 10-year survival rates (confined to HCM deaths) were 98% and 94%, respectively, not different from the expected all-cause mortality in the general U.S. population (p = 0.25). Multivariate independent predictors of adverse outcome were younger age at diagnosis, female sex, and increased left atrial dimension. In a large longitudinally assessed adult HCM cohort, we have demonstrated that contemporary management strategies and treatment interventions, including ICDs for SD prevention, have significantly altered the clinical course, now resulting in a low disease-related mortality rate of 0.5%/year and an opportunity for extended longevity. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Article · May 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • Barry J. Maron · Ethan J. Rowin · Susan Casey · [...] · Martin Maron
    Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    Full-text available · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • Barry J. Maron · Susan A. Casey · Ross F. Garberich · [...] · Martin S. Maron
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Risk stratification for sudden death (SD) is an essential component of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) management, given the proven effectiveness of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) for preventing SD. Although highly effective in identifying high-risk patients, current stratification algorithms remain incomplete and novel strategies are encouraged. In this regard, reliability of the statistical model to predict SD risk in HC, as recommended by the recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines, was retrospectively tested in an independent cohort of 1,629 consecutive patients with HC aged ≥16 years. Of the 1,629 patients, 35 incurred SD events, but only 4 of these (11%) had high predictive risk scores >6%/5 years consistent with an ICD recommendation, and most (60%; n = 21) had scores <4%/5 years that would not justify ICDs. Of 46 high-risk patients with appropriate ICD interventions for ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, 27 (59%) had low SD risk scores of <4%/5 years, regarded by ESC as insufficient to recommend ICDs, and only 12 (26%) had scores >6%/5 years, considered an ICD indication; 11 of these 12 had already met conventional criteria warranting implantation with 2 to 3 risk markers. Of 414 patients with ICDs but without appropriate interventions, 258 (62%) had low risk scores (<4%/5 years) that would argue against implant. In conclusion, primary risk stratification using the ESC prognostic score applied retrospectively to a large independent HC cohort proved unreliable for prediction of future SD events. Most patients with HC with SD or appropriate ICD interventions were misclassified with low risk scores and therefore would have remained unprotected from arrhythmic SD without ICDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), heart transplant has been predominantly confined to patients with systolic dysfunction. An underappreciated HCM subset comprises patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function who may also require consideration for transplantation. Therefore, we sought to define the clinical profile and occurrence of advanced heart failure among patients with nonobstructive HCM and preserved systolic function. Methods and results: Databases from 2 referral centers comprising 2100 HCM patients were interrogated. Forty-six nonobstructive HCM patients (2.2%) either received or were listed for heart transplant, including 20 with normal systolic function (ejection fraction ≥50%). At transplant listing, these 20 patients were 42±13 years old, each in New York Heart Association functional class III/IV with ejection fraction of 62±7%. LV was hypertrophied with maximum wall thickness of 22±4 mm and nondilated (end-diastolic dimension, 39±7 mm). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in 10 (of 15) patients showed no or minimal fibrosis (≤5% LV mass). Elevated LV end-diastolic or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, consistent with diastolic dysfunction, was present in 15 patients (75%). LV filling was impaired by echocardiographic measures in all patients, including a restrictive inflow pattern in 8 (40%). In 2 patients, traditional criteria for transplant were absent, including peak VO2 >14 mL/kg/min. Heart transplantation was performed in 12 patients with each alive and without cardiovascular symptoms, 2.3±1.7 years later. Conclusions: A previously under-recognized segment of the broad HCM clinical spectrum consists of nonobstructive patients with advanced heart failure, in the presence of preserved systolic function, for whom heart transplant is the sole definitive therapeutic option.
    Article · Sep 2014 · Circulation Heart Failure
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To determine ICD efficacy in children/adolescents with HCM. BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common cause of sudden death (SD) in the young. Availability of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) over the last decade for HCM has demonstrated the potential for SD prevention, predominantly in adult patients. METHODS: A multicenter international registry of ICDs implanted (1987 to 2011) in 224 unrelated children and adolescents with HCM judged at high risk for SD was assembled. Patients received ICDs for primary (n = 188) or secondary (n = 36) prevention after undergoing evaluation at 22 referral and non-referral institutions in U.S., Europe and Australia. RESULTS: Defibrillators activated appropriately to terminate ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) in 43 of 224 patients (19%) over a 4.3 ± 3.3 years period. ICD intervention rates were 4.5%/year overall, 14.0%/year for secondary prevention after cardiac arrest, and 3.1%/year for primary prevention based on risk factors (5-year cumulative probability; 17%). Implant to first appropriate discharge was 2.9 ± 2.7 years (range to 8.6 years). Primary prevention discharge rate terminating VT/VF was the same in patients implanted for 1, 2, or ≥ 3 risk factors (12/88, 14%; 10/71, 14%; 4/29, 14%; respectively; p = 1.00). Extreme LV hypertrophy was the most common risk factor present (alone or in combination with other markers) in patients experiencing primary prevention interventions (17/26; 65%). ICD-related complications, particularly inappropriate shocks and lead malfunction, occurred in 91 patients (41%), at 17 ± 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: In a high-risk pediatric HCM cohort, ICD interventions terminating life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias were frequent. Extreme LV hypertrophy was most frequently associated with appropriate interventions. The rate of device complications adds a measure of complexity to ICD decisions in this age group.
    Full-text available · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • Barry J Maron · Ethan J Rowin · Susan A Casey · [...] · Martin S Maron
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is prominently associated with risk for sudden death and disease progression, largely in young patients. Whether patients of more advanced age harbor similar risks is unresolved, often creating clinical dilemmas, particularly in decisions for primary prevention of sudden death with implantable defibrillators. Methods and results: We studied 428 consecutive HCM patients presenting at ≥60 years of age and followed for 5.8±4.8 years; 53% were women. Of the 428 patients, 279 (65%) survived to 73±7 years of age (range, 61-96 years), most (n=245, 88%) with no/mild symptoms, including 135 with ≥1 conventional sudden death risk factors and 50 (37%) with late gadolinium enhancement. Over follow-up, 149 (35%) died at 80±8 years of age, mostly from non-HCM-related causes (n=133, 31%), including a substantial proportion from noncardiac disease (n=54). Sixteen patients (3.7%) had HCM-related mortality events (0.64%/y), including embolic stroke (n=6), progressive heart failure or transplantation (n=3), postoperative complications (n=2), and arrhythmic sudden death events (n=5, 1.2% [0.20%/y]). All-cause mortality was increased in HCM patients ≥60 years of age compared with an age-matched US general population, predominantly as a result of non-HCM-related diseases (P<0.001; standard mortality ratio, 1.5). Conclusions: HCM patients surviving into the seventh decade of life are at low risk for disease-related morbidity/mortality, including sudden death, even with conventional risk factors. These data do not support aggressive prophylactic defibrillator implantation at advanced ages in HCM. Other cardiac or noncardiac comorbidities have a greater impact on survival than HCM in older patients.
    Article · Dec 2012 · Circulation
  • Barry J Maron · Susan A Casey · Tammy S Haas · [...] · John R Lesser
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is the most common cause of sudden death in the young, but survival to particularly advanced age is less well appreciated. The investigators report the prevalence, clinical features, and demographics of patients with HC surviving to ≥90 years of age. Of 1,297 patients with HC in the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Center database (Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation), 26 (2.0%) were identified who had achieved the age of ≥90 years; 18 (69%) were women. HC diagnosis came late in life, at 61 to 92 years (mean 80 ± 8; ≥75 years in 21 patients), recognized fortuitously by the detection of a heart murmur or during family screening (n = 6) or after onset of new symptoms (n = 20). At most recent evaluation (or death) patients were aged 90 to 96.7 years (mean 92.2 ± 2), with 6 presently alive at 91 to 96 years of age; HC did not appear to be the primary cause of death in any patient. Left ventricular wall thicknesses were 15 to 31 mm (mean 20 ± 3); 8 patients (31%) had obstruction to left ventricular outflow at rest (peak instantaneous gradients, 38 to 135 mm Hg). Significant HC-related complications occurred in 13 patients (50%), including progressive heart failure symptoms, atrial fibrillation, and nonfatal embolic stroke. Although no patient died suddenly, 13 (50%) nevertheless carried conventional HC risk markers. A greater proportion of cohort patients reached ≥90 years of age (2.0%) than expected in the general population (0.8%) (p <0.001). In conclusion, HC may be unrecognized until late in life and is consistent with survival to particularly advanced age into the 10th decade of life without the need for major HC-related treatment interventions, and with demise ultimately largely unrelated to this disease. This principle regarding the natural history of HC can afford a measure of reassurance to many patients.
    Article · Feb 2012 · The American journal of cardiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to assess gender-related differences in a multicenter population with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Little is known regarding the impact of gender on the heterogeneous clinical profile and clinical course of HCM. We studied 969 consecutive HCM patients from Italy and the U.S. followed over 6.2 +/- 6.1 years. Male patients had a 3:2 predominance (59%), similar in Italy and the U.S. (p = 0.24). At initial evaluation, female patients were older and more symptomatic than male patients (47 +/- 23 years vs. 38 +/- 18 years; p < 0.001; mean New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class 1.8 +/- 0.8 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.6; p < 0.001), and more frequently showed left ventricular outflow obstruction (37% vs. 23%; p < 0.001). Moreover, female patients were less often diagnosed fortuitously by routine medical examination (23% vs. 41% in male patients, p < 0.001). Female gender was independently associated with the risk of symptom progression to NYHA functional classes III/IV or death from heart failure or stroke compared with male gender (independent relative hazard 1.5; p < 0.001), particularly patients > or =50 years of age and with resting outflow obstruction (p < 0.005). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-related mortality and risk of sudden death were similar in men and women. Women with HCM were under-represented, older, and more symptomatic than men, and showed higher risk of progression to advanced heart failure or death, often associated with outflow obstruction. These gender-specific differences suggest that social, endocrine, or genetic factors may affect the diagnosis and clinical course of HCM. A heightened suspicion for HCM in women may allow for timely implementation of treatment strategies, including relief of obstruction and prevention of sudden death or stroke.
    Article · Sep 2005 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional echocardiography is currently the standard test for the clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The present study was undertaken to determine whether cardiac MRI (CMR) affords greater accuracy than echocardiography in establishing the diagnosis and assessing the magnitude of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in HCM. Forty-eight patients (age 34+/-16 years) suspected of having HCM (or with a confirmed diagnosis) were imaged by both echocardiography and CMR to assess LV wall thickness in 8 anatomic segments (total n=384 segments) and compared in a blinded fashion. Maximum LV thickness was similar by echocardiography (21.7+/-9.1 mm) and CMR (22.5+/-9.6 mm; P=0.21). However, in 3 (6%) of the 48 patients, echocardiography did not demonstrate LV hypertrophy, and CMR identified otherwise undetected areas of wall thickening in the anterolateral LV free wall (17 to 20 mm), which resulted in a new diagnosis of HCM. In the overall study group, compared with CMR, echocardiography also underestimated the magnitude of hypertrophy in the basal anterolateral free wall (by 20+/-6%; P=0.001), as well as the presence of extreme LV wall thickness (> or =30 mm) in 10% of patients (P<0.05). CMR is capable of identifying regions of LV hypertrophy not readily recognized by echocardiography and was solely responsible for diagnosis of the HCM phenotype in an important minority of patients. CMR enhances the assessment of LV hypertrophy, particularly in the anterolateral LV free wall, and represents a powerful supplemental imaging test with distinct diagnostic advantages for selected HCM patients.
    Article · Aug 2005 · Circulation
  • Julia V Montgomery · Kevin M Harris · Susan A Casey · [...] · Barry J Maron
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twelve-lead electrocardiography, a traditional component in evaluations of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), is often regarded as a marker for the magnitude of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, which in turn has been linked to sudden death risk. To determine whether electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns have clinical utility by accurately reflecting phenotypic expression or predicting clinical outcome, voltages and patterns were compared with LV wall thicknesses assessed by echocardiography and with clinical outcomes in 448 consecutive patients with HC. Significant but relatively weak correlations were evident between maximum LV wall thickness and ECG voltage: r = 0.295 (p <0.01) for the sum of R- and S-wave voltages in all 12 leads, r = 0.254 (p <0.01) for the maximum R or S wave in any lead, and r = 0.210 (p <0.01) for the sum of SV(1) (or SV(2)) and RV(5) (or RV(6)). Of 55 patients with extreme LV hypertrophy (LV wall thickness > or =30 mm), only 24 (44%) showed greatly increased ECG voltage > or =30 mm in any lead. Of 102 patients with outflow gradients > or =30 mm Hg at rest, only 43 (42%) had ECG voltage > or =30 mm in any lead. Normal ECG results were uncommonly associated with HC-related death (1 of 40 patients, 2.5%) but had similar prevalence in surviving patients (17 of 376 patients, 4.5%; p = NS). In conclusion, in HC, 12-lead ECG voltages are not a reliable clinical marker for the magnitude of LV hypertrophy or outflow obstruction. Diverse ECG patterns, consistent with heterogeneous expression of this disease, did not predict HC-related death. Scalar electrocardiography has selective but limited power in routine clinical assessments of patients with HC.
    Article · Jul 2005 · The American Journal of Cardiology
  • Martin S Maron · Andrey G Zenovich · Susan A Casey · [...] · Barry J Maron
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), an important subgroup of patients develop progressive and disabling symptoms that are related to heart failure and death. Although a direct relation has been demonstrated between left ventricular (LV) wall thickness and likelihood of sudden and unexpected death (usually in patients who are asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic), it is unresolved whether magnitude of hypertrophy is similarly associated with severity of heart failure. To determine the relation of LV wall thickness to heart failure symptoms in HC, 700 consecutive patients who had HC were assessed by 2-dimensional echocardiography. The relation between maximum level of heart failure symptoms by New York Heart Association functional class and maximum LV wall thickness was not linear but rather parabolic. Therefore, marked symptoms were most commonly associated with moderate degrees of LV hypertrophy (wall thickness 16 to 24 mm; 27%) but less frequently with extreme hypertrophy (>/=30 mm 13%) or mild hypertrophy (</=15 mm; 19%, p = 0.0001). Mean New York Heart Association functional class showed a similar pattern with respect to moderate hypertrophy (1.9 +/- 0.8), mild hypertrophy (1.6 +/- 0.9), and extreme hypertrophy (1.6 +/- 0.7, p = 0.005). Multivariable regression analysis showed the parabolic relation between heart failure symptoms and magnitude of LV hypertrophy to be independent of other hypertrophic cardiomyopathy related clinical variables. In conclusion, no direct relation was evident between symptoms of heart failure and magnitude of LV wall thickness, with implications for the natural history of HC.
    Article · Jun 2005 · The American Journal of Cardiology
  • A.S. Adabag · S.A. Casey · M.A. Kuskowski · [...] · B.J. Maron
    Article · Jun 2005 · ACC Current Journal Review
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of disopyramide for patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). It has been reported that disopyramide may reduce left ventricular outflow gradient and improve symptoms in patients with HCM. However, long-term efficacy and safety of disopyramide has not been shown in a large cohort. Clinical and echocardiographic data were evaluated in 118 obstructive HCM patients treated with disopyramide at 4 HCM treatment centers. Mortality in the disopyramide-treated patients was compared with 373 obstructive HCM patients not treated with disopyramide. Patients were followed with disopyramide for 3.1 +/- 2.6 years; dose 432 +/- 181 mg/day (97% also received beta-blockers). Seventy-eight patients (66%) were maintained with disopyramide without the necessity for major non-pharmacologic intervention with surgical myectomy, alcohol ablation, or pacing; outflow gradient at rest decreased from 75 +/- 33 to 40 +/- 32 mm Hg (p < 0.0001) and mean New York Heart Association functional class from 2.3 +/- 0.7 to 1.7 +/- 0.6 (p < 0.0001). Forty other patients (34%) could not be satisfactorily managed with disopyramide and required major invasive interventions because of inadequate symptom and gradient control or vagolytic side effects. All-cause annual cardiac death rate between disopyramide and non-disopyramide-treated patients did not differ significantly, 1.4% versus 2.6%/year (p = 0.07). There was also no difference in sudden death rate, 1.0%/year versus 1.8%/year (p = 0.08). Two-thirds of obstructed HCM patients treated with disopyramide could be managed medically with amelioration of symptoms and about 50% reduction in subaortic gradient over >/=3 years. Disopyramide therapy does not appear to be proarrhythmic in HCM and should be considered before proceeding to surgical myectomy or alternate strategies.
    Article · May 2005 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
  • A Selcuk Adabag · Susan A Casey · Michael A Kuskowski · [...] · Barry J Maron
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to assemble a profile and assess the significance of arrhythmias in a nontertiary-based hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cohort. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is associated with arrhythmia-related consequences, particularly sudden death. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias on Holter electrocardiograms (ECG) have been reported as markers for sudden death in highly selected HCM populations. We assessed the profile of ventricular and supraventricular ectopy and bradyarrhythmia on ambulatory 24-h Holter ECG and also related these findings to clinical outcome in 178 HCM patients. Of the 178 study patients, 157 (88%) had premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), including 21 (12%) with >/=500 PVCs, 74 (42%) had couplets, 67 (37%) had supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), and 56 (31%) had nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). Mean number of PVCs was 330 +/- 763 (range 1 to 5,435) and increased with age (p < 0.01); NSVT was associated with greater left ventricular hypertrophy (p = 0.01) and severe symptoms (New York Heart Association functional classes III and IV) (p = 0.04); SVT occurred more commonly in patients with outflow obstruction (p = 0.02). Over a follow-up of 5.5 +/- 3.4 years, 11 (6%) patients died suddenly (annual mortality rate, 1.1%) including 5 patients with NSVT. For sudden death, NSVT on Holter ECG had negative and positive predictive values of 95% and 9%, and sensitivity and specificity of 45% and 69%, respectively. In this nontertiary-based HCM cohort, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias were particularly frequent and demonstrated a broad spectrum on ambulatory (Holter) ECG. Paradoxically, despite such a highly arrhythmogenic substrate, sudden death events proved to be relatively uncommon. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias had a low positive and relatively high negative predictive value for sudden death in this HCM population.
    Article · Mar 2005 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Publication Stats

4k Citations


  • 2005
    • University of Minnesota Medical Center, Fairview
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Naples Federico II
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 2001
    • Minneapolis Heart Institute
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States