Makarand V Risbud

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (140)

  • James C. Iatridis · James Kang · Rita Kandel · Makarand V. Risbud
    Article · Aug 2016 · Journal of Orthopaedic Research
  • Hyowon Choi · Christophe Merceron · Laura Mangiavini · [...] · Makarand V. Risbud
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells reside in the avascular and hypoxic microenvironment of intervertebral discs. Importantly, many activities related to survival and function of NP cells are controlled by the HIF-family of transcription factors. We hypothesize that NP cells adapt to their hypoxic niche through modulation of macroautophagy/autophagy. In various cell types, hypoxia induces autophagy in a HIF1A-dependent fashion; however, little is known about hypoxic regulation of autophagy in NP cells. Hypoxia increases the number of autophagosomes as seen by TEM analysis and LC3-positive puncta in NP cells. Hypoxic induction of autophagy was also demonstrated by a significantly higher number of autophagosomes and smaller change in autolysosomes in NP cells expressing tandem-mCherry-EGFP-LC3B. Increased LC3-II levels were not accompanied by a concomitant increase in BECN1 or the ATG12-ATG5 complex. In addition, ULK1 phosphorylation at Ser757 and Ser777 responsive to MTOR and AMPK, respectively, was not affected in hypoxia. Interestingly, when MTOR activity was inhibited by rapamycin or Torin1, LC3-II levels did not change, suggesting a novel MTOR-independent regulation. Noteworthy, while silencing of HIF1A affected hypoxic induction of BNIP3, it did not affect LC3-II levels, indicating hypoxia-induced autophagy is HIF1-independent. Importantly, there was no change in the number of LC3-positive autophagosomes in NP-specific Hif1a null mice. Finally, inhibition of autophagic flux did not affect the glycolytic metabolism of NP cells, suggesting a possible nonmetabolic role of autophagy. Taken together, our study for the first time shows that NP cells regulate autophagy in a noncanonical fashion independent of MTOR and HIF1A signaling.
    Article · Jun 2016 · Autophagy
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells of the intervertebral disc are essential for synthesizing extracellular matrix that contributes to disc health and mechanical function. NP cells have a unique morphology and molecular expression pattern derived from their notochordal origin, and reside in N-cadherin (CDH2) positive cell clusters in vivo. With disc degeneration, NP cells undergo morphologic and phenotypic changes including loss of CDH2 expression and ability to form cell clusters. Here, we investigate the role of CDH2 positive cell clusters in preserving healthy, biosynthetically active NP cells. Using a laminin-functionalized hydrogel system designed to mimic features of the native NP microenvironment, we demonstrate NP cell phenotype and morphology is preserved only when NP cells form CDH2 positive cell clusters. Knockdown (CRISPRi) or blocking CDH2 expression in vitro and in vivo results in loss of a healthy NP cell. Findings also reveal that degenerate human NP cells that are CDH2 negative can be promoted to re-express CDH2 and healthy, juvenile NP matrix synthesis patterns by promoting cell clustering for controlled microenvironment conditions. This work also identifies CDH2 interactions with β-catenin-regulated signaling as one mechanism by which CDH2-mediated cell interactions can control NP cell phenotype and biosynthesis towards maintenance of healthy intervertebral disc tissues.
    Full-text Article · Jun 2016 · Scientific Reports
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    Full-text Dataset · Jun 2016
  • Article · Apr 2016 · Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced age is the greatest risk factor for the majority of human ailments, including spine-related chronic disability and back pain, which stem from age-associated intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Given the rapid global rise in the aging population, understanding the biology of intervertebral disc aging in order to develop effective therapeutic interventions to combat the adverse effects of aging on disc health is now imperative. Fortunately, recent advances in aging research have begun to shed light on the basic biological process of aging. Here we review some of these insights and organize the complex process of disc aging into three different phases to guide research efforts to understand the biology of disc aging. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge and the recent progress made to elucidate specific molecular mechanisms underlying disc aging. In particular, studies over the last few years have uncovered cellular senescence and genomic instability as important drivers of disc aging. Supporting evidence comes from DNA repair-deficient animal models that show increased disc cellular senescence and accelerated disc aging. Additionally, stress-induced senescent cells have now been well documented to secrete catabolic factors, which can negatively impact the physiology of neighboring cells and ECM. These along with other molecular drivers of aging are reviewed in depth to shed crucial insights into the underlying mechanisms of age-related disc degeneration. We also highlight molecular targets for novel therapies and emerging candidate therapeutics that may mitigate age-associated IDD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Article · Feb 2016 · Journal of Orthopaedic Research
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    Abbie L.A. Binch · Irving M. Shapiro · Makarand V. Risbud
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ECM of the intervertebral disc and articular cartilage contain a highly organised network of collagens and proteoglycans which resist compressive forces applied to these tissues. A pathological hallmark of the intervertebral disc is the imbalance between production of anabolic and catabolic factors by the resident cells. This process is thought to be mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, predominantly TNF-α and IL-1β, which upregulate expression of matrix degrading enzymes such as MMPs and ADAMTSs. This imbalance ultimately results in tissue degeneration causing failure of the biomechanical function of the tissues. A similar cascade of events is thought to occur in articular cartilage during development of osteoarthritis. Within these skeletal tissues a small, cell surface heparan sulphate proteoglycan; syndecan-4 (SDC4) has been implicated in maintaining physiological functions. However in the degenerating niche of the intervertebral disc and cartilage, dysregulated activities of this molecule may exacerbate pathological changes. Studies in recent years have elucidated a role for SDC4 in mediating matrix degradation in both intervertebral discs and cartilage by controlling ADAMTS-5 function and MMP3 expression. Discourse presented in this review highlights the potential of SDC4 as possible therapeutic target in slowing the progression of ECM degradation in both degenerative disc disease and osteoarthritis.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2016 · Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
  • Zachary R Schoepflin · Irving M Shapiro · Makarand V Risbud
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in regulating HIF-1α protein stability and activity in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Treatment of NP cells with pan-HDAC inhibitor TSA resulted in decreased HIF-1α levels under both normoxia and hypoxia in a dose-dependent fashion. TSA-mediated HIF-1α degradation was rescued by concomitant inhibition of not only the 26S proteasome but also PHD2 function. Moreover, TSA treatment of PHD2(-/-) cells had little effect on HIF-1α levels, supporting the notion that inhibition of PHD2 function by HDACs contributed to HIF-1α stabilization. Surprisingly, class-specific HDAC-inhibitors did not affect HIF-1α protein stability, indicating that multiple HDACs controlled HIF-1α stability by regulating HIF-1α-PHD2 interaction in NP cells. Interestingly, lower-dose TSA that did not affect HIF-1α stability decreased its activity and target gene expression. Likewise, rescue of TSA-mediated HIF-1α protein degradation by blocking proteasomal or PHD activity did not restore HIF-1 activity, suggesting that HDACs independently regulate HIF-1α stability and activity. Noteworthy, selective inhibition of HDAC6 and not of class I and IIa HDACs decreased HIF-1-mediated transcription under hypoxia, to a similar extent as lower-dose TSA, contrasting the reported role of HDAC6 as a transcriptional repressor in other cell types. Moreover, HDAC6 inhibition completely blocked TSA effects on HIF-1 activity. HDAC6 associated with and deacetylated HSP90, an important cofactor for HIF-1 function in NP cells, and HDAC6 inhibition decreased p300 transactivation in NP cells. Taken together, these results suggest that while multiple Class I and Class IIa HDACs control HIF-1 stability, HDAC6, a class IIb HDAC, is a novel mediator of HIF-1 activity in NP cells possibly through promoting action of critical HIF-1 cofactors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • Zachary Schoepflin · Hyowon Choi · Zariel Johnson · [...] · Makarand Risbud
    Chapter · Jan 2016
  • Deborah J Gorth · Irving M Shapiro · Makarand V Risbud
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intervertebral disc is a unique avascular organ that supports axial skeleton flexion and rotation. The high proteoglycan content of the nucleus pulposus tissue, present at the center of the disc, is pivotal for its mechanical function, distribution of compressive loads. Chronic low back pain, a prevalent and costly condition, is strongly associated with disc degeneration. Degenerated discs exhibit high levels of inflammatory cytokines, matrix catabolizing enzymes, and an overall reduction in proteoglycan content. Although the cytokine profile of diseased discs has been widely studied, little is known of what initiates and drives inflammation and subsequent low back pain. Recent studies have shown that anaerobic bacteria are present in a high percentage of painful, herniated discs and long-term treatment with antibiotics resolves symptoms associated with chronic low back pain. It is thought that these anaerobic bacteria in the disc may stimulate inflammation through toll-like receptors to further exacerbate disc degeneration. Despite the promise and novelty of this theory, there are other possible inflammatory mediators that need careful consideration. The metabolic environment associated with diabetes and atypical matrix degradation products also have the ability to activate many of the same inflammatory pathways as seen during microbial infection. It is therefore imperative that the research community must investigate the contribution of all possible drivers of inflammation to address the wide spread problem of discogenic chronic low back pain.
    Article · Nov 2015 · Discovery medicine
  • Ye Tian · Wen Yuan · Jun Li · [...] · Makarand V. Risbud
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Galectin-3 is highly expressed in notochordal nucleus pulposus (NP) and thought to play important physiological roles; however, regulation of its expression remains largely unexplored. The aim of the study was to investigate if TGFβ regulates Galectin-3 expression in NP cells. TGFβ treatment resulted in decreased galectin-3 expression. Bioinformatic analysis using JASPAR and MatInspector databases cross-referenced with published ChIP-Seq data showed nine locations of highly probable Smad3 binding in the LGALS3 proximal promoter. In NP cells, TGFβ treatment resulted in decreased activity of reporters harboring several 5' deletions of the proximal Galectin-3 promoter. While transfection of NP cells with constitutively active (CA)-ALK5 resulted in decreased promoter activity, DN-ALK5 blocked the suppressive effect of TGFβ on the promoter. The suppressive effect of Smad3 on the Galectin-3 promoter was confirmed using gain- and loss-of-function studies. Transfection with DN-Smad3 or Smad7 blocked TGFβ mediated suppression of promoter activity. We also measured Galectin-3 promoter activity in Smad3 null and wild type cells. Noteworthy, promoter activity was suppressed by TGFβ only in wild type cells. Likewise, stable silencing of Smad3 in NP cells using sh-Smad3 significantly blocked TGFβ-dependent decrease in Galectin-3 expression. Treatment of human NP cells isolated from tissues with different grades of degeneration showed that Galectin-3 expression was responsive to TGF-β-mediated suppression. Importantly, Galectin-3 synergized effects of TNF-α on inflammatory gene expression by NP cells. Together these studies suggest that TGFβ, through Smad3 controls Galectin-3 expression in NP cells and may have implications in the intervertebral disc degeneration.
    Article · Nov 2015 · Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
  • Z I Johnson · Z R Schoepflin · H Choi · [...] · M V Risbud
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intervertebral disc is an important mechanical structure that allows range of motion of the spinal column. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc - incited by aging, traumatic insult, genetic predisposition, or other factors - is often defined by functional and structural changes in the tissue, including excessive breakdown of the extracellular matrix, increased disc cell senescence and death, as well as compromised biomechanical function of the tissue. Intervertebral disc degeneration is strongly correlated with low back pain, which is a highly prevalent and costly condition, significantly contributing to loss in productivity and health care costs. Disc degeneration is a chronic, progressive condition, and current therapies are limited and often focused on symptomatic pain relief rather than curtailing the progression of the disease. Inflammatory processes exacerbated by cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are believed to be key mediators of disc degeneration and low back pain. In this review, we describe the contributions of TNF-α and IL-1β to changes seen during disc degeneration at both cellular and tissue level, as well as new evidence suggesting a link between infection of the spine and low back pain, and the emerging therapeutic modalities aimed at combating these processes.
    Article · Sep 2015 · European cells & materials
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, it has been shown that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) tumors exhibit high levels of hypoxia, characterized by low oxygen pressure (pO2) and decreased O2 intracellular perfusion. Chronic hypoxia is strongly associated with resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy and chemoradiation in an understudied phenomenon known as hypoxia-induced chemoresistance. The hypoxia-inducible, pro-oncogenic, serine-threonine kinase PIM1 (Proviral Integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1) has emerged as a key regulator of hypoxia-induced chemoresistance in PDA and other cancers. Although its role in therapeutic resistance has been described previously, the molecular mechanism behind PIM1 overexpression in PDA is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that cis-acting AU-rich elements (ARE) present within a 38-base pair region of the PIM1 mRNA 3'-untranslated region mediate a regulatory interaction with the mRNA stability factor HuR (Hu antigen R) in the context of tumor hypoxia. Predominantly expressed in the nucleus in PDA cells, HuR translocates to the cytoplasm in response to hypoxic stress and stabilizes the PIM1 mRNA transcript, resulting in PIM1 protein overexpression. A reverse-phase protein array revealed that HuR-mediated regulation of PIM1 protects cells from hypoxic stress through phosphorylation and inactivation of the apoptotic effector BAD and activation of MEK1/2. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of HuR by MS-444 inhibits HuR homodimerization and its cytoplasmic translocation, abrogates hypoxia-induced PIM1 overexpression and markedly enhances PDA cell sensitivity to oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil under physiologic low oxygen conditions. Taken together, these results support the notion that HuR has prosurvival properties in PDA cells by enabling them with growth advantages in stressful tumor microenvironment niches. Accordingly, these studies provide evidence that therapeutic disruption of HuR's regulation of PIM1 may be a key strategy in breaking an elusive chemotherapeutic resistance mechanism acquired by PDA cells that reside in hypoxic PDA microenvironments.Oncogene advance online publication, 21 September 2015; doi:10.1038/onc.2015.325.
    Article · Sep 2015 · Oncogene
  • Article · Aug 2015 · Cancer Research
  • Z. I. Johnson · Z. R. Schoepflin · H. Choi · [...] · M. V. Risbud
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intervertebral disc is an important mechanical structure that allows range of motion of the spinal column. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc - incited by aging, traumatic insult, genetic predisposition, or other factors - is often defined by functional and structural changes in the tissue, including excessive breakdown of the extracellular matrix, increased disc cell senescence and death, as well as compromised biomechanical function of the tissue. Intervertebral disc degeneration is strongly correlated with low back pain, which is a highly prevalent and costly condition, significantly contributing to loss in productivity and health care costs. Disc degeneration is a chronic, progressive condition, and current therapies are limited and often focused on symptomatic pain relief rather than curtailing the progression of the disease. Inflammatory processes exacerbated by cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) are believed to be key mediators of disc degeneration and low back pain. In this review, we describe the contributions of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta to changes seen during disc degeneration at both cellular and tissue level, as well as new evidence suggesting a link between infection of the spine and low back pain, and the emerging therapeutic modalities aimed at combating these processes.
    Article · Jul 2015 · European cells & materials
  • Irving M Shapiro · William J Landis · Makarand V Risbud
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have documented that matrix vesicles are unique extracellular membrane-bound microparticles that serve as initial sites for mineral formation in the growth plate and most other vertebrate mineralizing tissues. Microparticle generation is not confined to hard tissues, as cells in soft tissues generate similar structures; numerous studies have shown that a common type of extracellular particle, termed an exosome, a product of the endosomal pathway, shares many characteristics of matrix vesicles. Indeed, analyses of size, morphology and lipid and protein content indicate that matrix vesicles and exosomes are homologous structures. Such a possibility impacts our understanding of the biogenesis, processing and function of matrix vesicles (exosomes) in vertebrate hard tissues and explains in part how cells control the earliest stages of mineral deposition. Moreover, since exosomes influence a spectrum of functions, including cell-cell communication, it is suggested that this type of microparticle may provide a mechanism for the transfer of signaling molecules between cells within the growth plate and thereby regulate endochondral bone development and formation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Article · May 2015 · Bone
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laboratory Study. To evaluate whether blockade of the Substance P (SP) receptor neurokinin receptor-1 (NK1R) attenuates its pro-inflammatory effect on human intervertebral disc cells (IVD), and to evaluate the signaling pathways associated with SP. SP and its receptors are expressed in human IVD cells, and cause upregulation of inflammatory mediators, however the effects of blocking these receptors has not been studied in human IVD cells. Human annulus fibrosus (AF) and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were expanded in monolayer, and then suspended in alginate beads. The alginate beads were treated with culture medium first containing a high affinity NK1R antagonist (L-760735) at different concentrations, and then with medium containing both NK1R antagonist and SP at two concentrations. RNA was isolated and transcribed into cDNA. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed to evaluate expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Western blot analysis was performed to examine levels of the phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB p65). The cells were pretreated with specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580), ERK1/2 (PD98059) and p65 (SM7368) and then stimulated with SP. We detected expression of NK1R, neurokinin receptor 2 (NK2R) and neurokinin receptor 3(NK3R) in AF and NP cells. Treatment of disc cells with the NK1R antagonist was able to suppress expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. SP stimulation increased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and ERK1/2, but not of NFκB p65. This indicates that p38-MAPK and ERK1/2 control SP-induced cytokine expression independently from NF-kB p65. Inhibition of p38 and ERK1/2 activation reduced SP-induced IL-6 production in human disc cells. NK1R is responsible for the pro-inflammatory effect of SP on IVD cells and this effect can be blocked by preventing binding of SP to NK1R. This study shows for the first time that SP mediates signaling in disc cells through NK1R and that SP activates the proinflammatory p38-MAPK and ERK1/2 pathways.
    Full-text Article · Apr 2015 · Spine
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    Zariel I Johnson · Shilpa S Gogate · Rebecca Day · [...] · Makarand V Risbud
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives of this study were to investigate whether AQP1 and AQP5 expression is altered during intervertebral disc degeneration and if hypoxia and HIF-1 regulate their expression in NP cells. AQP expression was measured in human tissues from different degenerative grades; regulation by hypoxia and HIF-1 was studied using promoter analysis and gain- and loss-of-function experiments. We show that both AQPs are expressed in the disc and that mRNA and protein levels decline with human disease severity. Bioinformatic analyses of AQP promoters showed multiple evolutionarily conserved HREs. Surprisingly, hypoxia failed to induce promoter activity or expression of either AQP. While genomic chromatin immunoprecipitation showed limited binding of HIF-1α to conserved HREs, their mutation did not suppress promoter activities. Stable HIF-1α suppression significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of both AQPs, but HIF-1α failed to induce AQP levels following accumulation. Together, our results demonstrate that AQP1 and AQP5 expression is sensitive to human disc degeneration and that HIF-1α uniquely maintains basal expression of both AQPs in NP cells, independent of oxemic tension and HIF-1 binding to promoter HREs. Diminished HIF-1 activity during degeneration may suppress AQP levels in NP cells, compromising their ability to respond to extracellular osmolarity changes.
    Full-text Article · Mar 2015 · Oncotarget
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    Zariel I. Johnson · Shilpa S. Gogate · Rebecca Day · [...] · Makarand V. Risbud
    Full-text Dataset · Mar 2015
  • Article · Feb 2015 · Clinical Cancer Research

Publication Stats

5k Citations

Institutions

  • 2007
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2002-2007
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology
      Tiruvananantapuram, Kerala, India
  • 2005
    • Drexel University
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1999
    • National Centre For Cell Science, Pune
      Poona, Mahārāshtra, India