Simon Anderson

The University of Manchester, Manchester, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (3)6.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women is controversial, with an elevated cardiovascular event rate for combined estrogen-progestogen but no adverse cardiovascular effect and possible cumulative benefit for estrogen alone. Here we measured the effects of differing estrogen/progestogen combinations on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/IGF binding protein (IGFBP) system which has been implicated in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease, higher IGFBP-1 levels having been linked with a reduced cardiovascular risk. Oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) alone, or in combination with the increasingly androgenic progestogens medroxyprogesterone acetate, desogestrel or norethisterone, were given in a randomized triple crossover fashion to 35 healthy postmenopausal women. Serum concentrations of IGFs and the principal circulating IGFBPs were measured. Circulating IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio were significantly reduced by CEE. These effects were reversed by progestogens according to their androgenicity. Plasma IGFBP-1 concentration increased from baseline to CEE alone. This rise was opposed by progestogens of increasing androgenicity. IGFBP-2 levels fell and IGFBP-4 increased with CEE, with no further change with addition of progestogens. CEE increased the proportional contribution of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-4 to total IGFBP binding and decreased the IGFBP-3 contribution. This was reversed by progestogens. There are marked changes in molar ratios of the IGFBPs in relation to estrogen/progestogens in HRT. The effect of progestogens on IGF bioavailability could be an important determinant of the longer-term risks of specific HRT preparations by opposing the potentially beneficial effects of CEE alone on cardiovascular risk.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Gynecological Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin resistance is implicated in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Insulin-sensitizing agents are increasingly used in the treatment of infertility and hirsutism in PCOS. However, not all women with PCOS are insulin-resistant. To assess the degree of insulin resistance within a clinic population of women referred for treatment of oligomenorrhoea or infertility. We evaluated 25 consecutive PCOS outpatients referred for treatment of menstrual dysfunction/infertility and a matched control group. All underwent a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with serial insulin measurements. Insulin sensitivity was calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Five of the 25 clinic patients had abnormal glucose handling (two had previously unknown type 2 diabetes and three had impaired glucose tolerance). Fasting and 2-h insulin levels were significantly higher in the PCOS women. Mean HOMA-S (insulin sensitivity) was even lower for PCOS women with normal GTT status (mean (95% confidence interval): 0.53 (0.34-0.72)) than for controls (0.94 (0.84-1.04)) (F = 4.2, p < 0.001). HOMA-B (pancreatic beta-cell function) was nearly tripled for normal GTT status PCOS women at 273 (205-342) versus 105 (70-139) for controls (F = 6.8, p < 0.001). The results suggest a role for routine measurement of HOMA-S in identifying women with PCOS with insulin resistance with a view to targeting them with insulin-sensitizing agents.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Gynecological Endocrinology
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    ABSTRACT: There are two key methods in which fat intake may be manipulated; the 'substitution model' and the 'reduction model'. However insufficient information is known about the mechanisms of dietary fat reduction in individuals who have successfully reduced their fat intake, to be clear as to which strategy offers the greatest chance of success. Our objective was to ascertain the most effective dietary intervention for improving cardiovascular risk profile. Eighty female volunteers (high fat consumers) were recruited. Each subject was randomly allocated into one of the following groups. Substitution of high-fat foods was made with reduced-fat products, by the reduction of high-fat foods, by a combination of substitution and reduction strategies, or no advice was given. Each intervention lasted 3 months. Anthropometric measures and fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and follow-up. The substitution intervention resulted in weight loss (mean -1.4 (95 % CI -2.4, -0.2) kg) and reduced percentage body fat (mean -1.3 (95% CI -2.0, -0.5)%). There was no significant weight change with the other interventions. Fasting triacylglycerols (-0.2 (SEM 0.07) mm; P=0.04), cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (0.8 (SEM 0.2) mg/l; P=0.04) fell with the substitution intervention, but not with the other interventions. Insulin-like growth factor-1 increased with both substitution and reduction (P=0.02). There was no significant change in fasting insulin or glucose with any intervention. The substitution model of dietary intervention is effective even over a relatively short interval of time in reducing fasting total cholesterol, triacylglycerols and CRP. Although the group size for the present study was small and involved females only, it has significant implications for population intervention strategies.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · British Journal Of Nutrition