François Conquet

University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland

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Publications (41)250.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The guidepost neurons for the lateral olfactory tract, which are called lot cells, are the earliest-generated neurons in the neocortex. They migrate tangentially and ventrally further down this tract, and provide scaffolding for the olfactory bulb axons projecting into this pathway. The molecular profiles of the lot cells are largely uncharacterized. We found that lot cells specifically express metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype-1 at a very early stage of development. This receptor is functionally competent and responds to a metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist with a transient increase in the intracellular calcium ion concentration. When the glutamatergic olfactory bulb axons were electrically stimulated, lot cells responded to the stimulation with a calcium increase mainly via ionotropic glutamate receptors, suggesting potential neurotransmission between the axons and lot cells during early development. Together with the finding that lot cells themselves are glutamatergic excitatory neurons, our results provide another notable example of precocious interactions between the projecting axons and their intermediate targets. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2012.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Developmental Neurobiology
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    ABSTRACT: The requirements for the synaptic activation of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors and for the induction of metaplasticity in the hippocampus are not known. In the present study, we have investigated the synaptic activation of mGlu5 receptors and the setting of the molecular switch, a form of metaplasticity, at CA1 synapses in the mouse hippocampus. We find that as few as eight stimuli (delivered at 100Hz) are sufficient to set the molecular switch, since a subsequent tetanus delivered to the same input is able to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in the presence of the mGlu receptor antagonist MCPG ((S)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine). In addition, we find that the molecular switch can be activated over a wide frequency range. When 10 shocks were delivered the threshold frequency was 4Hz. The ability of 10 shocks (delivered at 100Hz) to set the molecular switch was lost in the mGlu5 knockout. These data show that mGlu5 receptors can be activated synaptically and metaplasticity can be induced by relatively few stimuli. Indeed, metaplasticity was induced by stimuli that were subthreshold for the induction of LTP per se. Thus, metaplasticity has a lower threshold than the synaptic plasticity that it regulates.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Neuropharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The role of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus is controversial. In the present study, we have used mice in which the mGlu1, mGlu5 or mGlu7 receptor has been deleted, by homologous recombination, to study the role of these receptor subtypes in LTP at CA1 synapses. We investigated the effects of the knockouts on both LTP and the molecular switch, a form of metaplasticity that renders LTP insensitive to the actions of the mGlu receptor antagonist MCPG ((S)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine). We find that LTP is readily induced in the three knockouts and in an mGlu1 and mGlu5 double knockout. In addition, the molecular switch operates normally in either the mGlu1 or mGlu7 knockout. In contrast, the molecular switch is completely non-functional in the mGlu5 knockout, such that MCPG invariably blocks the induction of additional LTP in an input where LTP has already been induced. The effect of the mGlu5 receptor knockout was replicated in wildtype mouse slices perfused with the specific mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine). In addition, the mGlu5 selective agonist CHPG ((RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine) sets the molecular switch. These data demonstrate that the operation of the molecular switch requires activation of mGlu5 receptors.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Neuropharmacology
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    Thomas Heinbockel · Philip Heyward · François Conquet · Matthew Ennis
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    ABSTRACT: In the rodent main olfactory bulb (MOB), mitral cells (MCs) express high levels of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtype, mGluR1. The significance of this receptor in modulating MC excitability is unknown. We investigated the physiological role of mGluR1 in regulating MC activity in rat and mouse MOB slices. The selective group I agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), but not group II or III agonists, induced potent, dose-dependent, and reversible depolarization and increased firing of MCs. These effects persisted in the presence of blockers of fast synaptic transmission, indicating that they are due to direct activation of mGluRs on MCs. Voltage-clamp recordings showed that DHPG elicited a voltage-dependent inward current consisting of multiple components sensitive to potassium and calcium channel blockade and intracellular calcium chelation. MC excitatory responses to DHPG were absent in mGluR1 knockout mice but persisted in mGluR5 knockout mice. Broad-spectrum LY341495, MCPG, as well as preferential mGluR1 LY367385 antagonists blocked the excitatory effects of DHPG and also potently modulated MC spontaneous and olfactory nerve-evoked excitability. mGluR antagonists altered spontaneous membrane potential bistability, increasing the duration of the up and down states. mGluR antagonists also substantially attenuated MC responses to sensory input, decreasing the probability and increasing the latency of olfactory nerve-evoked spikes. These findings suggest that endogenous glutamate tonically modulates MC excitability and responsiveness to olfactory nerve input, and hence the operation of the MOB circuitry, via activation of mGluR1.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Journal of Neurophysiology
  • M. A. Geyer · S. A. Brody · F. Conquet

    No preview · Article · Oct 2004 · European Neuropsychopharmacology
  • SA. Brody · F Conquet · MA. Geyer
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    ABSTRACT: Prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI), a model of sensorimotor gating, is deficient in persons with schizophrenia. In rodents, the reversal of induced deficits in PPI demonstrates predictive validity for identifying antipsychotic treatments. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has been implicated in schizophrenia, in part because mGluR5 knockout (KO) mice exhibit PPI deficits. We examined whether mGluR5 KO mice might serve as a novel model for detecting antipsychotic treatments. Using C57BL/6J or 129SvPasIco mice, we first determined doses of the typical antipsychotic raclopride or the atypical antipsychotic clozapine that were effective in blocking the PPI-disruptive effects of amphetamine or ketamine, respectively. We then examined the effects of these doses on the deficit in PPI in mGluR5 KO mice. Administration of raclopride or clozapine reversed either an amphetamine or a ketamine-induced PPI deficit, as had the novel mood stabilizer lamotrigine in previous studies. In contrast, the PPI deficit of the mGluR5 KO mice was not altered by administration of raclopride, clozapine, or lamotrigine. The serotonin(2A) antagonist M100,907 was also ineffective in reversing the mGluR5 KO deficit in PPI. Most of the compounds examined ameliorated at least a subset of pharmacologically induced PPI deficits. That none of the antipsychotic treatments attenuated the PPI deficit in the mGluR5 KO mice indicates that this model is not predictive of known treatments for schizophrenia, but does not preclude a role for the mGluR5 receptor in schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorders.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Psychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Hippocampal CA1 inhibitory interneurones control the excitability and synchronization of pyramidal cells, and participate in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Pairing theta-burst stimulation (TBS) with postsynaptic depolarization, we induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of putative single-fibre excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in stratum oriens/alveus (O/A) interneurones of mouse hippocampal slices. LTP induction was absent in metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) knockout mice, was correlated with the postsynaptic presence of mGluR1a, and required a postsynaptic Ca2+ rise. Changes in paired-pulse facilitation and coefficient of variation indicated that LTP expression involved presynaptic mechanisms. LTP was synapse specific, occurring selectively at synapses modulated by presynaptic group II, but not group III, mGluRs. Furthermore, the TBS protocol applied in O/A induced a long-term increase of polysynaptic inhibitory responses in CA1 pyramidal cells, that was absent in mGluR1 knockout mice. These results uncover the mechanisms of a novel form of interneurone synaptic plasticity that can adaptively regulate inhibition of hippocampal pyramidal cells.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · The Journal of Physiology
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    S A Brody · S C Dulawa · F Conquet · M A Geyer
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    ABSTRACT: The glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia derived from evidence that phencyclidine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, produces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy humans. Sensorimotor gating, measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI), is a fundamental form of information processing that is deficient in schizophrenia patients and rodents treated with NMDA antagonists. Hence, PPI is widely used to study the neurobiology of schizophrenia. As the use of PPI as a model of gating deficits in schizophrenia has become more widespread, it has become increasingly important to assess such deficits accurately. Here we identify a possible role of mGluR5 in PPI by using wild type (WT) and mGluR5 knockout (KO) mice of two different background strains, 129SvPasIco and C57BL/6. In both strains, PPI was disrupted dramatically in the mGluR5 KO mice throughout a range of interstimulus intervals and sensory modalities. The present findings further support the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia and identify a functional role for mGluR5 in sensorimotor gating.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2004 · Molecular Psychiatry
  • SA Brody · F Conquet · MA Geyer
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    ABSTRACT: Sensorimotor gating, measured by prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI), is a cross-species form of information processing that is deficient in patients with schizophrenia and is widely used as a model to study the neurobiology of this disorder. The eight known metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are divided into three groups on the basis of sequence homology and pharmacological properties. Group I consists of mGluR5 and mGluR1, both of which are coupled positively to phospholipase C. Mice lacking mGluR5 exhibit a deficit in PPI. Like mGluR5, mGluR1 is located in regions that are involved in the modulation of PPI. To test the hypothesis that mGluR1 is involved in the modulation of PPI we assessed PPI in mGluR1 knockout (KO) mice. Littermate mGluR1 wild-type and KO mice were tested at multiple ages in a standard PPI paradigm containing a 65 dB background, 120 dB pulses and prepulses of 69, 73 and 77 dB. At all ages tested, mGluR1 KO mice exhibited a significant PPI deficit. The PPI deficit of the mGluR1 KO mice was not further exaggerated by administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist phencyclidine nor was it reversed by administration of the dopamine antagonist raclopride (3.0 mg/kg). The PPI deficit of the mGluR1 KO mice was, however, ameliorated by administration of the mood stabilizer lamotrigine (27 mg/kg base equivalent weight), though increases in PPI were also seen with lamotrigine in the wild-type mice. Thus, both group I metabotropic glutamate receptors are involved in the regulation of PPI in mice.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2004 · European Journal of Neuroscience
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    Ron Stoop · François Conquet · Benoit Zuber · Leon L Voronin · Etienne Pralong
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe the induction and expression mechanisms of a persistent bursting activity in a horizontal slice preparation of the rat limbic system that includes the ventral part of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex. Disinhibition of this preparation by bicuculline led to interictal-like bursts in the CA3 region that triggered synchronous activity in the entorhinal cortex. Washout of bicuculline after a 1 hr application resulted in a maintained production of hippocampal bursts that continued to spread to the entorhinal cortex. Separation of CA3 from the entorhinal cortex caused the activity in the latter to become asynchronous with CA3 activity in the presence of bicuculline and disappear after washout; however, in CA3, neither the induction of bursting nor its persistence were affected. Associated with the CA3 persistent bursting, a strengthening of recurrent collateral excitatory input to CA3 pyramidal cells and a decreased input to CA3 interneurons was found. Both the induction of the persistent bursting and the changes in synaptic strength were prevented by antagonists of metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) or NMDA receptors or protein synthesis inhibitors and did not occur in slices from mGlu5 receptor knock-out mice. The above findings suggest potential synaptic mechanisms by which the hippocampus switches to a persistent interictal bursting mode that may support a spread of interictal-like bursting to surrounding temporal lobe regions.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2003 · The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • R Stoop · F Conquet · E Pralong
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    ABSTRACT: In mouse hippocampal slices, bicuculline elicited spontaneous epileptiform bursts with a duration of 200-300 ms and with a frequency of five to six events per minute. Application of group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine ((RS)-DHPG) increased the burst frequency up to 300% at concentrations of 50 to 100 microM, while it decreased the burst duration below 100 ms. In slices of subtype I mGluR1 or subtype I mGluR5 knockout mice, bicuculline elicited spontaneous epileptiform bursts with similar duration and frequency as those measured in wild-type mice but without the previous effects seen following application of DHPG at concentrations up to 100 microM. Likewise, in slices of wild-type mice, preincubation with mGluR1 antagonist, 1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA) or mGluR5 receptor antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) blocked in both cases completely the increase in frequency following DHPG application. These findings suggest an interactive mechanism between mGluR1 and mGluR5 receptors in the modulation of epileptiform bursting activity by DHPG that could indicate a common intracellular signaling mechanism or possibly direct interaction between these two receptors.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Neuropharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been demonstrated to play a role in synaptic plasticity. It has been recently shown that mGluR1 is involved in corticostriatal long-term depression, by means of pharmacological approach and by using mGluR1-knockout mice. Here, we report that both mGluR1 and mGluR5 are involved in corticostriatal long-term potentiation (LTP). In particular, the mGluR1 antagonist LY 367385, as well as the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP, reduce LTP amplitude. Moreover, blockade of both mGluR1 and mGluR5 by LY 367385 and MPEP co-administration fully suppresses LTP. Accordingly, group II and group III mGluRs antagonists fail to affect LTP induction. Interestingly, LTP amplitude is also significantly reduced in both mGluR1- and mGluR5-knockout mice.The differential function of mGluR1 and mGluR5 in corticostriatal synaptic plasticity may play a role in the modulation of the motor activity mediated by the basal ganglia, thus providing a substrate for the pharmacological treatment of motor disorders involving the striatum.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Neuropharmacology
  • F. Conquet · M. Epping-Jordan · C. Chiamulera · J. Wang

    No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · European Neuropsychopharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist DHPG has been shown to produce two major effects on CA3 pyramidal cells at rest: a reduction in the background conductance and an activation of a voltage-gated inward current (I(mGluR(V))). Both effects contribute to depolarising CA3 pyramidal cells and the latter has been implicated in eliciting prolonged epileptiform population bursts. We observed that DHPG-induced depolarisation was smaller in CA1 pyramidal cells than in CA3 cells. Voltage clamp studies revealed that while DHPG elicited I(mGluR(V)) in CA3 pyramidal cells, such a response was absent in CA1 pyramidal cells. Both mGluR1 and mGluR5 have been localised in CA3 pyramidal cells, whereas only mGluR5 has been detected in CA1 pyramidal cells. Using mGluR1 knockout mice, we evaluated whether the absence of an I(mGluR(V)) response can be correlated with the absence of mGluR1. In these experiments, DHPG failed to elicit I(mGluR(V)) in CA3 pyramidal cells. This suggests that the smaller depolarising effects of DHPG on wild-type CA1 pyramidal cells is caused, at least in part, by the absence of I(mGluR(V)) in these cells and that the difference in the responses of CA1 and CA3 cells may be attributable to the lack of mGluR1 in CA1 pyramidal cells.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2002 · The Journal of Physiology
  • Limin Mao · François Conquet · John Q Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) is highly expressed in striatonigral projection neurons of rat striatum. To define the role of mGluR1 in the regulation of striatal gene expression, the responsiveness of the three neuropeptide gene expression to a single injection of the dopamine D(1) agonist SKF-82958 was compared between mGluR1 mutant and wild-type control mice. We found that acute injection of SKF-82958 increased preprodynorphin (PPD), substance P (SP), and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNAs in the dorsal and ventral striatum of mutant and wild-type mice in a dose-dependent manner (0.125, 0.5, and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) as revealed by quantitative in situ hybridization. However, the induction of PPD mRNA in both the dorsal and ventral striatum of mGluR1 minus sign/minus sign mice was significantly less than that of wild-type +/+ mice in response to the two higher doses of SKF-82958. In contrast to PPD, SP and PPE in the dorsal and ventral striatum of mGluR1 mutant mice were elevated to a similar level as that of wild-type mice. There were no differences in basal levels and distribution patterns of all three mRNAs between the two genotypes of mice treated with saline. These results indicate that mGluR1 selectively participates in striatonigral PPD induction in response to D(1) receptor stimulation.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Synapse
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive stimulation of glutamate receptors is believed to contribute substantially in determining neuronal vulnerability to ischemia. However, how this pathological event predisposes neurons to excitotoxic insults is still largely unknown. By using electrophysiological recordings from single striatal neurons, we demonstrate in a corticostriatal brain-slice preparation that in vitro ischemia (glucose and oxygen deprivation) activates a complex chain of intracellular events responsible for a dramatic and irreversible increase in the sensitivity of striatal neurons to synaptically released glutamate. This process follows the stimulation of both N-methyl-D-aspartate and metabotropic glutamate receptors and involves the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK via protein kinase C. This pathological form of synaptic plasticity might play a role in the cell type-specific neuronal vulnerability in the striatum, because it is selectively expressed in neuronal subtypes that are highly sensitive to both acute and chronic disorders involving this brain area.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Molecular Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are involved in the behavioral effects of pyschostimulants; however, the specific contributions of individual mGluR subtypes remain unknown. Here we show that mice lacking the mGluR5 gene do not self-administer cocaine, and show no increased locomotor activity following cocaine treatment, despite showing cocaine-induced increases in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) dopamine (DA) levels similar to wild-type (WT) mice. These results demonstrate a significant contribution of mGlu5 receptors to the behavioral effects of cocaine, and suggest that they may be involved in cocaine addiction.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · Nature Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: Although metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been proposed to play a role in corticostriatal long-term depression (LTD), the specific receptor subtype required for this form of synaptic plasticity has not been characterized yet. Thus, we utilized a corticostriatal brain slice preparation and intracellular recordings from striatal spiny neurons to address this issue. We observed that both AIDA (100 μM) and LY 367385 (30 μM), two blockers of mGluR1s, were able to fully prevent the induction of this form of synaptic plasticity, whereas MPEP (30 μM), a selective antagonist of the mGluR5 subtype, did not significantly affect the amplitude and time-course of corticostriatal LTD. Both AIDA and LY 367385 were ineffective on LTD when applied after its induction. The critical role of mGluR1s in the formation of corticostriatal LTD was confirmed in experiments performed on mice lacking mGluR1s. In these mice, in fact, a significant reduction of the LTD amplitude was observed in comparison to the normal LTD measured in their wild-type counterparts. We found that neither acute pharmacological blockade of mGluR1s nor the genetic disruption of these receptors affected the presynaptic modulation of corticostriatal excitatory postsynapic potentials (EPSPs) exerted by DCG-IV and L-SOP, selective agonists of group II and III mGluRs, respectively.Our data show that the induction of corticostriatal LTD requires the activation of mGluR1 but not mGluR5. mGluR1-mediated control of this form of synaptic plasticity may play a role in the modulatory effect exerted by mGluRs in the basal ganglia-related motor activity.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2001 · Neuropharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Medium spiny neurons were recorded from striatal slices obtained from mice lacking the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtype 1 or subtype 5. In wild-type animals, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced membrane depolarization/inward currents were potentiated in the presence of both the group I mGluR agonist 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (3,5-DHPG) and the mGluR5 selective agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG). Likewise, in mGluR1 knockout mice, both 3,5-DHPG and CHPG were able to potentiate NMDA responses. Conversely, in neurons recorded from mGluR5-deficient mice, the enhancement of NMDA responses by both 3,5-DHPG and CHPG was absent. Pharmacological analysis performed from rat slices confirmed the data obtained with mice. In the presence of the competitive mGluR1 antagonist LY367385, the NMDA responses were potentiated in the presence of CHPG, whereas the CHPG-induced enhancement was not observed in slices treated with the non-competitive mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine. As in wild-type mice, in neither of the mGluR1- and mGluR5-deficient mice did (2S,1'R,2'R,3'R)-2-(2,3-dicarboxylcyclopropyl)-glycine (1 microM), nor L-serine-O-phosphate (30 microM) (agonists for group II and III mGluRs, respectively) affect the NMDA-evoked responses. In striatal medium spiny neurons, NMDA responses are potentiated by endogenous acetylcholine via M1-like muscarinic receptors. Since the enhancement of NMDA responses by 3,5-DHPG and by M1-like muscarinic agonists was shown to share common post-receptor mechanisms, we verified whether the muscarinic potentiation of NMDA responses was affected in these group I mGluR-deficient mice. Both in mGluR1 and mGluR5 knockout animals, in the presence of either muscarine or the M1-like muscarinic receptor agonist McN-A-343, the positive modulation of the NMDA-induced membrane depolarization persisted.These results confirm the permissive role of group I mGluRs on NMDA responses in striatal neurons and reveal that this functional interplay occurs exclusively through the mGluR5 subtype. The NMDA-mGluR5 interaction might play an important modulatory role in the final excitatory drive from corticostriatal afferents and suggests that drugs acting at mGluR5 might prove useful for the treatment of movement disorders involving the striatum.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Neuroscience
  • L Mao · F Conquet · J Q Wang
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    ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor and is expressed in the medium spiny projection neurons of mouse striatum. To define the role of mGluR1 in actions of psychostimulant, we compared both motor behavior and striatal neuropeptide mRNA expression between mGluR1 mutant and wild-type control mice after a single injection of amphetamine. We found that acute amphetamine injection increased motor activity in both mutant and control mice in a dose-dependent manner (1, 4, and 12 mg/kg, i.p.). However, the overall motor responses of mGluR1 -/- mice to all three doses of amphetamine were significantly greater than those of wild-type +/+ mice. Amphetamine also induced a dose-dependent elevation of preprodynorphin mRNA in the dorsal and ventral striatum of mutant and wild-type mice as revealed by quantitative in situ hybridization. In contrast to behavioral responses, the induction of dynorphin mRNA in both the dorsal and ventral striatum of mutant mice was significantly less than that of wild-type mice in response to the two higher doses of amphetamine. In addition, amphetamine elevated basal levels of substance P mRNA in the dorsal and ventral striatum of mGluR1 mutant mice to a similar level as that of wild-type mice. There were no differences in basal levels and distribution patterns of the two mRNAs between the two genotypes of mice treated with saline. These results demonstrate a clear augmented behavioral response of mGluR1 knockout mice to acute amphetamine exposure that is closely correlated with reduced dynorphin mRNA induction in the same mice. It appears that an intact mGluR1 is specifically critical for full dynorphin induction, and impaired mobilization of inhibitory dynorphin system as a result of lacking mGluR1 may contribute to an augmentation of motor stimulation in response to acute administration of psychostimulant.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Neuroscience

Publication Stats

3k Citations
250.44 Total Impact Points


  • 2004-2008
    • University of Lausanne
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
    • University of California, San Diego
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2000
    • Novartis
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 1998
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1996
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France