John P Forman

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (112)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Although increased fruit intake reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, which fruits are most beneficial and what key constituents are responsible are unclear. Habitual intakes of flavonoids, specifically anthocyanins and flavanones, in which >90% of habitual intake is derived from fruit, are associated with decreased CVD risk in women, but associations in men are largely unknown. Objective: We examined the relation between habitual anthocyanin and flavanone intake and coronary artery disease and stroke in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Design: We followed 43,880 healthy men who had no prior diagnosed CVD or cancer. Flavonoid intake was calculated with the use of validated food-frequency questionnaires. Results: During 24 y of follow-up, 4046 myocardial infarction (MI) and 1572 stroke cases were confirmed by medical records. Although higher anthocyanin intake was not associated with total or fatal MI risk, after multivariate adjustment an inverse association with nonfatal MI was observed (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00; P = 0.04; P-trend = 0.098); this association was stronger in normotensive participants (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.96; P-interaction = 0.03). Anthocyanin intake was not associated with stroke risk. Although flavanone intake was not associated with MI or total stroke risk, higher intake was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke (HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.97; P = 0.03, P-trend = 0.059), with the greatest magnitude in participants aged ≥65 y (P-interaction = 0.04). Conclusions: Higher intakes of fruit-based flavonoids were associated with a lower risk of nonfatal MI and ischemic stroke in men. Mechanistic studies and clinical trials are needed to unravel the differential benefits of anthocyanin- and flavanone-rich foods on cardiovascular health.
    Article · Aug 2016 · American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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    Lea Borgi · Eric B Rimm · Walter C Willett · John P Forman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To determine whether higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries, or potato chips is associated with incidence of hypertension. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort studies. Setting Healthcare providers in the United States. Participants 62 175 women in Nurses’ Health Study, 88 475 women in Nurses’ Health Study II, and 36 803 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were non-hypertensive at baseline. Main outcome measure Incident cases of hypertension (self reported diagnosis by healthcare provider). Results Compared with consumption of less than one serving a month, the random effects pooled hazard ratios for four or more servings a week were 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.28; P for trend=0.05) for baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes, 1.17 (1.07 to 1.27; P for trend=0.001) for French fries, and 0.97 (0.87 to 1.08; P for trend=0.98) for potato chips. In substitution analyses, replacing one serving a day of baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes with one serving a day of non-starchy vegetables was associated with decreased risk of hypertension (hazard ratio 0.93, 0.89 to 0.96). Conclusion Higher intake of baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes and French fries was independently and prospectively associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension in three large cohorts of adult men and women.
    Full-text Article · May 2016 · BMJ (online)
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women who developed gestational diabetes mellitus represent a high-risk population for hypertension later in life. The role of diet in the progression of hypertension among this susceptible population is unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3818 women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus in the Nurses’ Health Study II as part of the ongoing Diabetes & Women’s Health Study. These women were followed-up from 1989 to 2011. Incident hypertension was identified through self-administered questionnaires that were validated previously by medical record review. Adherence scores for the alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, the alternative Mediterranean diet, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension were computed for each participant. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the associations between dietary scores and hypertension while adjusting for major risk factors for hypertension. We documented 1069 incident hypertension cases during a median of 18.5 years of follow-up. After adjustment for major risk factors forhypertension, including body mass index, alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010, alternative Mediterranean diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scores were significantly inversely associated with the risk of hypertension; hazard ratioand 95% confidence interval comparing the extreme quartiles (highest versus lowest) were 0.76 (0.61–0.94; P for linear trend =0.03) for AHEI score, 0.72 (0.58–0.90; P for trend =0.01) for Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension score, and 0.70 (0.56–0.88; P for trend =0.002) for alternative Mediterranean diet score. Adherence to a healthful dietary pattern was related to a lower subsequent risk of developing hypertension among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2016 · Hypertension
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Elevated plasma uric acid has been inconsistently associated with an increased risk of total stroke; however, data are sparse amongst women. The association between plasma uric acid concentrations and ischaemic stroke amongst women was examined and the effect modification by key cardiovascular risk factors was evaluated. Methods: A nested case-control design with matching by age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone therapy use, date of blood draw and fasting status was utilized amongst female participants of the Nurses' Health Study who provided blood samples between 1989 and 1990. Plasma uric acid was measured on stored blood samples. The National Survey of Stroke criteria were utilized to confirm 460 incident cases of ischaemic stroke by medical records from 1990 to 2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were estimated. Results: In matched analysis, risk of ischaemic stroke increased by 15% for each 1 mg/dl increase in plasma uric acid [95% confidence interval (CI) 3%-28%], but was no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, particularly history of hypertension. The highest quartile of uric acid was significantly associated with greater risk of ischaemic stroke (relative risk 1.56; 95% CI 1.06-2.29, extreme quartiles) in matched analysis, but estimates were no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (relative risk 1.43; 95% CI 0.93-2.18). Significant effect modification by key cardiovascular risk factors was not observed. Conclusions: Plasma uric acid levels were not independently associated with increased risk of ischaemic stroke in this cohort of women. Whilst plasma uric acid was associated with stroke risk factors, it was not independently associated with stroke risk.
    Article · Apr 2016 · European Journal of Neurology
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    Ciaran J. McMullan · Gary C. Curhan · John P. Forman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kidney is influenced by circadian rhythms and is entrained to the sleep-wake cycle allowing anticipation of the metabolic and physiological demands of the kidney throughout a 24-hour cycle. Although sleep disruption has been studied extensively in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, its association with chronic kidney disease has not been shown. We examined this in a prospective cohort study of 4238 participants from the Nurses’ Health Study and analyzed the association of self-reported sleep duration with decline in renal function over an 11-year period (1989 to 2000). Individuals who reported shorter sleep duration were more likely to experience a rapid decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (30% or more). Compared with sleeping 7 to 8 hours per night, the adjusted odds ratios for a rapid decline in renal function were a significant 1.79 (95% CI, 1.06–3.03) for 5 hours or less sleep per night, a significant 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01–1.71) for 6 hours sleep per night, but an insignificant 0.88 (95% CI, 0.50–1.57) for 9 or more hours sleep per night. Similarly, there was a significant trend in the adjusted annualized decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate of 1.2 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, 0.9 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, 0.8 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, and 0.8 ml/min/1.73 m2/year for individuals sleeping 5 hours or less per night, 6 hours per night, 7 to 8 hours per night, and 9 hours or more per night, respectively. Thus, shorter sleep duration is prospectively and independently associated with faster decline in renal function.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2016 · Kidney International
  • Ciaran J McMullan · John P Forman
    Article · Feb 2016 · Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
  • Lea Borgi · Isao Muraki · Ambika Satija · [...] · John P Forman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased fruit and vegetable intake lowers blood pressure in short-term interventional studies. However, data on the association of long-term intake of fruits and vegetables with hypertension risk are scarce. We prospectively examined the independent association of whole fruit (excluding juices) and vegetable intake, as well as the change in consumption of whole fruits and vegetables, with incident hypertension in 3 large longitudinal cohort studies: Nurses' Health Study (n=62 175), Nurses' Health Study II (n=88 475), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n=36 803). We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for fruit and vegetable consumption while controlling for hypertension risk factors. Compared with participants whose consumption was ≤4 servings/week, the pooled hazard ratios among those whose intake was ≥4 servings/day were 0.92(0.87-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.95(0.86-1.04) for total vegetable intake. Similarly, compared with participants who did not increase their fruit or vegetable consumption, the pooled hazard ratios for those whose intake increased by ≥7 servings/week were 0.94(0.90-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.98(0.94-1.01) for total vegetable. Analyses of individual fruits and vegetables yielded different results. Consumption levels of ≥4 servings/week (as opposed to <1 serving/month) of broccoli, carrots, tofu or soybeans, raisins, and apples was associated with lower hypertension risk. In conclusion, our results suggest that greater long-term intake and increased consumption of whole fruits may reduce the risk of developing hypertension.
    Article · Dec 2015 · Hypertension
  • Lea Borgi · Gary C Curhan · Walter C Willett · [...] · John P Forman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prospective data are scarce on the relation of red meat, seafood, and poultry consumption with hypertension risk. Although red and processed meats are generally considered to have adverse cardiovascular consequences, seafood is believed to be protective and poultry's effect is controversial. We prospectively examined the independent association of long-term intake of animal flesh with incident hypertension in three longitudinal cohort studies of nonhypertensive individuals: Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n = 62 273 women), Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II, n = 88 831 women), and Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS, n = 37 414 men). We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to study the associations of different types of animal flesh with the risk of developing hypertension while controlling for other hypertension risk factors. We then used fixed-effects meta-analysis to derive pooled estimates of effect. Compared with participants whose consumption was less than 1 serving/month, the pooled hazard ratios among those whose intake was at least 1 serving/day were 1.30 (95% confidence interval 1.23-1.39) for total meat (a combination of processed and unprocessed red meat), 1.22 (1.12-1.34) for poultry, and 1.05 (0.98-1.13) for seafood. Seafood was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in HPFS and NHS II, but not NHS. Consumption of any animal flesh at least 1 serving/day was associated with an increased hypertension risk [pooled hazard ratio = 1.30 (1.16-1.47)]. Long-term intake of meat and poultry were associated with increased risk of hypertension. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found a weak but significant trend toward an increased risk of hypertension with increasing seafood consumption.
    Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Low birth weight and unhealthy lifestyles in adulthood have been independently associated with an elevated risk of hypertension. However, no study has examined the joint effects of these factors on incidence of hypertension. Methods: We followed 52,114 women from the Nurses' Health Study II without hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, prehypertension, and hypertension at baseline (1991-2011). Women born preterm, of a multiple pregnancy, or who were missing birth weight data were excluded. Unhealthy adulthood lifestyle was defined by compiling status scores of body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, and the use of non-narcotic analgesics. Results: We documented 12,588 incident cases of hypertension during 20 years of follow-up. The risk of hypertension associated with a combination of low birth weight at term and unhealthy lifestyle factors (RR, 1.95; 95 % CI, 1.83-2.07) was more than the addition of the risk associated with each individual factor, indicating a significant interaction on an additive scale (P interaction <0.001). The proportions of the association attributable to lower term birth weight alone, unhealthy lifestyle alone, and their joint effect were 23.9 % (95 % CI, 16.6-31.2), 63.7 % (95 % CI, 60.4-66.9), and 12.5 % (95 % CI, 9.87-15.0), respectively. The population-attributable-risk for the combined adulthood unhealthy lifestyle and low birth weight at term was 66.3 % (95 % CI, 56.9-74.0). Conclusion: The majority of cases of hypertension could be prevented by the adoption of a healthier lifestyle, though some cases may depend on simultaneous improvement of both prenatal and postnatal factors.
    Full-text Article · Jul 2015 · BMC Medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Ambulatory blood pressure measurement allows quantification of diurnal changes in blood pressure. While decreased nocturnal blood pressure dipping and elevated morning blood pressure surge are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, the utility of ambulatory blood pressure measurements to predict renal events is unclear. African Americans, in addition to having an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), also have an increased prevalence of hypertension. Thus, we selected an African American population to study the association of ambulatory blood pressure parameters with incidence of CKD. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 603 participants with normal renal function enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study who underwent baseline 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring between 2000 and 2004, with median follow-up of 8.1 years. We analyzed the association of nocturnal dipping and morning surge with both incident CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m] and annual rate of eGFR decline. In additional analyses, we examined the relation of nocturnal, daytime, white-coat, and masked hypertension with CKD incidence. Results: We found that 10% higher nocturnal dipping was significantly associated with a decreased risk of incident CKD [odds ratio (OR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.96] and a 0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m slower annual decline in eGFR. Morning surge was not associated with the incidence of CKD. Additional analyses revealed that isolated nocturnal hypertension and mean asleep SBP were associated with a nonsignificantly higher risk of CKD (OR 2.34, 95% CI 0.90-6.08) and (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.99-1.72), respectively, in fully adjusted models. Conclusions: Loss of nocturnal blood pressure dipping, but not morning blood pressure surge, may promote the decline in GFR and increase the risk for development of CKD in high-risk individuals.
    Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between infertility and fertility treatments on subsequent risk of hypertension. Cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 116,430 female nurses, followed from 1993 to June 2011, as part of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. None. Self-reported, physician-diagnosed hypertension. Compared with women who have never reported infertility, infertile women were at no greater risk of hypertension (multivariable adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.01, with 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.94-1.07]). Infertility due to tubal disease was associated with a higher risk of hypertension (RR = 1.15 [1.01-1.31]), but no other diagnoses were associated with hypertension risk, compared with women who did not report infertility (ovulatory disorder: RR = 1.03 [0.94-1.13]; cervical: RR = 0.88 [0.70-1.10]; male factor: RR = 1.05 [0.95-1.15]; other reason: RR = 1.02 [0.94-1.11]; reason not found: RR = 1.02 [0.95-1.10]). The infertile women collectively had 5,070 cases of hypertension. No clear pattern between use of fertility treatment and hypertension was found among infertile women (clomiphene citrate: RR = 0.97 [0.90-1.04]; gonadotropin alone: RR = 0.97 [0.87-1.08]; intrauterine insemination: RR = 0.86 [0.71-1.03]; in vitro fertilization: RR = 0.86 [0.73-1.01]). Among this relatively young cohort of women, no apparent increase occurred in hypertension risk among infertile women, or among women who had undergone fertility treatment previously. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Article · Jun 2015 · Fertility and sterility
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether antihypertensive medication use, including long-term use, is associated with increased breast cancer incidence in women. We studied 210,641 U.S. registered nurses participating in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHS II). Information on antihypertensive medication use was collected on biennial questionnaires in both cohorts, and breast cancer cases were ascertained during this period. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks of invasive breast cancer over follow-up (1988-2012 in NHS, 1989-2011 in NHS II) across categories of overall antihypertensive medication use and use of specific classes (diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors). During follow-up, 10,012 cases of invasive breast cancer developed (6718 cases in NHS and 3294 in the NHS II). Overall, current use of any antihypertensive medication was not associated with breast cancer risk compared with past/never use in NHS (multivariable-adjusted relative risk = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.95-1.06) or NHS II (multivariable-adjusted relative risk = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.86-1.03). Furthermore, no specific class of antihypertensive medication was consistently associated with breast cancer risk. Results were similar when we considered hypertensive women only, and when we evaluated consistency and duration of medication use over time. Overall, antihypertensive medication use was largely unrelated to the risk of invasive breast cancer among women in the NHS cohorts.
    Full-text Article · Feb 2015 · Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
  • Ciaran J. McMullan · Yuichiro Yano · George L. Bakris · [...] · John P. Forman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ambulatory blood pressure parameters, nocturnal dipping and morning surge, are associated with cardiovascular outcomes in several populations. While significant variation exists between racial groups in ambulatory blood pressure measurements and the incidence of cardiovascular disease, the effect of race on the associations of dipping and morning surge with cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In a prospective analysis of 197 African American and 197 Japanese individuals with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease matched by age and renal function, we analyzed the associations of dipping and morning surge with cardiovascular events for both races and assessed whether these relations differed by race. Higher sleep-trough morning surge was independently associated with cardiovascular events in Japanese (hazard ratio, 1.93 per 10 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.10) but not in African American participants, with race an effect modifier (P-value <.01). Dipping was not associated with cardiovascular events in either racial group. In individuals with chronic kidney disease, the association between morning surge and cardiovascular events appears to be dependent upon race, with higher morning surge a risk factors in Japanese but not in African Americans. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH)
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background The healthiest dietary pattern for myocardial infarction (MI) survivors is not known. Specific long‐term benefits of a low‐carbohydrate diet (LCD) are unknown, whether from animal or vegetable sources. There is a need to examine the associations between post‐MI adherence to an LCD and all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality. Methods and Results We included 2258 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 1840 men from the Health Professional Follow‐Up Study who had survived a first MI during follow‐up and provided a pre‐MI and at least 1 post‐MI food frequency questionnaire. Adherence to an LCD high in animal sources of protein and fat was associated with higher all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratios of 1.33 [95% CI: 1.06 to 1.65] for all‐cause mortality and 1.51 [95% CI: 1.09 to 2.07] for cardiovascular mortality comparing extreme quintiles). An increase in adherence to an animal‐based LCD prospectively assessed from the pre‐ to post‐MI period was associated with higher all‐cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratios of 1.30 [95% CI: 1.03 to 1.65] for all‐cause mortality and 1.53 [95% CI: 1.10 to 2.13] for cardiovascular mortality comparing extreme quintiles). An increase in adherence to a plant‐based LCD was not associated with lower all‐cause or cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions Greater adherence to an LCD high in animal sources of fat and protein was associated with higher all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality post‐MI. We did not find a health benefit from greater adherence to an LCD overall after MI.
    Full-text Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of the American Heart Association
  • Finnian McCausland · Frank Sacks · John Forman
    Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Hypertension
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Hydrochlorothiazide, an effective antihypertensive medication commonly prescribed to blacks, decreases urinary calcium excretion. Blacks have significantly higher rates of hypertension and lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Thus, they are more likely to be exposed to vitamin D supplementation and thiazide diuretics. The risk for hypercalcemia among blacks using vitamin D and hydrochlorothiazide is undefined. Methods We assessed the frequency of hypercalcemia in HCTZ users in a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding trial of 328 blacks (median age, 51 years) assigned to either placebo, or 1000, 2000, or 4000 international units of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) daily for 3 months during the winter (2007-2010). Results Of the 328 participants, 84 reported hydrochlorothiazide use and had serum calcium levels assessed. Additionally, a comparison convenience group of 44 enrolled participants who were not taking hydrochlorothiazide had serum calcium measurements at 3-months but not at baseline. At 3-months, hydrochlorothiazide participants had higher calcium levels (0.2 mg/dL, p<.001) than non-hydrochlorothiazide participants, but only one participant in the hydrochlorothiazide group had hypercalcemia. In contrast, none of the non-hydrochlorothiazide participants had hypercalcemia. In linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, 25-hydroxyvitamin D at 3-months, and other covariates, only hydrochlorothiazide use [Estimate (SE):0.05(0.01) p=0.01] predicted serum calcium at 3-months. Conclusion In summary, vitamin D3 supplementation up to 4000 IU in hydrochlorothiazide users is associated with a rise in serum calcium but a low frequency of hypercalcemia. These findings suggest that participants of this population can use HCTZ with up to 4000 IU of vitamin D3 daily and experience a low frequency of hypercalcemia.
    Article · Aug 2014 · The American journal of medicine
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased systolic blood pressure variability between outpatient visits is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular end points. However, few studies have examined the association of visit-to-visit variability in systolic blood pressure with clinically relevant kidney disease outcomes. We analyzed the association of systolic blood pressure visit-to-visit variability with renal and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among individuals with diabetes and nephropathy.
    Article · Jul 2014 · American Journal of Kidney Diseases
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    James E. Gangwisch · Kathryn Rexrode · John P. Forman · [...] · Diane Feskanich
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To determine whether daytime sleepiness is independently associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke or whether the positive association is explained by short sleep duration, disturbed sleep, and circadian disruption, conditions that are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors for vascular events. Methods Longitudinal analyses of data from the Nurses’ Health Study II comprising 84,003 female registered nurses aged 37 to 54 at baseline in 2001 with follow-up until 2009. Multivariate Cox regression was used to explore the relationship between reported daytime sleepiness and the incidence of either CHD or stroke (n = 500 cases). Results Women who reported daytime sleepiness almost every day, compared with rarely/never, had an elevated adjusted risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.15-2.17). Controlling for sleep variables (sleep duration, snoring, shift work, and sleep adequacy) or potential metabolic biological mediators of disrupted sleep (diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension) appreciably attenuated the relationship (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.84 – 1.65; and HR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.97 – 1.85, respectively). Controlling for both sleep variables and metabolic risk factors eliminated an independent association (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.77 – 1.53). A similar pattern was observed for CHD and stroke individually. Conclusions Daytime sleepiness was not an independent risk factor for CVD in this cohort of women, but rather, was associated with sleep characteristics and metabolic abnormalities that are risk factors for CVD
    Full-text Article · Jul 2014 · Sleep Medicine
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Prospective cohort study. Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2014 · BMJ (online)
  • Finnian R Mc Causland · Frank M Sacks · John P Forman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood pressure normally declines during the night ('dipping'); a blunted nocturnal decline is an important cardiovascular risk factor. Marriage may be associated with lower ambulatory blood pressure, although this may be confounded by socio-economic and dietary factors. We examined the association of marital status with nocturnal dipping and night-time SBP amongst individuals on a controlled diet. We analysed 325 individuals enrolled in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension trial who had available 24-h SBP data and who ingested a control diet. Logistic and linear regression models were fit to estimate the association of marital status with nocturnal dipping and mean night-time SBP. Of the 325 individuals, 52.9% were men, the average age was 45.1 years and 48.9% reported being married. Compared with nonmarried individuals, those who were married had greater adjusted odds of dipping [odds ratio (OR) 2.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-4.03; P = 0.01]. In adjusted models, being married was associated with lower night-time SBP (-2.4 mmHg; 95% CI -3.8 to -0.9 mmHg; P = 0.002), with the suggestion of a greater association in married men compared with married women (-3.1 vs. -1.7 mmHg); there was less difference for married nonblacks compared with married blacks (-2.7 and -2.4 mmHg, respectively). Being married is independently associated with a greater likelihood of nocturnal dipping and with lower night-time SBP among individuals participating in a controlled dietary intervention; the association was particularly strong in married men. Marital status is a variable that may be considered in future analyses of ambulatory blood pressure.
    Article · Feb 2014 · Journal of Hypertension

Publication Stats

4k Citations

Institutions

  • 2007-2011
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2009
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005-2006
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States