[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 thymidine kinases (TK) are responsible for phosphorylation of antiherpes acyclonucleosides such as acyclovir (ACV) and 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine (HBG). Related compounds, the N(2)-phenyl-9-(hydroxyalkyl)guanines, are devoid of direct antiviral activity, but potently inhibit the viral TKs and block viral reactivation from latency in vivo. The similarity in structure between the acyclonucleosides and TK inhibitors raised the question of the relevance of phosphorylation of certain of the latter analogs in their mechanisms of action. Using recombinant TKs and HPLC analysis of reaction mixtures, we report that the lead TK inhibitor N(2)-phenyl-9 -(4-hydroxybutyl)guanine (HBPG) and its pentyl homolog (HPnPG) are excellent substrates for the enzymes, approaching the efficiency with which the natural substrate thymidine is phosphorylated, and significantly better than ACV or HBG. Other 9-hydroxyalkyl congeners are substrates for the enzymes, but with much poorer efficiency. HBPG triphosphate was a poor inhibitor of HSV DNA polymerase, the target of acyclonucleoside triphosphates, suggesting that phosphorylation of HBPG is not important in its mechanism of blocking viral reactivation in vivo. The fact that HBPG is an efficient substrate is consistent, however, with its binding mode based both on molecular modeling studies and x-ray structure of the HBPG:TK complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Several 2-anilino- and 2-benzylamino-3-deaza-6-oxopurines [3-deazaguanines] and selected 8-methyl and 8-aza analogs have been synthesized. 7-Substituted N(2)-(3-ethyl-4-methylphenyl)-3-deazaguanines were potent and selective inhibitors of Gram+ bacterial DNA polymerase (pol) IIIC, and 7-substituted N(2)-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-3-deazaguanines were potent inhibitors of both pol IIIC and pol IIIE from Gram+ bacteria, but weakly inhibited pol IIIE from Gram- bacteria. Potent enzyme inhibitors in both classes inhibited the growth of Gram+ bacteria (MICs 2.5-10μg/ml), and were inactive against the Gram- organism Escherichia coli. Several derivatives had moderate protective activity in Staphylococcus aureus-infected mice.
Full-text available · Article · May 2011 · Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Molecular modelling studies of complexes of 2-phenylamino-6-oxopurines and HSV1 thymidine kinases (TK) revealed two distinct modes of binding. The “acyclovir mode” was occupied by 9R (9-substituted) compounds, and was identical to that revealed by crystal structures of acyclovir and 2-phenylamino-9-(4-hydroxybutyl)-6-oxopurine (HBPG) bound to HSV1 TK. The “base mode” was occupied by 9H compounds such as 2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenylamino]-6- oxopurine (m-CF3PG) , and is characterized by rotation of the inhibitor by 180° around the minor axis of the purine ring. In an attempt to understand the molecular basis for affinity of 2-phenylamino-6-oxopurines for TKs, we cloned and expressed site-directed HSV2 TK mutants to create proteins with inhibitor-interacting domains identical with those of HSV1 TK. The enzyme kinetic properties and inhibitory action of several 2-phenylamino-6-oxopurines showed that the changes were not consistently correlated with differences in affinity of inhibitors to the TKs.
Article · Jan 2011 · Letters in Drug Design & Discovery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Herpes B virus (B virus [BV]) is a macaque herpesvirus that is occasionally transmitted to humans where it can cause rapidly ascending encephalitis that is often fatal. To understand the low susceptibility of BV to the acyclonucleosides, we have cloned, expressed, and characterized the BV thymidine kinase (TK), an enzyme that is expected to "activate" nucleoside analogs. This enzyme is similar in sequence and properties to the TK of herpes simplex virus (HSV), i.e., it has a broad substrate range and low enantioselectivity and is sensitive to inhibitors of HSV TKs. The BV enzyme phosphorylates some modified nucleosides and acyclonucleosides and l enantiomers of thymidine and related antiherpetic analogs. However, the potent anti-HSV drugs acyclovir (ACV), ganciclovir (GCV), and 5-bromovinyldeoxyuridine were poorly or not phosphorylated by the BV enzyme under the experimental conditions. The antiviral activities of a number of marketed antiherpes drugs and experimental compounds were compared against BV strains and, for comparison, HSV type 1 (HSV-1) in Vero cell cultures. For most compounds tested, BV was found to be about as sensitive as HSV-1 was. However, BV was less sensitive to ACV and GCV than HSV-1 was. The abilities of thymidine analogs and acyclonucleosides to inhibit replication of BV in Vero cell culture were not always proportional to their substrate properties for BV TK. Our studies characterize BV TK for the first time and suggest new lead compounds, e.g., 5-ethyldeoxyuridine and pencyclovir, which may be superior to ACV or GCV as treatment for this emerging infectious disease.
Full-text available · Article · Jul 2007 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Derivatives of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase inhibitor HBPG [2-phenylamino-9-(4-hydroxybutyl)-6-oxopurine] have been synthesized and tested for inhibitory activity against recombinant enzymes (TK) from herpes simplex types 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2). The compounds inhibited phosphorylation of [3H]thymidine by both enzymes, but potencies differed quantitatively from those of HBPG and were generally greater for HSV-2 than HSV-1 TKs. Changes in inhibitory potency were generally consistent with the inhibitor/substrate binding site structure based on published X-ray structures of HSV-1 TK. In particular, several 9-(4-aminobutyl) analogues with bulky tertiary amino substituents were among the most potent inhibitors. Variable substrate assays showed that the most potent compound, 2-phenylamino-9-[4-(1-decahydroquinolyl)butyl]-6-oxopurine, was a competitive inhibitor, with Ki values of 0.03 and 0.005 microM against HSV-1 and HSV-2 TKs, respectively. The parent compound HBPG was uniquely active in viral infection models in mice, both against ocular HSV-2 reactivation and against HSV-1 and HSV-2 encephalitis. In assays lacking [3H]thymidine, HBPG was found to be an efficient substrate for the enzymes. The ability of the TKs to phosphorylate HBPG may relate to its antiherpetic activity in vivo.
Full-text available · Article · Jul 2005 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: 7-Substituted-N(2)-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)guanines potently and competitively inhibit DNA polymerases IIIC and IIIE from Gram(+) bacteria. Certain derivatives are also competitive inhibitors of DNA polymerase IIIE from Gram(-) bacteria.
Article · Mar 2005 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Certain substituted 6-anilinouracils are potent and selective inhibitors of Gram+ bacterial DNA polymerase IIIC (pol IIIC). In addition, analogues with 3-substituents in the uracil ring have potent antibacterial activity against Gram+ organisms in culture. In an attempt to find optimal anilino substituents for pol IIIC binding and optimal 3-substituents for antibacterial activity, we have prepared several series of 3-substituted-6-aminouracils and assayed their activity against pol IIIC from Bacillus subtilis and a panel of Gram+ and Gram- bacteria in culture. The 6-(3-ethyl-4-methylanilino) group and closely related substituent patterns maximized pol IIIC inhibition potency. Among a series of 3-(substituted-butyl)-6-(3-ethyl-4-methylanilino)uracils, basic amino substituents increased pol IIIC inhibition, but decreased antibacterial activity. The most potent antibacterials were simple hydroxybutyl and methoxybutyl derivatives, and hydrophobically substituted piperidinylbutyl derivatives.
Article · Jul 2003 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Thymidine phosphorylase/platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (TP/PD-ECGF) is an enzyme involved in thymidine metabolism and homeostasis, and its catalytic activity appears to play an important role in angiogenesis. Here we describe the cloning and expression of a His-tagged human TP/PD-ECGF and its assay with uracil and thymine analogues. We present the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel 6-(phenylalkylamino)uracil derivatives which, at micromolar concentrations, inhibit both catabolic and anabolic reactions of human TP in vitro. These base analogues are not converted by the enzyme into the nucleoside form, thus representing pure nonsubstrate inhibitors of the enzyme.
Article · Jul 2000 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: 6-Anilinouracils (6-AUs) are dGTP analogues which selectively inhibit the DNA polymerase III of Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria. To enhance the potential of the 6-AUs as antimicrobial agents, a structure-activity relationship was developed involving substitutions of the uracil N3 position in two 6-AU platforms: 6-(3,4-trimethyleneanilino)uracil (TMAU) and 6-(3-ethyl-4-methylanilino)uracil (EMAU). Series of N3-alkyl derivatives of both 6-AUs were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit purified B. subtilis DNA polymerase III and the growth of B. subtilis in culture. Alkyl groups ranging in size from ethyl to hexyl enhanced the capacity of both platforms to bind to the polymerase, and with the exception of hexyl, they also significantly enhanced their antimicrobial potency. N3 substitution of the EMAU platform with more hydrophilic hydroxyalkyl and methoxyalkyl groups marginally enhanced anti-polymerase III activity but enhanced antibacterial potency severalfold. In sum, the results of these studies indicate that the ring N3 of 6-anilinouracils can tolerate substituents of considerable size and structural variety and, thus, can be manipulated to significantly enhance the antibacterial potency of this novel class of polymerase III-specific inhibitors.
Article · Jul 1999 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The 1H NMR-determined structure and dynamics of a synthetic, amphiphilic alpha-helical peptide, PH-1.0 (LYQELQKLTQTLK), and several homologs were compared in 50% trifluoroethanol-d2 (TFE-d2)/H20 and in sodium dodecyl-d25 sulfate (SDS-d25) micelles. The peptides were designed to test the influence on secondary structure of placement of favored and disfavored residues relative to a "longitudinal, hydrophobic strip-of-helix" defined by the repeating leucines. PH-1.0 was highly ordered as an alpha-helix in 50% TFE-d2/H20 and in SDS-d25 micelles. Homologs PH-1.1, in which L1 was replaced by T, and PH-1,4, in which L12 was replaced by T. were found to be partially helical in both media. Calculated structures in SDS-d25 revealed that the helix of PH-1.1 was slightly disordered at the N-terminus, but that of PH-1.4 was completely disordered at the C-terminus. Examination of distributions of hydrophobic residues in protein structures revealed that, when [symbol: see text] = LIVFM and [symbol: see text] = nonLIVFM, the pattern [symbol: see text] is favored and [symbol: see text] is disfavored in alpha-helices. Several analogs of PH-1.0 incorporating these patterns were studied. Peptide PH-1.12 (LYQELQKLLQTLK) retained alpha-helical structure in both 50% TFE-d2/H20 and in SDS-d25 micelles. However, although PH-1.13 (LYQELQKLTLTLK) was fully helical in 50% TFE, it was helical only through residue 6 in SDS micelles. Two homologs containing an additional loop of the helix and repeats of favored (PH-5.0, NYLQTLLETLKTLLQK) or suppressed LL patterns (PH-5.11, NYLQTLETLKLTQK) gave similar results, i.e. the latter peptide was helical only through residue 6 in SDS micelles. The degree of local order in these SDS micelle-adsorbed peptides correlates to placement of hydrophobic residues in motifs which are favored or disfavored in proteins in general and in alpha-helices specifically.
Article · Sep 1997 · European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: N-(p-n-Octylphenyl)-2′-deoxyguanosine 5′-triphosphate (OctPdGTP)has been synthesized chemically. OctPdGTP inhibited DNA polymerases (pol) α, δ and ε from calf thymus, with moderate selectivity for pol α. Mechanistic studies on pol α and bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase revealed competitive and mixed kinetics of OctPdGTP with respect to the substrate dGTP when the enzymes were assayed on activated DNA and oligo dT:poly dA, respectively.This paper is dedicated to Professor Yoshihisa Mizuno.
Article · Jan 1996 · Nucleosides Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) encodes a heterotrimeric helicase-primase comprised of the products of three of the seven DNA replication-specific genes. Several dihalo-substituted derivatives of N2-phenylguanines and 2-anilinoadenines weakly inhibited the intrinsic DNA-dependent NTPase activity of the HSV1 helicase-primase, and these compounds inhibited the DNA-unwinding activity of the enzyme. The primase activity of the enzyme was strongly inhibited by 3,4- and 3,5-dichloroanilino derivatives of adenine and 2-aminopyrimidines. These compounds and nucleoside analogs of 2-(3,5-dichloroanilino)purines inhibited viral DNA synthesis in HSV1-infected HeLa cells in culture but also inhibited cellular DNA synthesis, likely as a result of inhibition of cellular primase and/or DNA polymerases.
Full-text available · Article · Jun 1995 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: 2-Anilinopurines and 6-anilinopyrimidines bearing 3,4- or 3,5-dichloro substituents in the anilino ring inhibited virus-specific DNA synthesis by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected human embryonic lung (HEL) cells in culture. In general, active compounds had moderate to low selectivity for viral vs host cell DNA synthesis. Nucleoside and acyclonucleoside analogs of 2-(3,5-dichloroanilino)purines inhibited both HCMV and cellular DNA synthesis at similar concentrations. 2-Amino-4-chloro-6-(3,5-dichloroanilino)pyrimidine and several related compounds inhibited HCMV growth in yield reduction assays at concentrations that were nontoxic to HEL cells.
Article · Jun 1995 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Two series of selective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1,2) thymidine kinases (TK) have been developed as potential treatment of recurrent virus infections. Among compounds related to the potent base analog N2-[m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]guanine (mCF3-PG), none was a more potent inhibitor than mCF3PG itself. Compounds related to the nucleoside N2-phenyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (PhdG), but with alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, and related substituents at the 9-position in place of the glycosyl group of PhdG, retained significant but variable inhibitory potencies against the HSV TKs. The most potent inhibitor of HSV1 TK among 9-substituted derivatives, 9-(4-hydroxybutyl)-N2-phenylguanine (HBPG), was a competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate thymidine but was not itself a substrate for the enzyme. Water solubilities and 1-octanol:water partition coefficients for the 9-substituted N2-phenylguanines were linearly but oppositely related to the sum of hydrophobic fragmental constants (sigma f) of the 9-substituents. Four of the inhibitors were given as solutions to mice by iv and ip routes, and the time course of their plasma concentrations was determined by HPLC analysis of the parent compounds. HBPG was completely absorbed by the ip route, and the plasma concentration could be prolonged by use of suspension formulations. HBPG is a candidate for animal trials of the ability of TK inhibitors to prevent recurrent herpes virus infections.
Article · Feb 1995 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Patterns of NOE crosspeaks in two dimensional 1H NOESY spectra of purine deoxyribonucleosides are characteristic for the β and α anomers. Certain 1H chemical shifts are characteristic for 7 and 9 regioisomers. NOE intensities, although qualitatively consistent with interproton distance ranges in N and S conformers, are insufficient for complete conformational analysis of nucleosides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: We have purified Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1) uracil-DNA glycosylase from the nuclei of HSV1-infected HeLa cells harvested 8 h post-infection, at which time the induction of the enzyme is a maximum. The enzyme has been shown to be distinct from the host enzyme, isolated from HeLa cells, by its lack of sensitivity to a monoclonal antibody to human uracil-DNA glycosylase. Furthermore, several uracil analogues were synthesized and screened for their capacity to discriminate between the viral and human uracil-DNA glycosylases. Both enzymes were inhibited by 6-(p-alkylanilino)uracils, but the viral enzyme was significantly more sensitive than the HeLa enzyme to most analogues. Substituents providing the best inhibitors of HSV1 uracil-DNA glycosylase were found to be in the order: p-n-butyl < p-n-pentl = p-n-hexyl < p-n-heptyl < p-n-octyl. The most potent HSV1 enzyme inhibitor, 6-(p-n-octylanilino)uracil (OctAU), with an IC50 of 8 microM, was highly selective for the viral enzyme. Short-term [3H]thymidine incorporation into the DNA of HeLa cells in culture was partially inhibited by OctAU, whereas it was unchanged when 6-(p-n-hexylanilino)uracil was present at concentrations that completely inhibited HSV1 uracil-DNA glycosylase activity. These compounds represent the first class of inhibitors that inhibit HSV1 uracil-DNA glycosylase at concentrations in the micromolar range. The results suggest their possible use to evaluate the functional role of HSV1 uracil-DNA glycosylase in viral infections and re-activation in nerve cells.
Full-text available · Article · Jun 1993 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Quantitative structure-activity relationships of the Hansch-type were developed to account for inhibition of thymidine kinases from Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV1,2) by N2-phenylguanines. Derivatives with meta and/or para substituents on the phenyl ring display a wide range of overlapping, but not identical, potencies as inhibitors of the enzymes. IC50 values for 36 (HSV1) and 35 inhibitors (HSV2) were used to develop equations using hydrophobic (pi), electronic (sigma, R), and group size (MR) parameters. Equations 1 and 2 with correlation coefficients of 0.797 and 0.805, respectively, were obtained for inhibitors of the types 1 and 2 enzymes. Potencies were correlated positively with pi values of meta substituents but negatively with pi values of para substituents in the phenyl ring. Positive correlations were also obtained with the resonance parameter R of para substituents and with sigma constants of meta substituents. The most potent inhibitor of both enzymes was N2-[m-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]guanine, although HSV2 thymidine kinase was more sensitive to certain compounds than the HSV1 enzyme.
Article · Sep 1992 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry