[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During an infection, one of the principal challenges for the host is to detect the pathogen and activate a rapid defensive response. The Toll-like family of receptors (TLRs), among other pattern recognition receptors (PRR), performs this detection process in vertebrate and invertebrate organisms. These type I transmembrane receptors identify microbial conserved structures or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of microbial components by TLRs initiates signaling transduction pathways that induce gene expression. These gene products regulate innate immune responses and further develop an antigen-specific acquired immunity. TLR signaling pathways are regulated by intracellular adaptor molecules, such as MyD88, TIRAP/Mal, between others that provide specificity of individual TLR- mediated signaling pathways. TLR-mediated activation of innate immunity is involved not only in host defense against pathogens but also in immune disorders. The involvement of TLR-mediated pathways in auto-immune and inflammatory diseases is described in this review article.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Biological research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of skin cancer in Chile has increased in recent years.
To associate variables with skin cancer in Chile through indices generated using multivariate descriptive statistical techniques.
During May 2004, information was gathered from demographic, meteorological and clinical data from Chile corresponding to fiscal year 2001, the latest complete, official information available for the country's Health Services as a whole. The variables developed by the following were studied: the National Statistics Institute (INE), the Ministry of Health (MINSAL), the Ministry of Planning and Cooperation (MIDEPLAN), the National Health Fund (FONASA), the Chilean Meteorological Directorate, Federico Santa María Technical University and the Directorate-General for Water. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was then performed on the data obtained.
The first three principal components were selected, with a cumulative explained variance percentage of 54.48 %. The first principal component explains 24.92 % of the variance, and is related to climatic and geographic variables. The second principal component explains 15.77 % of the variance, and is mainly related to FONASA's beneficiary population and the poverty rate. The mortality rate from skin cancer runs significantly against this component. The third principal component explains 13.79 % of the variance, and is related to population characteristics, such as total catchment population, female population and urban population.
Performing PCA is useful in studying the factors associated with skin cancer.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultraviolet light exposure has a pathogenic effect on the development of skin cancer, whose prevalence increases worldwide. In Chile and the rest of the world, preventive educational campaigns are carried out to change high risk sun exposure behaviors.
To study the behavior of the Chilean population towards skin cancer prevention and to identify erroneous preventive practices and concepts.
A survey containing 17 questions about sun exposure behaviors, photoprotective measures and knowledge about ultraviolet radiation and skin cancer was used. It was applied during January and February 2004, to 1,143 subjects (mean age 30 years, 409 males), taking vacations in beach resorts in Chile.
The hours of higher sun exposure ranged from 12 AM to 4 PM. Thirty seven percent of subjects were exposed more than 2 hours during this high risk lapse. Women and subjects aged less than 25 years were those with the riskiest behaviors. Fifty four percent used some type of photoprotection and 50% used ocular protection. Seventy percent used creams with sun screen and 74% used a sun protection factor higher than 15. Seventy percent applied the sun screen as recommended. Thirty eight percent had at least one sun burn in the last two years. More than 90% of subjects were aware of the relationship between sun exposure and skin cancer but 60% did not know the hours of higher ultraviolet radiation. The information about sun exposure was obtained from television in 57% of surveyed individuals.
More educational campaigns about the risk of sun exposure are needed to reduce risky behaviors in the Chilean population.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Revista medica de Chile
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chile has a National Health Services System, formed by 29 Health Services. An efficient resource distribution among this services is crucial for an efficient health care delivery.
To obtain indices from the Chilean Public Health Services, that could improve allocation of resources.
Information from the Chilean Public Health Services, corresponding to activities during 2001 budgetary period, was collected. This is the latest complete and official information for the totality of Health Services in the country. Seventeen variables generated or monitored by the Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (INE), the Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL), the Ministerio de Hacienda, the Ministerio de Planificación y Cooperación (MIDEPLAN) and the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA) were studied. The Main Components Analysis (ACP) was used, obtained from the R correlation matrix.
The first two main components were selected, with an accumulated percentage of explained variability of 63.05%. The first component is related to the population assigned to each Health Service. This corresponds to the number of people needed to treat in the hospitals of these Services and their answer to this demand, justified by the expenses in which each Health Service incurs. There is an inverse relation of the first component with health indicators, measured by burden of disease and death. The second main component would represent the social and economic characteristics of the population, poor and very poor populations and public health insurance beneficiaries, to take care of in each Health Service.
Health indicators in each Health Service are not considered a priority for resource distribution among Health Services in the country. The transference is done considering the indices contained in the two main components defined.
No preview · Article · Jan 2005 · Revista medica de Chile