[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect 2011; 17: 358–364
Invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) disease is endemic in Norway, but data on invasive group C and group G streptococcal (iGCS/GGS) disease are lacking. We investigated the characteristics of iGAS and iGCS/GGS infections in western Norway from March 2006 to February 2009. Clinical information was retrospectively obtained from medical records. GAS and GCS/GGS isolates were emm typed and screened for the presence of 11 superantigen (SAg) genes and the gene encoding streptococcal phospholipase A2 (SlaA). GCS/GGS isolates were also subjected to PCR with primers targeting speGdys. Sixty iGAS and 50 iGCS/GGS cases were identified, corresponding to mean annual incidence rates of 5.0 per 100 000 and 4.1 per 100 000 inhabitants, respectively. Skin and soft tissue infections were the most frequent clinical manifestations of both iGAS and iGCS/GGS disease, and 14 iGAS patients (23%) developed necrotizing fasciitis. The 30-day case fatality rates of iGAS and iGCS/GGS disease were 10% and 2%, respectively. emm1, emm3 and emm28 accounted for 53% of the GAS isolates, and these types were associated with severe clinical outcome. SAg gene and SlaA profiles were conserved within most of the GAS emm types, although five profiles were obtained within isolates of emm28. stG643 was the most prevalent GCS/GGS emm type, and speGdys was identified in 73% of the GCS/GGS isolates. Neither GAS SAg genes nor SlaA were detected in GCS/GGS. Our findings indicate a considerable burden of both iGAS and iGCS/GGS disease and a high frequency of necrotizing fasciitis caused by GAS in our community.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of glial lipid metabolism and abnormal myelination has recently been reported in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Cholesterol is a major component of myelin, and glia-produced cholesterol serves as a glial growth factor in synaptogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that antipsychotic drugs activate the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors in human and rat glial cells, with subsequent up-regulation of numerous downstream genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. Since this stimulation of cellular lipogenesis could represent a new mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs, we investigated whether antidepressants and mood-stabilizers were able to induce a similar activation of SREBP-controlled lipid biosynthesis. Cultured human glioma cells (GaMg) were exposed to the antidepressant drugs imipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine, citalopram, fluoxetine, mirtazapine and bupropion and the mood-stabilizers/antiepileptics lithium, valproate and carbamazepine. All antidepressant drugs activated the SREBP system with subsequent up-regulation of the downstream lipogenesis-related genes, although to a markedly different extent. The mood-stabilizers did not affect the SREBPs or the downstream genes. These results link antidepressant drugs, but not mood-stabilizers, to SREBP-mediated activation of cellular lipogenesis, and demonstrate a functional similarity between antipsychotic and antidepressant molecular drug action.
No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Neuroscience Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have reported on structural abnormalities, decreased myelination and oligodendrocyte dysfunction in post-mortem brains from schizophrenic patients. Glia-derived cholesterol is essential for both myelination and synaptogenesis in the CNS. Lipogenesis and myelin synthesis are thus interesting etiological candidate targets in schizophrenia. Using a microarray approach, we here demonstrate that the antipsychotic drugs clozapine and haloperidol upregulate several genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in cultured human glioma cells, including HMGCR (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase), HMGCS1 (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase-1), FASN (fatty acid synthase) and SCD (stearoyl-CoA desaturase). The changes in gene expression were followed by enhanced HMGCR-enzyme activity and elevated cellular levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. The upregulated genes are all known to be controlled by the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors. We show that clozapine and haloperidol both activate the SREBP system. The antipsychotic-induced SREBP-mediated increase in glial cell lipogenesis could represent a novel mechanism of action, and may also be relevant for the metabolic side effects of antipsychotics.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · The Pharmacogenomics Journal