M. Ishii

Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (48)179.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Spatially-resolved imaging of Herbig stars and related objects began with HST, but intensified with commissioning of high-contrast imagers on 8-m class telescopes. The bulk of the data taken from the ground have been polarized intensity imagery at H-band, with the majority of the sources observed as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) survey. Sufficiently many systems have been imaged that we discuss disk properties in scattered, polarized light in terms of groups defined by the IR spectral energy distribution. We find novel phenomena in many of the disks, including spiral density waves, and discuss the disks in terms of clearing mechanisms. Some of the disks have sufficient data to map the dust and gas components, including water ice dissociation products.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Astrophysics and Space Science
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    ABSTRACT: The formation scenario of a gapped disk, i.e., transitional disk, and its asymmetry is still under debate. Proposed scenarios such as disk-planet interaction, photoevaporation, grain growth, anticyclonic vortex, eccentricity, and their combinations would result in different radial distributions of the gas and the small (sub-$\mu$m size) and large (millimeter size) dust grains as well as asymmetric structures in a disk. Optical/near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations and (sub-)millimeter interferometry can trace small and large dust grains, respectively; therefore multi-wavelength observations could help elucidate the origin of complicated structures of a disk. Here we report SMA observations of the dust continuum at 1.3~mm and $^{12}$CO~$J=2\rightarrow1$ line emission of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the solar-mass star PDS~70. PDS~70, a weak-lined T Tauri star, exhibits a gap in the scattered light from its disk with a radius of $\sim$65~AU at NIR wavelengths. However, we found a larger gap in the disk with a radius of $\sim$80~AU at 1.3~mm. Emission from all three disk components (the gas and the small and large dust grains) in images exhibits a deficit in brightness in the central region of the disk, in particular, the dust-disk in small and large dust grains has asymmetric brightness. The contrast ratio of the flux density in the dust continuum between the peak position to the opposite side of the disk reaches 1.4. We suggest the asymmetries and different gap-radii of the disk around PDS~70 are potentially formed by several (unseen) accreting planets inducing dust filtration.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We conduct a statistical analysis of a combined sample of direct imaging data, totalling nearly 250 stars. The stars cover a wide range of ages and spectral types, and include five detections (κ And b, two ~60 M J brown dwarf companions in the Pleiades, PZ Tel B, and CD–35 2722B). For some analyses we add a currently unpublished set of SEEDS observations, including the detections GJ 504b and GJ 758B. We conduct a uniform, Bayesian analysis of all stellar ages using both membership in a kinematic moving group and activity/rotation age indicators. We then present a new statistical method for computing the likelihood of a substellar distribution function. By performing most of the integrals analytically, we achieve an enormous speedup over brute-force Monte Carlo. We use this method to place upper limits on the maximum semimajor axis of the distribution function derived from radial-velocity planets, finding model-dependent values of ~30-100 AU. Finally, we model the entire substellar sample, from massive brown dwarfs to a theoretically motivated cutoff at ~5 M J, with a single power-law distribution. We find that p(M, a)M –0.65 ± 0.60a –0.85 ± 0.39 (1σ errors) provides an adequate fit to our data, with 1.0%-3.1% (68% confidence) of stars hosting 5-70 M J companions between 10 and 100 AU. This suggests that many of the directly imaged exoplanets known, including most (if not all) of the low-mass companions in our sample, formed by fragmentation in a cloud or disk, and represent the low-mass tail of the brown dwarfs.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We conduct a statistical analysis of a combined sample of direct imaging data, totalling nearly 250 stars observed by HiCIAO on the Subaru Telescope, NIRI on Gemini North, and NICI on Gemini South. The stars cover a wide range of ages and spectral types, and include five detections (kap And b, two ~60 M_J brown dwarf companions in the Pleiades, PZ Tel B, and CD-35 2722 B). We conduct a uniform, Bayesian analysis of the ages of our entire sample, using both membership in a kinematic moving group and activity/rotation age indicators, to obtain posterior age distributions. We then present a new statistical method for computing the likelihood of a substellar distribution function. By performing most integrals analytically, we achieve an enormous speedup over brute-force Monte Carlo. We use this method to place upper limits on the maximum semimajor axis beyond which the distribution function for radial-velocity planets cannot extend, finding model-dependent values of ~30--100 AU. Finally, we treat our entire substellar sample together, modeling it as a single power law distribution. After including GJ 758 B and GJ 504 b, two other HiCIAO detections, a distribution $p(M, a) \propto M^{-0.7 \pm 0.6} a^{-0.8 \pm 0.4}$ (1 sigma errors) from massive brown dwarfs to a theoretically motivated cutoff at ~5 M_J, provides an adequate fit to our data. This suggests that many of the directly imaged exoplanets known, including most (if not all) of the low-mass companions in our sample, formed by fragmentation in a cloud or disk, and represent the low-mass tail of the brown dwarfs.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported the direct detection of a low mass companion at a projected separation of 55+-2 AU around the B9 type star {\kappa} Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for the understanding of the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide-orbits. We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the Kappa Andromedae system at 2.146 (Ks), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB 4.05) and 4.78 {\mu}m (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 +- 0.21, H = 14.95 +- 0.13, Ks = 14.32 +- 0.09 mag for {\kappa} And b. We redetect the companion in all our high contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at Ks and L' band. We derive NB 4.05 = 13.0 +- 0.2 and M' = 13.3 +- 0.3 mag and estimate Log10(L/Lsun) = -3.76 +- 0.06. We build the 1-5 microns spectral energy distribution of the companion and compare it to seven PHOENIX-based atmospheric models in order to derive Teff = 1900+100-200 K. Models do not set constrains on the surface gravity. ``Hot-start" evolutionary models predict masses of 14+25-2 MJup based on the luminosity and temperature estimates, and considering a conservative age range for the system (30+120-10 Myr). ``warm-start" evolutionary tracks constrain the mass to M >= 11 MJup. Therefore, the mass of {\kappa} Andromedae b mostly falls in the brown-dwarf regime, due to remaining uncertainties in age and mass-luminosity models. According to the formation models, disk instability in a primordial disk could account for the position and a wide range of plausible masses of {\kappa} And b.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Several exoplanets have recently been imaged at wide separations of >10 AU from their parent stars. These span a limited range of ages (<50 Myr) and atmospheric properties, with temperatures of 800--1800 K and very red colors (J - H > 0.5 mag), implying thick cloud covers. Furthermore, substantial model uncertainties exist at these young ages due to the unknown initial conditions at formation, which can lead to an order of magnitude of uncertainty in the modeled planet mass. Here, we report the direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet around the Sun-like star GJ 504, detected as part of the SEEDS survey. The system is older than all other known directly-imaged planets; as a result, its estimated mass remains in the planetary regime independent of uncertainties related to choices of initial conditions in the exoplanet modeling. Using the most common exoplanet cooling model, and given the system age of 160 [+350, -60] Myr, GJ 504 b has an estimated mass of 4 [+4.5, -1.0] Jupiter masses, among the lowest of directly imaged planets. Its projected separation of 43.5 AU exceeds the typical outer boundary of ~30 AU predicted for the core accretion mechanism. GJ 504 b is also significantly cooler (510 [+30, -20] K) and has a bluer color (J-H = -0.23 mag) than previously imaged exoplanets, suggesting a largely cloud-free atmosphere accessible to spectroscopic characterization. Thus, it has the potential of providing novel insights into the origins of giant planets, as well as their atmospheric properties.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group targets in the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of ~10^5 at 1'' and ~10^6 beyond 2'' around 63 proposed members of nearby kinematic moving groups. We review each of the kinematic associations to which our targets belong, concluding that six, \beta Pictoris (~12 Myr), AB Doradus (~100 Myr), Columba (~30 Myr), Tucana-Horogium (~30 Myr), TW Hydrae (~10 Myr), and Ursa Majoris (~500 Myr), are sufficiently well-defined to constrain the ages of individual targets. Somewhat less than half of our targets are high-probability members of one of these moving groups. For all of our targets, we combine proposed moving group membership with other age indicators where available, including Ca II HK emission, X-ray activity, and rotation period, to produce a posterior probability distribution of age. SEEDS observations discovered a substellar companion to one of our targets, \kappa And, a late B star. We do not detect any other substellar companions, but do find seven new close binary systems, of which one still needs to be confirmed. A detailed analysis of the statistics of this sample, and of the companion mass constraints given our age probability distributions and exoplanet cooling models, will be presented in a forthcoming paper.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of 76 new T dwarfs from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS). Near-infrared broad and narrow-band photometry and spectroscopy are presented for the new objects, along with WISE and warm-Spitzer photometry. Proper motions for 128 UKIDSS T dwarfs are presented from a new two epoch LAS proper motion catalogue. We use these motions to identify two new benchmark systems: LHS 6176AB, a T8+M4 pair and HD118865AB, a T5.5+F8 pair. Using age constraints from the primaries and evolutionary models to constrain the radii we have estimated their physical properties from their bolometric luminosity. We compare the colours and properties of known benchmark T dwarfs to the latest model atmospheres and draw two principal conclusions. Firstly, it appears that the H - [4.5] and J - W2 colours are more sensitive to metallicity than has previously been recognised, such that differences in metallicity may dominate over differences in Teff when considering relative properties of cool objects using these colours. Secondly, the previously noted apparent dominance of young objects in the late-T dwarf sample is no longer apparent when using the new model grids and the expanded sample of late-T dwarfs and benchmarks. This is supported by the apparently similar distribution of late-T dwarfs and earlier-type T dwarfs on reduced proper motion diagrams that we present. Finally, we present updated space densities for the late-T dwarfs, and compare our values to simulation predictions and those from WISE.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the direct imaging discovery of an extrasolar planet, or possible low-mass brown dwarf, at a projected separation of 55 ± 2 AU (1.''058 ± 0.''007) from the B9-type star κ And. The planet was detected with Subaru/HiCIAO during the SEEDS survey and confirmed as a bound companion via common proper motion measurements. Observed near-infrared magnitudes of J = 16.3 ± 0.3, H = 15.2 ± 0.2, K s = 14.6 ± 0.4, and L' = 13.12 ± 0.09 indicate a temperature of ~1700 K. The galactic kinematics of the host star are consistent with membership in the Columba Association, implying a corresponding age of 30+20–10 Myr. The system's age, combined with the companion photometry, points to a model-dependent companion mass ~12.8 M Jup. The host star's estimated mass of 2.4-2.5 M ☉ places it among the most massive stars ever known to harbor an extrasolar planet or low-mass brown dwarf. While the mass of the companion is close to the deuterium burning limit, its mass ratio, orbital separation, and likely planet-like formation scenario imply that it may be best defined as a "super-Jupiter" with properties similar to other recently discovered companions to massive stars.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We present Subaru/HiCIAO H-band high-contrast images of the debris disk around HIP 79977, whose pres- ence was recently inferred from an infrared excess. Our images resolve the disk for the first time, allowing characterization of its shape, size, and dust grain properties. We use angular differential imaging (ADI) to reveal the disk geometry in unpolarized light out to a radius of ~2", as well as polarized differential imaging (PDI) to measure the degree of scattering polarization out to ~1.5". In order to strike a favorable balance between suppression of the stellar halo and conservation of disk flux, we explore the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to both ADI and reference star subtraction. This allows accurate forward modeling of the effects of data reduction on simulated disk images, and thus direct comparison with the imaged disk. The resulting best-fit values and well-fitting intervals for the model parameters are a surface brightness power-law slope of S_out = -3.2 [-3.6,-2.9], an inclination of i = 84{\deg} [81{\deg},86{\deg}], a high Henyey-Greenstein forward-scattering parameter of g = 0.45 [0.35, 0.60], and a non-significant disk-star offset of u = 3.0 [-1.5, 7.5] AU = 24 [-13, 61] mas along the line of nodes. Furthermore, the tangential linear polarization along the disk rises from ~10% at 0.5" to ~45% at 1.5". These measurements paint a consistent picture of a disk of dust grains produced by collisional cascades and blown out to larger radii by stellar radiation pressure.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first near-IR scattered light detection of the transitional disk associated with the Herbig Ae star MWC 758 using data obtained as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru, and 1.1 micron HST/NICMOS data. While sub-millimeter studies suggested there is a dust-depleted cavity with r=0.35, we find scattered light as close as 0.1 (20-28 AU) from the star, with no visible cavity at H, K', or Ks. We find two small-scaled spiral structures which asymmetrically shadow the outer disk. We model one of the spirals using spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h ~ 0.18, indicating a dynamically warm disk. If the spiral pattern is excited by a perturber, we estimate its mass to be 5+3,-4 Mj, in the range where planet filtration models predict accretion continuing onto the star. Using a combination of non-redundant aperture masking data at L' and angular differential imaging with Locally Optimized Combination of Images at K' and Ks, we exclude stellar or massive brown dwarf companions within 300 mas of the Herbig Ae star, and all but planetary mass companions exterior to 0.5. We reach 5-sigma contrasts limiting companions to planetary masses, 3-4 MJ at 1.0 and 2 MJ at 1.55 using the COND models. Collectively, these data strengthen the case for MWC 758 already being a young planetary system.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report high-resolution (0.07 arcsec) near-infrared polarized intensity images of the circumstellar disk around the star 2MASS J16042165-2130284 obtained with HiCIAO mounted on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We present our $H$-band data, which clearly exhibits a resolved, face-on disk with a large inner hole for the first time at infrared wavelengths. We detect the centrosymmetric polarization pattern in the circumstellar material as has been observed in other disks. Elliptical fitting gives the semimajor axis, semiminor axis, and position angle (P.A.) of the disk as 63 AU, 62 AU, and -14 $^{\circ}$, respectively. The disk is asymmetric, with one dip located at P.A.s of $\sim85^{\circ}$. Our observed disk size agrees well with a previous study of dust and CO emission at submillimeter wavelength with Submillimeter Array. Hence, the near-infrared light is interpreted as scattered light reflected from the inner edge of the disk. Our observations also detect an elongated arc (50 AU) extending over the disk inner hole. It emanates at the inner edge of the western side of the disk, extending inward first, then curving to the northeast. We discuss the possibility that the inner hole, the dip, and the arc that we have observed may be related to the existence of unseen bodies within the disk.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Through detailed radiative transfer modeling, we present a disk+cavity model to simultaneously explain both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and Subaru H-band polarized light imaging for the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk PDS 70. In particular, we are able to match not only the radial dependence but also the absolute scale of the surface brightness of the scattered light. Our disk model has a cavity 65 AU in radius, which is heavily depleted of sub-micron-sized dust grains, and a small residual inner disk that produces a weak but still optically thick near-IR excess in the SED. To explain the contrast of the cavity's edge in the Subaru image, a factor of ~1000 depletion for the sub-micron-sized dust inside the cavity is required. The total dust mass of the disk may be on the order of 10–4M ☉, only weakly constrained due to the lack of long-wavelength observations and the uncertainties in the dust model. The scale height of the sub-micron-sized dust is ~6 AU at the cavity edge, and the cavity wall is optically thick in the vertical direction at H-band. PDS 70 is not a member of the class of (pre-)transitional disks identified by Dong et al., whose members only show evidence of the cavity in the millimeter-size dust but not the sub-micron-sized dust in resolved images. The two classes of (pre-)transitional disks may form through different mechanisms, or they may simply be at different evolution stages in the disk-clearing process.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We describe Algorithms for Calibration, Optimized Registration, and Nulling the Star in Angular Differential Imaging (ACORNS-ADI), a new, parallelized software package to reduce high-contrast imaging data, and its application to data from the SEEDS survey. We implement several new algorithms, including a method to register saturated images, a trimmed mean for combining an image sequence that reduces noise by up to ~20%, and a robust and computationally fast method to compute the sensitivity of a high-contrast observation everywhere on the field-of-view without introducing artificial sources. We also include a description of image processing steps to remove electronic artifacts specific to Hawaii2-RG detectors like the one used for SEEDS, and a detailed analysis of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm commonly used to reduce high-contrast imaging data. ACORNS-ADI is written in python. It is efficient and open-source, and includes several optional features which may improve performance on data from other instruments. ACORNS-ADI requires minimal modification to reduce data from instruments other than HiCIAO. It is freely available for download at www.github.com/t-brandt/acorns-adi under a BSD license.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: One of the key predictions of modeling from the IR excess of Herbig Ae stars is that for protoplanetary disks, where significant grain growth and settling has occurred, the dust disk has flattened to the point that it can be partially or largely shadowed by the innermost material at or near the dust sublimation radius. When the self-shadowing has already started, the outer disk is expected to be detected in scattered light only in the exceptional cases when the scale height of the dust disk at the sublimation radius is smaller than usual. High-contrast imaging combined with the IR spectral energy distribution allow us to measure the degree of flattening of the disk, as well as to determine the properties of the outer disk. We present polarimetric differential imaging in the H band obtained with Subaru/HiCIAO of one such system, MWC 480. The HiCIAO data were obtained at a historic minimum of the NIR excess. The disk is detected in scattered light from 02 to 10 (27.4-137 AU). Together with the marginal detection of the disk from 1998 February 24 by Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS, our data constrain the opening half-angle for the disk to lie between 13 ≤θ ≤ 22. When compared with similar measures in CO for the gas disk from the literature, the dust disk subtends only ~30% of the gas disk scale height (H/R ~ 0.03). Such a dust disk is a factor of 5-7 flatter than transitional disks, which have structural signatures that giant planets have formed.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: One of the key predictions of modeling from the IR excess of Herbig Ae stars is that for protoplanetary disks, where significant grain growth and settling has occurred, the dust disk has flattened to the point that it can be partially or largely shadowed by the innermost material at or near the dust sublimation radius. When the self-shadowing has already started, the outer disk is expected to be detected in scattered light only in the exceptional cases that the scale height of the dust disk at the sublimation radius is smaller than usual. High-contrast imaging combined with the IR spectral energy distribution allow us to measure the degree of flattening of the disk, as well as to determine the properties of the outer disk. We present polarimetric differential imaging in $H$ band obtained with Subaru/HiCIAO of one such system, MWC 480. The HiCIAO data were obtained at a historic minimum of the NIR excess. The disk is detected in scattered light from 0\farcs2-1\farcs0 (27.4-137AU). Together with the marginal detection of the disk from 1998 February 24 by HST/NICMOS, our data constrain the opening half angle for the disk to lie between 1.3$\leq\theta\leq 2.2^\circ$. When compared with similar measures in CO for the gas disk from the literature, the dust disk subtends only $\sim$30% of the gas disk scale height (H/R$\sim$0.03). Such a dust disk is a factor of 5-7 flatter than transitional disks, which have structural signatures that giant planets have formed.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Transitional circumstellar disks around young stellar objects have a distinctive infrared deficit around 10 microns in their Spectral Energy Distributions (SED), recently measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), suggesting dust depletion in the inner regions. These disks have been confirmed to have giant central cavities by imaging of the submillimeter (sub-mm) continuum emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). However, the polarized near-infrared scattered light images for most objects in a systematic IRS/SMA cross sample, obtained by HiCIAO on the Subaru telescope, show no evidence for the cavity, in clear contrast with SMA and Spitzer observations. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that many of these scattered light images are consistent with a smooth spatial distribution for micron-sized grains, with little discontinuity in the surface density of the micron-sized grains at the cavity edge. Here we present a generic disk model that can simultaneously account for the general features in IRS, SMA, and Subaru observations. Particularly, the scattered light images for this model are computed, which agree with the general trend seen in Subaru data. Decoupling between the spatial distributions of the micron-sized dust and mm-sized dust inside the cavity is suggested by the model, which, if confirmed, necessitates a mechanism, such as dust filtration, for differentiating the small and big dust in the cavity clearing process. Our model also suggests an inwardly increasing gas-to-dust-ratio in the inner disk, and different spatial distributions for the small dust inside and outside the cavity, echoing the predictions in grain coagulation and growth models.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present high-resolution, H-band, imaging observations, collected with Subaru/HiCIAO, of the scattered light from the transitional disk around SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). Although previous sub-mm imagery suggested the existence of the dust-depleted cavity at r~46AU, our observations reveal the presence of scattered light components as close as 0.2" (~28AU) from the star. Moreover, we have discovered two small-scale spiral structures lying within 0.5" (~70AU). We present models for the spiral structures using the spiral density wave theory, and derive a disk aspect ratio of h~0.1, which is consistent with previous sub-mm observations. This model can potentially give estimates of the temperature and rotation profiles of the disk based on dynamical processes, independently from sub-mm observations. It also predicts the evolution of the spiral structures, which can be observable on timescales of 10-20 years, providing conclusive tests of the model. While we cannot uniquely identify the origin of these spirals, planets embedded in the disk may be capable of exciting the observed morphology. Assuming that this is the case, we can make predictions on the locations and, possibly, the masses of the unseen planets. Such planets may be detected by future multi-wavelengths observations.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: The UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) has provided near infrared data on several hundred million sources, most of which is now world public. We report the discovery of a very cool, isolated brown dwarf, UGPS 0722-05, which was identified as the sole candidate late T dwarf in the 6th Data Release via a simple SQL query, followed by inspection of a handful of images. The near-infrared spectrum UGPS 0722-05 displays deeper H2O and CH4 troughs than the coolest T dwarfs previously known, so we provisionally classify it as a T10 dwarf. The distance is measured by trigonometric parallax as d=4.1-0.5+0.6 pc, making it the closest known isolated brown dwarf. With the aid of Spitzer/IRAC we measure H-[4.5] = 4.71, which is redder than all previously known T dwarfs except the peculiar T7.5 dwarf SDSS J1416+13B, which is thought to be warmer and more luminous than UGPS 0722-05. We estimate that UGPS 0722-05 has Teff=520±40 K. We place this discovery in the context of other recent discoveries from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and note that there appears to be a deficit of late T dwarfs in the local field relative to predictions based on the IMF measured in young clusters. We comment on possible explanations for this.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011

Publication Stats

968 Citations
179.05 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2014
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
    • The University of Tokyo
      白山, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Kanagawa University
      • Department of Information Sciences
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2003-2014
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      • • Astronomy Data Center
      • • Okayama Astrophysical Observatory
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2008-2012
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • Department of Astronomical Science
      Миура, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2000
    • Kyoto University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan