[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms are important factors in the effects and toxicity of chemotherapeutics. To analyze the pharmacogenetic and ethnic differences in chemotherapeutics, major genes implicated in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were analyzed. Eighteen loci of 16 genes in 100 patients with ALL were analyzed. The distribution of variant alleles were CYP3A4*1B (0%), CYP3A5*3 (0%), GSTM1 (21%), GSTP1 (21%), GSTT1 (16%), MDR1 exon 21 (77%), MDR1 exon 26 (61%), MTHFR 677 (63%), MTHFR 1298 (29%), NR3C1 1088 (0%), RFC1 80 (68%), TPMT combined genotype (7%), VDR intron 8 (11%), VDR FokI (83%), TYMS enhancer repeat (22%) and ITPA 94 (30%). The frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 10 loci were statistically different from those in Western Caucasians. Dose percents (actual/planned dose) or toxicity of mercaptopurine and methotrexate were not related to any SNPs. Event free survival (EFS) rate was lower in ITPA variants, and ITPA 94 AC/AA variant genotypes were the only independent risk factor for lower EFS in multivariate analysis, which was a different pharmacogenetic implication from Western studies. This study is the first pharmacogenetic study in Korean pediatric ALL. Our result suggests that there are other possible pharmacogenetic factors besides TPMT or ITPA polymorphisms which influence the metabolism of mercaptopurine in Asian populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Busulfan is a key compound in myeloablative chemotherapy before hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in children. Genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST), which is involved in the metabolism of busulfan, have been implicated in interindividual variability in busulfan pharmacokinetics. Development of a rapid and simplified method for polygenic analysis of GST may facilitate large pharmacogenetic studies and clinical application of individualized busulfan dose adjustment. We previously introduced an effective PCR method for analyzing multiple genes using a small amount of DNA, termed 'TotalPlex amplification'.
The aim of this study was to extend the application of the TotalPlex method to the specific GST gene families (A1, P1, M1, and T1) that are related to busulfan metabolism, and thereby facilitate pharmacogenetic analysis of GST polymorphisms.
Seven genetic polymorphisms (GSTA1 promoter -52G>A, -69C>T, -567T>G, and -631T>G; GSTP1 313A>G; GSTM1 deletion; and GSTT1 deletion) were analyzed by multiplex PCR and genotyping, and the genotyping results from TotalPlex were verified with those from uniplex PCR.
Using five pairs of specific bulging-specific primers, seven specific gene fragments were successfully amplified by multiplex amplification coupled to a multiplexed bead array detection system, with a smaller amount of DNA and a shorter process time than is needed for the conventional approach. The genotypes of seven loci from 30 different genomic DNA samples derived using the multiplex system were consistent with the results of standard genotyping methods.
Our multiplex system provides a fast, inexpensive, and accurate method of detecting multiple GST polymorphisms (GSTA1, GSTP1, GSTM1, and GSTT1).
Article · Oct 2011 · Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene, which codes for steroid 21-hydroxylase. More than 90% of patients with CAH have mutations in CYP21A2 or have large deletions in the RCCX module on chromosome 6p21.3, which also includes the pseudogene CYP21A1P. Genotyping of CYP21A2 is required for diagnosis of CAH, but current genotyping methods, such as direct sequencing, allele-specific PCR amplification, or PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) still need further improvements to reduce test time and cost.
We developed a novel CAH mutation screening method based on allele-specific primer extension (ASPE), followed by bead-array hybridization, for the ten major point mutation sites and the 8 bp deletion in CYP21A2, and a long PCR assay to detect large deletions between CYP21A1P and CYP21A2. After the first long PCR amplification, a second short PCR amplification was adapted to increase the ASPE efficiency. The total genotyping procedure takes approximately 8 hours.
Eighteen CAH patients and two controls were tested using the bead-array method. Homozygous or heterozygous large gene deletions and three point mutation sites were detected by this method, and most of the results were consistent with sequencing or PCR-RFLP analysis. Nine of the 18 patients had a large deletion in the RCCX module, which was not easily detected using the conventional genotyping method.
A novel CAH mutation screening method has been developed to detect ten point mutations and the 8 bp deletion in CYP21A2, as well as large deletions between CYP21A1P and CYP21A2. This novel genotyping strategy is superior to PCR-RFLP-based methods and equally as accurate as sequencing.
Article · Dec 2009 · Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphism among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an important factor in the effectiveness and toxicity of anti-leukemic drugs. Genotyping of various polymorphisms that impact the outcome of anti-leukemic drug therapy (pharmacogenetics) presents an attractive approach for developing individualized therapy. We developed an easy and accurate method of analyzing multiple genes using a small amount of DNA, which we termed TotalPlex amplification. We used 16 pairs of specific bulging specific primers (SBS primers) for simultaneous amplification of 16 loci in a single PCR tube. Sixteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (CYP3A4*1B A>G, CYP3A5*3 G>A, GSTP1 313 A>G, GSTM1 deletion, GSTT1 deletion, MDR1 exon 21 G>T/A, MDR1 exon 26 C>T, MTHFR 677 C>T, MTHFR 1298 A>C, NR3C1 1088 A>G, RFC 80 G>A, TPMT 238 G>C, TPMT 460 G>A, TPMT 719 A>G, VDR intron 8 G>A, VDR FokI T>C) that have been implicated in the pharmacogenetics of ALL therapy were analyzed by TotalPlex amplification and SNP genotyping. We successfully amplified specific gene fragments using 16 pairs of primers in one PCR reaction tube with minimal spurious amplification products using TotalPlex amplification coupled to a multiplexed bead array detection system. The genotypes of 16 loci from 34 different genomic DNA (gDNA) samples derived using the TotalPlex system were consistent with the results of several standard genotyping methods, including automatic sequencing, PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, PCR, and allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). Thus, the TotalPlex system represents a useful method of amplification that can improve the time, cost, and sample size required for high-throughput pharmacogenetic analysis of SNPs.
Article · Jul 2008 · Molecular and Cellular Probes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine if: 1) insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in amniotic fluid (AF) exhibited proteolytic cleavage in cases of intra-amniotic inflammation; and 2) if the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9) in AF are associated with the degradation of IGFBP-1 in AF.
AF samples (n=20) were obtained from preterm gestations with and without intra-amniotic inflammation. The form of IGFBP-1 in AF was assessed by Western blot analysis and AF MMP-8 concentration was measured by ELISA. Densitometric analysis of Western blot was performed and the fragmented/intact IGFBP-1 ratio was calculated. Proteolysis of AF IGFBP-1 by MMPs was evaluated by incubating AF with exogenous human MMP-3, MMP-8 or MMP-9, and by incubating recombinant human IGFBP-1 in AF with and without inflammation.
1) IGFBP-1 was present in AF without inflammation as an intact form; however, the fragmented form was dominant in AF with inflammation; 2) the ratio of fragmented/intact IGFBP-1 was significantly higher in AF with inflammation than in AF without inflammation; 3) a higher ratio of fragmented/intact IGFBP-1 was associated with a higher concentration of MMP-8; 4) in-vitro proteolysis experiments showed that AF IGFBP-1 was degraded by exogenous human MMP-3, MMP-8 and MMP-9; 5) recombinant human IGFBP-1 was fragmented in AF with inflammation, but not in AF without inflammation.
The fragmented form of AF IGFBP-1 was significantly increased in AF with intra-amniotic inflammation, and MMPs produced in AF with intra-amniotic inflammation were associated with the proteolytic change of AF IGFBP-1.
Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Perinatal Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Becuase 40% of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are mixed infections, the accurate identification of high-risk HPV genotypes in mixed infections is important for defining a woman's risk for progression to cervical cancer. Thus, advanced Luminex-based HPV genotyping has been developed to simultaneously detect the presence of multiple HPV types. Here, we describe the development of a Luminex-based HPV genotyping that combines polymerase chain reaction amplification with hybridization to fluorescence-labeled polystyrene bead microarrays (Luminex suspension array technology). New HPV type-specific oligonucleotide probes and YBT L1/GP6-1 primers were used to detect the HPV types in 132 clinical samples. We simultaneously evaluated the usefulness of this technique on clinical samples. We detected 15 specific HPV types (6, 16, 18, 31, 35, 42, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 66, 67 and 68) examined with specificity without known cross-reaction to other HPV types. The detection limit for the different HPV types was above 500 plasmids. We compared the performance of the Luminex-based assay to the established HPV DNA microarray chip for polymerase chain reaction products derived from 53 clinical samples. The evaluation showed excellent agreement. The Luminex-based HPV genotyping was a sensitive, reproducible technique for the simultaneous genotyping of all clinically relevant genital HPV types. This assay system may be used to provide critical clinical information for early detection of HPV, especially in cases where the HPV copy numbers are low and the latency period of HPV infection is prolonged.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Identification of specific chromosomal translocations is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of leukemia. In this study, we employ DNA microarray technology to detect chromosomal aberrations in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as well as in leukemic cell lines.
Reverse transcription using a random 9-mer primer was performed with total RNA from patients and leukemic cells lines. Multiplex PCR reactions using four groups of primer sets were then performed for amplification of cDNA from reverse-transcribed total RNA samples. Normal and fusion sequences were distinguished by hybridization of the amplified cDNA to a selective oligonucleotide array (SOA) containing 20-30mer synthetic probes. A total of 23 sets of oligomers were fabricated on glass slides for the detection of normal and fusion genes, as follows: BCR/ABL, AML/EAP, AML/ETO, AML/MDS, PML/RARA, NUMA1/RARA, PLZF/RARA, and CBFB/MYH.
Gene translocation in leukemia was effectively identified with the SOA containing various leukemia-specific fusion and normal control sequences. Leukemic fusion sequences from patients and cell lines hybridized specifically to their complementary probes. The probe sets differing by approximately 50% at their 5' or 3' ends could distinguish between normal and fusion sequences. The entire process of detection was completed within 8 hours using the SOA method.
Probe sets on SOA can effectively discriminate between leukemia-specific fusion and normal sequences with a chip hybridization procedure. The oligonucleotide array presents several advantages in identifying leukemic gene translocations, such as multiplex screening, relatively low cost, and speed.
Article · Feb 2007 · Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor gene, p53, has been established as an essential component for the suppression of tumor cell growth. In this study, we investigated the time-course anticancer effects of adenoviral p53 (Adp53) infection on human ovarian cancer cells to provide insight into the molecular-level understanding of the growth suppression mechanisms involved in Adp53-mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
Three human cervical cancer cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa and HT3) were used. The effect of Adp53 infection was studied via cell count assay, cell cycle analysis, FACS, Western blot and macroarray assay.
Adp53 exerts a significant role in suppressing cervical cancer cell growth. Adp53 also showed growth inhibitory effects in each cell line, and it induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Adp53 differentially regulated the expression of genes and proteins, and the gene expression profiles in the SiHa cells revealed that the p21, p53 and mdm2 expressions were significantly up-regulated at 24 and 48 hr. Western blot shows that the p21 and p53 expression-levels were significantly increased after Adp53 infection. In addition, in all cell lines, both the CDK4 and PCNA protein expression levels were decreased 48 h after Adp53 infection. Cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase was induced only in the SiHa and HeLa cells, suggesting that exogenous infection of Adp53 in cancer cells was significantly different from the other HPV-associated cervical cancer cells.
Adp53 can inhibit cervical cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, as well as through the regulation of the cell cycle-related proteins. The Adp53-mediated apoptosis can be employed as an advanced strategy for developing preferential tumor cell-specific delivery.
Full-text Article · Jun 2006 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Screening in cervical cancer is now progressing to discover candidate genes and proteins that may serve as biological markers and that play a role in tumor progression. We examined the protein expression patterns of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues from Korean women with using two- dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI- TOF) mass spectrometer.
Normal cervix and SCC tissues were solubilized and 2-DE was performed using pH 3 approximately 10 linear IPG strips of 17 cm length. The protein expression was evaluated using PDQuest 2-D software. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified with a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer, and the peptide mass spectra identifications were performed using the Mascot program and by searching the Swiss-prot or NCBInr databases.
A total of 35 proteins were detected in SCC. 17 proteins were up-regulated and 18 proteins were down-regulated. Among the proteins that were identified, 12 proteins (pigment epithelium derived factor, annexin A2 and A5, keratin 19 and 20, heat shock protein 27, smooth muscle protein 22 alpha, alpha-enolase, squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 and 2, glutathione S-transferase and apolipoprotein a1) were protein previously known to be involved in tumor, and 21 proteins were newly identified in this study.
2-DE offers the total protein expression profiles of SCC tissues; further characterization of these differentially expressed proteins will give a chance to identify the badly needed tumor-specific diagnostic markers for SCC.
Full-text Article · Apr 2006 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection play a significant role in cervical carcinogenesis, and HPV oncoprotein E7 has important functions in the formation and maintenance of cervical cancers. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) has been reported to induce cellular immune responses, and has also been demonstrated to suppress the growth of tumors and the expression of E7. Here, we investigate the utility of adenovirus E7 (AdE7) and adenovirus IL-12 (AdIL-12) for protection against TC-1 tumor using an animal model.
The antitumor effects induced by AdIL-12 and/or E7 were assessed by measurements of tumor size. E7-specific antibody and INF-gamma production in sera were measured, as were T-helper cell proliferative responses. Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and T cell subset depletion studies were also performed.
Infection of tumor sites with a combination of AdIL-12 and AdE7 resulted in an antitumor effect which was significantly more profound than that which resulted from singular infections with either AdIL-12 or AdE7. Combined infection resulted in regression of 9-mm-sized tumors in approximately 80% of our experimental animals as compared to the PBS group. Serum levels of E7-specific antibody and INF-gamma production, as well as T-helper cell proliferative responses, were found to be significantly higher in coinfected with AdIL-12 and AdE7 group than in single infection with either AdIL-12 or AdE7 group. CTL responses only exhibited by the AdIL-12 and AdE7 coinjected group suggested that these tumor suppression effects were mediated primarily by CD8+ and, to a lesser degree, by CD4+ T cells.
Combined injection with adenovirus carrying IL-12 and E7 induced significant antitumor immunity against TC-1 tumors. They may prove useful in clinical applications for the treatment of HPV-associated tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has a significant role in cervical carcinogenesis, and HPV oncoprotein E7 plays an important part in the formation and maintenance of cervical cancer. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) has been reported to induce a cellular immune response, and to suppress the tumor growth and the E7 production. Here we describe the use of adenoviral delivery of the HPV 16 E7 subunit (AdE7) along with adenoviral delivery of IL-12 (AdIL-12) in mice with HPV-associated tumors.
Mice were injected with TC-1 cells to establish TC-1 tumor, and then they were immunized with AdIL-12 and/or AdE7 intratumorally. The anti tumor effects induced by AdIL-12 and/or E7 were evaluated by measuring the size of the tumor. E7-specific antibody and INF-gamma production in sera, and the T-helper cell proliferative responses were then measured. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and T cell subset depletion studies were also performed.
Combined AdIL-12 and AdE7 infection at the tumor sites significantly enhanced the antitumor effects more than that of AdIL-12 or AdE7 single infection. This combined infection resulted in regression of the 9 mm sized tumors in 80% of animals as compare to the PBS group. E7-specific antibody and INF-gamma production in the sera, and the T-helper cell proliferative responses were significantly higher with coinfection of AdIL-12 and AdE7 than with AdIL-12 or AdE7 alone. CTL response induced by AdIL-12 and AdE7 in the coinjected group suggested that tumor suppression was mediated by mostly CD8+ and only a little by the CD4+ T cells.
IL-12 and E7 application using adenovirus vector showed antitumor immunity effects against TC-1 tumor, and this system could be use in clinical applications for HPV-associated cancer.
Full-text Article · Feb 2005 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Despite having a relatively low incidence, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urologic cancers. For successful treatment including surgery, early detection is essential. Currently there is no screening method such as biomarker assays for early diagnosis of RCC. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF) is a recent technical advance that can be used to identify biomarkers for cancers. In this study, we investigated whether SELDI protein profiling and artificial intelligence analysis of serum could distinguish RCC from healthy persons and other urologic diseases (nonRCC). The SELDI-TOF data was acquired from a total of 36 serum samples with weak cation exchange-2 protein chip arrays and filtered using ProteinChip software. We used a decision tree algorithm c4.5 to classify the three groups of sera. Five proteins were identified with masses of 3900, 4107, 4153, 5352, and 5987 Da. These biomarkers can correctly separate RCC from healthy and nonRCC samples.