[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies that neutralize autologous transmitted/founder (TF) HIV occur in most HIV-infected individuals and can evolve to neutralization breadth. Autologous neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against neutralization-resistant (Tier-2) viruses are rarely induced by vaccination. Whereas broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb)-HIV-Envelope structures have been defined, the structures of autologous nAbs have not. Here, we show that immunization with TF mutant Envs gp140 oligomers induced high-titer, V5-dependent plasma neutralization for a Tier-2 autologous TF evolved mutant virus. Structural analysis of autologous nAb DH427 revealed binding to V5, demonstrating the source of narrow nAb specificity and explaining the failure to acquire breadth. Thus, oligomeric TF Envs can elicit autologous nAbs to Tier-2 HIVs, but induction of bnAbs will require targeting of precursors of B cell lineages that can mature to heterologous neutralization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza-virus antigenicity evolves to escape host immune protection. Antibody lineages within individuals evolve in turn to increase affinity and hence potency. Strategies for a "universal" influenza vaccine to elicit lineages that escape this evolutionary arms race and protect against seasonal variation and novel, pandemic viruses will require directing B cell ontogeny to focus the humoral response on conserved epitopes on the viral hemagglutinin (HA). The unmutated common ancestors (UCAs) of six distinct, broadly neutralizing antibody lineages from one individual bind the HA of a virus circulating at the time the participant was born. HAs of viruses circulating more than 5 years later no longer bind the UCAs, but mature antibodies in the lineages bind strains from the entire 18-year lifetime of the participant. The analysis shows how immunological memory shaped the response to subsequent influenza exposures and suggests that early imprinting by a suitable influenza antigen may enhance likelihood of later breadth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In activated B lymphocytes, AID initiates antibody variable (V) exon somatic hypermutation (SHM) for affinity maturation in germinal centers (GCs) and IgH switch (S) region DNA breaks (DSBs) for class-switch recombination (CSR). To resolve long-standing questions, we have developed an in vivo assay to study AID targeting of passenger sequences replacing a V exon. First, we find AID targets SHM hotspots within V exon and S region passengers at similar frequencies and that the normal SHM process frequently generates deletions, indicating that SHM and CSR employ the same mechanism. Second, AID mutates targets in diverse non-Ig passengers in GC B cells at levels similar to those of V exons, definitively establishing the V exon location as "privileged" for SHM. Finally, Peyer's patch GC B cells generate a reservoir of V exons that are highly mutated before selection for affinity maturation. We discuss the implications of these findings for harnessing antibody diversification mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An HIV-1 DNA prime vaccine, with a recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) boost, failed to protect from HIV-1 acquisition. We
studied the nature of the vaccine-induced antibody (Ab) response to HIV-1 envelope (Env). HIV-1–reactive plasma Ab titers
were higher to Env gp41 than to gp120, and repertoire analysis demonstrated that 93% of HIV-1–reactive Abs from memory B cells
responded to Env gp41. Vaccine-induced gp41-reactive monoclonal antibodies were non-neutralizing and frequently polyreactive
with host and environmental antigens, including intestinal microbiota (IM). Next-generation sequencing of an immunoglobulin
heavy chain variable region repertoire before vaccination revealed an Env-IM cross-reactive Ab that was clonally related to
a subsequent vaccine-induced gp41-reactive Ab. Thus, HIV-1 Env DNA-rAd5 vaccine induced a dominant IM-polyreactive, non-neutralizing
gp41-reactive Ab repertoire response that was associated with no vaccine efficacy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has previously been employed to measure the active concentration of analyte in addition to the kinetic rate constants in molecular binding reactions. Those approaches, however, have a few restrictions. In this work, a Bayesian approach is developed to determine both active concentration and affinity constants using SPR technology. With the appropriate prior probabilities on the parameters and a derived likelihood function, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is applied to compute the posterior probability densities of both the active concentration and kinetic rate constants based on the collected SPR data. Compared with previous approaches, ours exploits information from the duration of the process in its entirety, including both association and dissociation phases, under partial mass transport conditions; do not depend on calibration data; multiple injections of analyte at varying flow rates are not necessary. Finally the method is validated by analyzing both simulated and experimental datasets. A software package implementing our approach is developed with a user-friendly interface and made freely available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural analyses show the second light chain complementarity determining region Glu-Asp motif of the CH58 antibody isolated from an RV144 vaccinee is optimally pre-conformed from germline to interact with the gp120 V2 loop. The increased binding affinity and neutralization capacity of the mature antibody compared to its germline precursor were achieved with only 2-3% mutation from germline, and the fact that these gains appeared to be a result of the tuning of local interactions rather than gross sequential or conformational changes provides hope that a rational immunogen design for HIV-1 treatment may become a reality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing predictive animal models to assess how candidate vaccines and infection influence the ontogenies of Envelope (Env)-specific antibodies is critical for the development of an HIV vaccine. Here we use two nonhuman primate models to compare the roles of antigen persistence, diversity and innate immunity. We perform longitudinal analyses of HIV Env-specific B-cell receptor responses to SHIVAD8 infection and Env protein vaccination with eight different adjuvants. A subset of the SHIVAD8-infected animals with higher viral loads and greater Env diversity show increased neutralization associated with increasing somatic hypermutation (SHM) levels over time. The use of adjuvants results in increased ELISA titres but does not affect the mean SHM levels or CDR H3 lengths. Our study shows how the ontogeny of Env-specific B cells can be tracked, and provides insights into the requirements for developing neutralizing antibodies that should facilitate translation to human vaccine studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Affinity maturation, the process in which somatic hypermutation and positive selection generate antibodies with increasing affinity for an antigen, is pivotal in acquired humoral immunity. We have studied the mechanism of affinity gain in a human B-cell lineage in which two main maturation pathways, diverging from a common ancestor, lead to three mature antibodies that neutralize a broad range of H1 influenza viruses. Previous work showed that increased affinity in the mature antibodies derives primarily from stabilization of the CDR H3 loop in the antigen-binding conformation. We have now used molecular dynamics simulations and existing crystal structures to identify potentially key maturation mutations, and we have characterized their effects on the CDR H3 loop and on antigen binding using further simulations and experimental affinity measurements, respectively. In the two maturation pathways, different contacts between light and heavy chains stabilize the CDR H3 loop. As few as two single-site mutations in each pathway can confer substantial loop stability, but none of them confers experimentally detectable stability on its own. Our results support models of the germinal center reaction in which two or more mutations can occur without concomitant selection and show how divergent pathways have yielded functionally equivalent antibodies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development but has remained challenging partially due to unusual traits of bnAbs, including high somatic hypermutation (SHM) frequencies and in-frame insertions and deletions (indels). Here we examined the propensity and functional requirement for indels within HIV-1 bnAbs. High-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) VHDJH genes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected individuals revealed that the indel frequency was elevated among HIV-1-infected subjects, with no unique properties attributable to bnAb-producing individuals. This increased indel occurrence depended only on the frequency of SHM point mutations. Indel-encoded regions were generally proximal to antigen binding sites. Additionally, reconstruction of a HIV-1 CD4-binding site bnAb clonal lineage revealed that a large compound VHDJH indel was required for bnAb activity. Thus, vaccine development should focus on designing regimens targeted at sustained activation of bnAb lineages to achieve the required SHM and indel events.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies derived from blood plasma cells of acute HIV-1-infected individuals are predominantly targeted to the HIV Env gp41 and cross-reactive with commensal bacteria. To understand this phenomenon, we examined anti-HIV responses in ileum B cells using recombinant antibody technology and probed their relationship to commensal bacteria. The dominant ileum B cell response was to Env gp41. Remarkably, a majority (82%) of the ileum anti-gp41 antibodies cross-reacted with commensal bacteria, and of those, 43% showed non-HIV-1 antigen poly-reactivity. Pyrosequencing revealed shared HIV-1 antibody clonal lineages between ileum and blood. Mutated immunoglobulin G antibodies cross-reactive with both Env gp41 and microbiota could also be isolated from the ileum of HIV-1 uninfected individuals. Thus, the gp41 commensal bacterial antigen cross-reactive antibodies originate in the intestine, and the gp41 Env response in HIV-1 infection can be derived from a preinfection memory B cell pool triggered by commensal bacteria that cross-react with Env.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Cell Host & Microbe
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B-cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B-cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1(∼)69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% vs. 20%, P=0.006, Fisher's exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120 specific than those isolated from blood (44% vs. 16%, P=0.005, Fisher's exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B-cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B-cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B-cell populations by vaccination.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 6 August 2014; doi:10.1038/mi.2014.69.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Mucosal Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of strategies for induction of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) by vaccines is a priority. Determining the steps of bnAb induction in HIV-1-infected individuals who make bnAbs is a key strategy for immunogen design. Here, we study the B cell response in a bnAb-producing individual and report cooperation between two B cell lineages to drive bnAb development. We isolated a virus-neutralizing antibody lineage that targeted an envelope region (loop D) and selected virus escape mutants that resulted in both enhanced bnAb lineage envelope binding and escape mutant neutralization-traits associated with increased B cell antigen drive. Thus, in this individual, two B cell lineages cooperated to induce the development of bnAbs. Design of vaccine immunogens that simultaneously drive both helper and broadly neutralizing B cell lineages may be important for vaccine-induced recapitulation of events that transpire during the maturation of neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1-infected individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapidly evolving pathogens, such as human immunodeficiency and influenza viruses, escape immune defenses provided by most vaccine-induced antibodies. Proposed strategies to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies require a deeper understanding of antibody affinity maturation and evolution of the immune response to vaccination or infection. In HIV-infected individuals, viruses and B cells evolve together, creating a virus-antibody "arms race." Analysis of samples from an individual designated CH505 has illustrated the interplay between an antibody lineage, CH103, and autologous viruses at various time points. The CH103 antibodies, relatively broad in their neutralization spectrum, interact with the CD4 binding site of gp120, with a contact dominated by CDRH3. We show by analyzing structures of progenitor and intermediate antibodies and by correlating them with measurements of binding to various gp120s that there was a shift in the relative orientation of the light- and heavy-chain variable domains during evolution of the CH103 lineage. We further show that mutations leading to this conformational shift probably occurred in response to insertions in variable loop 5 (V5) of the HIV envelope. The shift displaced the tips of the light chain away from contact with V5, making room for the inserted residues, which had allowed escape from neutralization by the progenitor antibody. These results, which document the selective mechanism underlying this example of a virus-antibody arms race, illustrate the functional significance of affinity maturation by mutation outside the complementarity determining region surface of the antibody molecule.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emergence of drug-resistant strains of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and the ineffectiveness of BCG in curtailing Mtb infection makes vaccine development for tuberculosis an important objective. Identifying immunogenic CD8+ T cell peptide epitopes is necessary for peptide-based vaccine strategies. We present a three-tiered strategy for identifying and validating immunogenic peptides: first, identify peptides that form stable complexes with class I MHC molecules; second, determine whether cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) raised against the whole protein antigen recognize and lyse target cells pulsed with peptides that passed step 1; third, determine whether peptides that passed step 2, when administered in vivo as a vaccine in HLA-A2 transgenic mice, elicit CTLs that lyse target cells expressing the whole protein antigen. Our innovative approach uses dendritic cells transfected with Mtb antigen-encoding mRNA to drive antigen expression. Using this strategy, we have identified five novel peptide epitopes from the Mtb proteins Apa, Mtb8.4 and Mtb19.