[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10)/CXCL10, which is a ligand for CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3), is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. However, the roles of monokine induced by interferon gamma (Mig)/CXCL9 and interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC)/CXCL11, which are also CXCR3 ligands, remain unclear. Mig/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11 in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of these chemokines in alveolar macrophages was examined using ELISA, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. In BALF, Mig/CXCL9 and IP-10/CXCL10 were significantly elevated in stage II sarcoidosis as compared with the levels in healthy volunteers. In serum, Mig/CXCL9 and I-TAC/CXCL11 were increased in stage II of the disease. The levels of all CXCR3 ligands in BALF were correlated with the numbers of both total and CD4(+) lymphocytes. Alveolar macrophages were stained positive for all CXCR3 ligands and produced increased amounts of these chemokines. Positive staining of the three chemokines was also observed in the epithelioid and giant cells in the sarcoid lungs. These findings suggest that Mig/CXCL9 and I-TAC/CXCL11 as well as IP-10/CXCL10 play important roles in the accumulation of Th1 lymphocytes in sarcoid lungs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC/CCL22) and thymus-and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) are ligands for CC chemokine receptor 4. Recently, TARC has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia (IEP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of MDC in IEP and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). MDC and TARC in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with ILDs and healthy volunteers (HV). We also examined the expression of MDC mRNA in alveolar macrophages (AM) by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Both MDC and TARC were detected only in BALF obtained from IEP patients. The concentration of MDC was higher than that of TARC in all cases. The level of MDC in IEP correlated with that of TARC. AM from IEP patients expressed a significantly higher amount of MDC than that from HV at the levels of protein and mRNA. MDC in BALF from IEP dramatically decreased when patients achieved remission. These findings suggest that MDC, in addition to TARC, might be involved in the pathogenesis of IEP, and AM play a role in the elevation of MDC in IEP.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2005 · The Journal of Medical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Metastasis of a tumor to the tonsil is a rare event. We report two cases of non-small cell lung cancer with tonsillar metastasis. Twenty-eight cases of primary lung cancer with tonsillar metastasis including these two cases that have been reported in Japan are also reviewed. Case 1. A 52-year-old-man complaining of dyspnea was referred to our hospital for further examination of chest abnormal shadow. He was diagnosed as having poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in the left upper lobe of the lung, T4N2M0, stage IIIB. During radiotherapy, he complained pharyngalgia. A tumor was noted in the left palatine tonsil, the surface of which was covered with white crust. A histopathological examination resulted in the diagnosis of metastatic tonsillar tumor from lung cancer (poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma). Radiotherapy was markedly effective to the metastatic tonsillar tumor. He died due to progression of primary lesion 9 months after the diagnosis of tonsillar metastasis. Case 2. A 52-year-old-man complaining of pharyngalgia was referred to our hospital for further examination of an abnormal chest shadow and bilateral tonsillar tumors. Large cell carcinoma in the right upper lobe of the lung, T3N0M1, stage IV was diagnosed. Uneven tumors which were ulcerated and covered with white crust were revealed in the bilateral palatine tonsils. The histopathological examinations resulted in the diagnosis of metastatic tonsillar tumor from lung cancer (large cell carcinoma). Metastatic tonsillar tumors completely disappeared after systemic chemotherapy. Nine months after the diagnosis of tonsillar metastasis, he was still alive. Conclusion. We described two rare cases of non-small cell lung cancer with tonsillar metastasis.