[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Mozambique adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the year 2006, and since 2009 artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) have been proposed as alternative first-line treatments. A multicentre study was conducted in five sites across the country to assess the in vivo efficacy and tolerability of these two drugs.
Children aged six to 59 months with uncomplicated malaria were recruited between June 2011 and January 2012 in five sites across Mozambique (Montepuez, Dondo, Tete, Chokwe, and Manhiça), and treated with AL or ASAQ in a non-randomized study. Follow-up was organized following standard WHO recommendations for in vivo studies, and included daily visits during the three-day-long supervised treatment course, followed by weekly visits up to day 28. The study primary outcome was the day 28 PCR-corrected early treatment failure (ETF), late clinical failure (LCF), late parasitological failure (LPF), and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR). PCR was performed centrally for all cases of recurrent parasitaemia from day 7 onwards to distinguish recrudescence from re-infection.
Four-hundred and thirty-nine (AL cohort; five sites) and 261 (ASAQ cohort, three sites) children were recruited to the study. Day 28 PCR-corrected efficacy for AL was 96.0% (335/339; 95% CI: 93.4-97.8), while for ASAQ it was 99.6% (232/233; 95% CI: 97.6-99.9). The majority of recurring parasitaemia cases throughout follow-up were shown to be re-infections by PCR. Both drugs were well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse event being vomiting (AL 4.5% [20/439]; ASAQ 9.6% [25/261]) and no significant events deemed related to the study drugs.
This study confirms that both AL and ASAQ remain highly efficacious and well tolerated for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Mozambican children. Studies such as these should be replicated regularly in the selected surveillance sentinel sites to continuously monitor the efficacy of these drugs and to rapidly detect any potential signs of declining efficacy to ACT, the mainstay of malaria treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Reliable HIV incidence estimates for Mozambique are limited. We conducted a prospective HIV incidence study as part of a clinical research site development initiative in Chókwè district, Gaza Province, southern Mozambique.
Between June 2010 and October 2012, we recruited women at sites where women at higher risk of HIV infection would likely be found. We enrolled and tested 1,429 sexually active women in the screening phase and 479 uninfected women in the prospective phase. Participants were scheduled for 12+ months follow-up, when they underwent face-to-face interviews, HIV counseling and testing, and pregnancy testing. We observed a total of 373.1 woman-years (WY) of follow-up, with mean (median) of 9.4 (9.7) women-months per participant.
The prevalence of HIV was 29.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.0–31.8%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, factors that remained significantly associated with prevalent HIV were: older age (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.7), lower educational level (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.3–0.7), and using hormonal contraception (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–0.7) or condoms (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.7). We observed an HIV incidence rate of 4.6 per 100 WY (95% CI: 2.7, 7.3). The HIV incidence was 4.8 per 100 WY (95% CI: 2.5, 8.3) in women aged 18–24 years, 4.5 per 100 WY (95% CI: 1.2, 11.4) in women aged 25–29 years and 3.2 per 100 WY (95% CI: 0.1, 18.0) in the 30–35 years stratum. None of the demographic factors or time-varying behavioral factors examined was significantly associated with incident HIV infection in bivariable analysis at p≤0.10.
We found a high HIV incidence among sexually active young women in Chókwè, Mozambique. HIV prevention programs should be strengthened in the area, with more comprehensive reproductive health services, regular HIV testing, condom promotion, and messaging about multiple sexual partners.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In late 2002, the health authorities of Mozambique implemented sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP)/amodiaquine (AQ) as first-line treatment against uncomplicated falciparum malaria. In 2004, this has been altered to SP/artesunate in line with WHO recommendations of using Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), despite the fact that all the neighbouring countries have abandoned SP-drug combinations due to high levels of SP drug resistance. In the study area, one year prior to the change to SP/AQ, SP alone was used to treat uncomplicated malaria cases. The study described here investigated the immediate impact of the change to SP on the frequency of SP and CQ resistance-related haplotypes in the Plasmodium falciparum genes Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt before and a year after the introduction of SP.
Samples were collected during two cross sectional surveys in early 2002 and 2003 involving 796 and 692 children one year or older and adults randomly selected living in Maciana, an area located in Manhiça district, Southern Mozambique. Out of these, 171 and 173 P. falciparum positive samples were randomly selected to measure the frequency of resistance- related haplotypes in Pfdhfr, Pfdhps and Pfcrt based on results obtained by nested PCR followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP)-ELISA.
The frequency of the SP-resistance associated Pfdhps double mutant (SGEAA) haplotype increased significantly from 14% to 35% (P < 0.001), while the triple mutant Pfdhfr haplotype (CIRNI) remained high and only changed marginally from 46% to 53% (P = 0.405) after one year with SP as first-line treatment in the study area. Conversely, the combined Pfdhfr/Pfdhps quintuple mutant haplotype increased from 8% to 26% (P = 0.005). The frequency of the chloroquine resistance associated Pfcrt-CVIET haplotype was above 90% in both years.
These retrospective findings add to the general concern on the lifespan of the combination of SP/artesunate in Mozambique. The high frequency of quintuple Pfdhfr/Pfdhps haplotypes found here as early as 2002 most likely cause ideal conditions for the development of artesunate tolerance in the P. falciparum populations and may even endanger the sensitivity to the second-line drug, Coartem.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS02A is a recombinant protein containing part of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) sequence of Plasmodium falciparum, linked to the hepatitis B surface antigen and formulated in the proprietary adjuvant system AS02A. In a recent trial conducted in children younger than age five in southern Mozambique, the vaccine demonstrated significant and sustained efficacy against both infection and clinical disease. In a follow-up study to the main trial, breakthrough infections identified in the trial were examined to determine whether the distribution of csp sequences was affected by the vaccine and to measure the multiplicity of infecting parasite genotypes.
P. falciparum DNA from isolates collected during the trial was used for genotype studies.
The main trial was carried out in the Manhiça district, Maputo province, Mozambique, between April 2003 and May 2004.
Children from the two cohorts of the main trial provided parasite isolates as follows: children from Cohort 1 who were admitted to hospital with clinical malaria; children from Cohort 1 who were parasite-positive in a cross-sectional survey at study month 8.5; children from Cohort 2 identified as parasite-positive during follow-up by active detection of infection.
Divergence of DNA sequence encoding the CSP T cell-epitope region sequence from that of the vaccine sequence was measured in 521 isolates. The number of distinct P. falciparum genotypes was also determined.
We found no evidence that parasite genotypes from children in the RTS,S/AS02A arm were more divergent than those receiving control vaccines. For Cohort 1 (survey at study month 8.5) and Cohort 2, infections in the vaccine group contained significantly fewer genotypes than those in the control group, (p = 0.035, p = 0.006), respectively, for the two cohorts. This was not the case for children in Cohort 1 who were admitted to hospital (p = 0.478).
RTS,S/AS02A did not select for genotypes encoding divergent T cell epitopes in the C-terminal region of CSP in this trial. In both cohorts, there was a modest reduction in the mean number of parasite genotypes harboured by vaccinated children compared with controls, but only among those with asymptomatic infections.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · PLoS Clinical Trials
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), and dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps), and chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) genes are used as molecular markers of P. falciparum resistance to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine. However, to be a practical tool in the surveillance of drug resistance, simpler methods for high-throughput haplotyping are warranted. Here we describe a quick and simple technique that detects dhfr, dhps, and Pfcrt SNPs using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based technology. Biotinylated PCR products of dhfr, dhps, or Pfcrt were captured on streptavidin-coated microtiter plates and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) were hybridized with the PCR products. A stringent washing procedure enabled detection of remaining bound SSOPs and distinguished between the SNPs of dhfr, dhps, and Pfcrt with high specificity. The SSOP-ELISA compared well with a standard PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure, and gave identical positive results in more than 90% of the P. falciparum slide-positive samples tested. The SSOP-ELISA of all dhfr, dhps, or Pfcrt SNPs on 88 samples can be performed in a single day and provides quick and reproducible results. The system can potentially be modified to detect SNPs in other genes.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reports a two-phase study in Manhiça district, Mozambique: first we assessed the clinical efficacy and parasitological response of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine (CQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ), then we tested the safety and efficacy in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, of three combinations: AQ + SP, artesunate (AR) + SP and AQ + AR. Based on the WHO (1996, WHO/MAL/96.1077) in vivo protocol, we conducted two open, randomized, clinical trials. Children aged 6-59 months with axillary body temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C and non-complicated malaria were randomly allocated to treatment groups and followed up for 21 days (first and second trial) and 28 days (first trial). The therapeutic efficacy of AQ (91.6%) was better than that of SP (82.7%) and CQ (47.1%). After 14 days, 69% of the strains were parasitologically resistant to CQ, 21.4% to SP and 26% to AQ. Co-administration of AQ + SP, AR + SP and AQ + AR was safe and had 100% clinical efficacy at 14-day follow-up. The combination therapies affected rapid fever clearance time and reduced the incidence of gametocytaemia during follow-up.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Tropical Medicine & International Health