[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elimination of the Kv1.3 voltage-dependent potassium channel gene produces striking changes in the function of the olfactory bulb, raising the possibility that this channel also influences other sensory systems. We have examined the cellular and subcellular localization of Kv1.3 in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) in the auditory brainstem, a nucleus in which neurons fire at high rates with high temporal precision. A clear gradient of Kv1.3 immunostaining along the lateral to medial tonotopic axis of the MNTB was detected. Highest levels were found in the lateral region of the MNTB, which corresponds to neurons that respond selectively to low-frequency auditory stimuli. Previous studies have demonstrated that MNTB neurons and their afferent inputs from the cochlear nucleus express three other members of the Kv1 family, Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.6. Nevertheless, confocal microscopy of MNTB sections coimmunostained for Kv1.3 with these subunits revealed that the distribution of Kv1.3 differed significantly from other Kv1 family subunits. In particular, no axonal staining of Kv1.3 was detected, and most prominent labeling was in structures surrounding the somata of the principal neurons, suggesting specific localization to the large calyx of Held presynaptic endings that envelop the principal cells. The presence of Kv1.3 in presynaptic terminals was confirmed by coimmunolocalization with the synaptic markers synaptophysin, syntaxin, and synaptotagmin and by immunogold electron microscopy. Kv1.3 immunogold particles in the terminals were arrayed along the plasma membrane and on internal vesicular structures. To confirm these patterns of staining, we carried out immunolabeling on sections from Kv1.3(-/-) mice. No immunoreactivity could be detected in Kv1.3(-/-) mice either at the light level or in immunogold experiments. The finding of a tonotopic gradient in presynaptic terminals suggests that Kv1.3 may regulate neurotransmitter release differentially in neurons that respond to different frequencies of sound.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · The Journal of Comparative Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cell bodies of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) are enveloped by satellite glial cells (SGCs). In an animal model of intervertebral foraminal stenosis and low-back pain, a chronic compression of the DRG (CCD) increases the excitability of neuronal cell bodies in the compressed ganglion. The morphological and electrophysiological properties of SGCs were investigated in both CCD and uninjured, control lumbar DRGs. SGCs responded within 12 h of the onset of CCD as indicated by an increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the compressed DRG but to lesser extent in neighboring or contralateral DRGs. Within 1 week, coupling through gap junctions between SGCs was significantly enhanced in the compressed ganglion. Under whole-cell patch clamp recordings, inward and outward potassium currents, but not sodium currents, were detected in individual SGCs. SGCs enveloping differently sized neurons had similar electrophysiological properties. SGCs in the compressed vs. control DRG exhibited significantly reduced inwardly rectifying potassium currents (Kir), increased input resistances and positively shifted resting membrane potentials. The reduction in Kir was greater for nociceptive medium-sized neurons compared to non-nociceptive neurons. Kir currents of SGCs around spontaneously active neurons were significantly reduced 1 day after compression but recovered by 7 days. These data demonstrate rapid alterations in glial membrane currents and GFAP expression in close temporal association with the development of neuronal hyperexcitability in the CCD model of neuropathic pain. However, these alterations are not fully sustained and suggest other mechanisms for the maintenance of the hyperexcitable state.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Na+-activated K+ currents (K(Na)) have been reported in multiple neuronal nuclei and the properties of K(Na) vary in different cell types. We have described previously the distribution of Slack, a Na+-activated K+ channel subunit. Another recently cloned Na+-activated K+ channel is Slick, which differs from Slack in its rapid activation and its sensitivity to intracellular ATP levels. We now report the localization of Slick in the rat central nervous system using in situ and immunohistochemical techniques. As for Slack, we find that Slick is widely distributed in the brain. Specifically, strong hybridization signals and immunoreactivity were found in the brainstem, including auditory neurons such as the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. As has also been shown for Slack, Slick is expressed in the olfactory bulb, red nucleus, facial nucleus, pontine nucleus, oculomotor nucleus, substantia nigra, deep cerebellar nuclei, vestibular nucleus, and the thalamus. Slick mRNA and protein, however, also are found in certain neurons that do not express Slack. These neurons include those of the hippocampal CA1, CA2, and CA3 regions, the dentate gyrus, supraoptic nucleus, hypothalamus, and cortical layers II, III, and V. These data suggest that Slick may function independently of Slack in these regions. Computer simulations indicate that Slick currents can cause adaptation during prolonged stimuli. Such adaptation allows a neuron to respond to high-frequency stimulation with lower-frequency firing that remains temporally locked to individual stimuli, a property seen in many auditory neurons. Although it is not yet known if Slick and Slack subunits heteromultimerize, the existence of two genes that encode K(Na), that are widely expressed in the nervous system, with both overlapping and nonoverlapping distributions, provides the basis for the reported heterogeneity in the properties of K(Na) from various neurons.
Preview · Article · Mar 2005 · The Journal of Comparative Neurology