M. Brodwin

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (257)973.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We study the stellar, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) and intracluster medium (ICM) masses of 14 South Pole Telescope (SPT) selected galaxy clusters with median redshift z = 0.9 and mass M500 = 6 × 1014 M⊙. We estimate stellar masses for each cluster and BCG using six photometric bands, the ICM mass using X-ray observations and the virial masses using the SPT Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect signature. At z = 0.9, the BCG mass $M_{\star }^{\mathrm{BCG}}$ constitutes 0.12 ± 0.01 per cent of the halo mass for a 6 × 1014 M⊙ cluster, and this fraction falls as $M_{500}^{-0.58\pm 0.07}$. The cluster stellar mass function has a characteristic mass M0 = 1011.0 ± 0.1 M⊙, and the number of galaxies per unit mass in clusters is larger than in the field by a factor of 1.65 ± 0.20. We combine our SPT sample with previously published samples at low redshift and correct to a common initial mass function and for systematic virial mass differences. We then explore mass and redshift trends in the stellar fraction f⋆, the ICM fraction fICM, the collapsed baryon fraction fc and the baryon fraction fb. At a pivot mass of 6 × 1014 M⊙ and redshift z = 0.9, the characteristic values are f⋆ = 1.1 ± 0.1 per cent, fICM = 9.6 ± 0.5 per cent, fc = 10.7 ± 1.1 per cent and fb = 10.7 ± 0.6 per cent. These fractions all vary with cluster mass at high significance, with higher mass clusters having lower f⋆ and fc and higher fICM and fb. When accounting for a 15 per cent systematic virial mass uncertainty, there is no statistically significant redshift trend at fixed mass. Our results support the scenario where clusters grow through accretion from subclusters (higher f⋆, lower fICM) and the field (lower f⋆, higher fICM), balancing to keep f⋆ and fICM approximately constant since z ∼ 0.9.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the discovery of a z=1.58 mature cluster around the high-redshift radio galaxy 7C1753+6311, first identified in the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN survey. Two-thirds of the excess galaxies within the central 1Mpc lie on a red sequence with a colour that is consistent with an average formation redshift of zf~3. We show that 80+/-6% of the red sequence galaxies in the cluster core are quiescent, while the remaining 20% are red due to dusty star formation. We demonstrate that the cluster has an enhanced quiescent galaxy fraction that is three times that of the control field. We also show that this enhancement is mass dependent: 91+/-9% of the M* >10^{10.5}Msun cluster galaxies are quiescent, compared to only 36+/-2% of field galaxies, whereas the fraction of quiescent galaxies with lower masses is the same in the cluster and field environments. The presence of a dense core and a well-formed, quiescent red sequence suggest that this is a mature cluster. This means that distant radio galaxies do not solely reside in young, uncollapsed protoclusters, rather they can be found in clusters in a wide range of evolutionary states.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We probe star formation in the environments of massive (∼1013 M⊙) dark matter haloes at redshifts of z ∼ 1. This star formation is linked to a submillimetre clustering signal which we detect in maps of the Planck High Frequency Instrument that are stacked at the positions of a sample of high redshift (z > 2) strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) 2500 deg2 survey. The clustering signal has submillimetre colours which are consistent with the mean redshift of the foreground lensing haloes (z ∼ 1). We report a mean excess of star formation rate (SFR) compared to the field, of (2700 ± 700) M⊙ yr−1 from all galaxies contributing to this clustering signal within a radius of 3.5 arcmin from the SPT DSFGs. The magnitude of the Planck excess is in broad agreement with predictions of a current model of the cosmic infrared background. The model predicts that 80 per cent of the excess emission measured by Planck originates from galaxies lying in the neighbouring haloes of the lensing halo. Using Herschel maps of the same fields, we find a clear excess, relative to the field, of individual sources which contribute to the Planck excess. The mean excess SFR compared to the field is measured to be (370 ± 40) M⊙ yr−1 per resolved, clustered source. Our findings suggest that the environments around these massive z ∼ 1 lensing haloes host intense star formation out to about 2 Mpc. The flux enhancement due to clustering should also be considered when measuring flux densities of galaxies in Planck data.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Calibrating the photometric redshifts of >10^9 galaxies for upcoming weak lensing cosmology experiments is a major challenge for the astrophysics community. The path to obtaining the required spectroscopic redshifts for training and calibration is daunting, given the anticipated depths of the surveys and the difficulty in obtaining secure redshifts for some faint galaxy populations. Here we present an analysis of the problem based on the self-organizing map, a method of mapping the distribution of data in a high-dimensional space and projecting it onto a lower-dimensional representation. We apply this method to existing photometric data from the COSMOS survey selected to approximate the anticipated Euclid weak lensing sample, enabling us to robustly map the empirical distribution of galaxies in the multidimensional color space defined by the expected Euclid filters. Mapping this multicolor distribution lets us determine where - in galaxy color space - redshifts from current spectroscopic surveys exist and where they are systematically missing. Crucially, the method lets us determine whether a spectroscopic training sample is representative of the full photometric space occupied by the galaxies in a survey. We explore optimal sampling techniques and estimate the additional spectroscopy needed to map out the color-redshift relation, finding that sampling the galaxy distribution in color space in a systematic way can efficiently meet the calibration requirements. While the analysis presented here focuses on the Euclid survey, similar analysis can be applied to other surveys facing the same calibration challenge, such as DES, LSST, and WFIRST.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To understand cosmic mass assembly in the Universe at early epochs, we primarily rely on measurements of stellar mass and star formation rate of distant galaxies. In this paper, we present stellar masses and star formation rates of six high-redshift ($2.8\leq z \leq 5.7$) dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) that are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. These sources were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at millimeter wavelengths and all have spectroscopic redshifts and robust lens models derived from ALMA observations. We have conducted follow-up observations, obtaining multi-wavelength imaging data, using {\it HST}, {\it Spitzer}, {\it Herschel} and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX). We use the high-resolution {\it HST}/WFC3 images to disentangle the background source from the foreground lens in {\it Spitzer}/IRAC data. The detections and upper limits provide important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these DSFGs, yielding stellar masses, IR luminosities, and star formation rates (SFRs). The SED fits of six SPT sources show that the intrinsic stellar masses span a range more than one order of magnitude with a median value $\sim$ 5 $\times 10^{10}M_{\Sun}$. The intrinsic IR luminosities range from 4$\times 10^{12}L_{\Sun}$ to 4$\times 10^{13}L_{\Sun}$. They all have prodigious intrinsic star formation rates of 510 to 4800 $M_{\Sun} {\rm yr}^{-1}$. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these six DSFGs have specific SFRs that all lie above the MS, including two galaxies that are a factor of 10 higher than the MS. Our results suggest that we are witnessing the ongoing strong starburst events which may be driven by major mergers.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Decadal IRAC Bootes Survey (DIBS) is a mid-IR variability survey of the ~9 sq. deg. of the NDWFS Bootes Field and extends the time baseline of its predecessor, the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS), from 4 to 10 years. The Spitzer Space Telescope visited the field five times between 2004 and 2014 at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We provide the difference image analysis photometry for a half a million mostly extragalactic sources. In the mid-IR color-color plane, sources with quasar colors constitute the largest variability class (75%), 16% of the variable objects have stellar colors and the remaining 9% have the colors of galaxies. Adding the fifth epoch doubles the number of variable AGNs for the same false positive rates as in SDWFS, or increases the number of sources by 20% while decreasing the false positive rates by factors of 2-3 for the same variability amplitude. We quantify the ensemble mid-IR variability of ~1500 spectroscopically confirmed AGNs using single power-law structure functions, which we find to be steeper (index $\gamma=0.45$) than in the optical ($\gamma=0.3$), leading to much lower amplitudes at short time-lags. This provides evidence for large emission regions, smoothing out any fast UV/optical variations, as the origin of infrared quasar variability. The mid-IR AGN structure function slope $\gamma$ seems to be uncorrelated with both the luminosity and rest-frame wavelength, while the amplitude shows an anti-correlation with the luminosity and a correlation with the rest-frame wavelength.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present confirmation of the cluster MOO J1142+1527, a massive galaxy cluster discovered as part of the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey. The cluster is confirmed to lie at $z=1.19$, and using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy we robustly detect the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement at 13.2$\sigma$. The SZ data imply a mass of $\mathrm{M}_{200m}=(1.1\pm0.2)\times10^{15}$ $\mathrm{M}_\odot$, making MOO J1142+1527 the most massive galaxy cluster known at $z>1.15$ and the second most massive cluster known at $z>1$. For a standard $\Lambda$CDM cosmology it is further expected to be one of the $\sim 5$ most massive clusters expected to exist at $z\ge1.19$ over the entire sky. Our ongoing Spitzer program targeting $\sim1750$ additional candidate clusters will identify comparably rich galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multi-wavelength study of 90 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a sample of galaxy clusters selected via the Sunyaev Zel'dovich effect by the South Pole Telescope, utilizing data from various ground- and space-based facilities. We infer the star formation rate (SFR) for the BCG in each cluster, based on the UV and IR continuum luminosity, as well as the [O II] emission line luminosity in cases where spectroscopy is available, finding 7 systems with SFR > 100 Msun/yr. We find that the BCG SFR exceeds 10 Msun/yr in 31 of 90 (34%) cases at 0.25 < z < 1.25, compared to ~1-5% at z ~ 0 from the literature. At z > 1, this fraction increases to 92(+6)(-31)%, implying a steady decrease in the BCG SFR over the past ~9 Gyr. At low-z, we find that the specific star formation rate in BCGs is declining more slowly with time than for field or cluster galaxies, most likely due to the replenishing fuel from the cooling ICM in relaxed, cool core clusters. At z > 0.6, the correlation between cluster central entropy and BCG star formation - which is well established at z ~ 0 - is not present. Instead, we find that the most star-forming BCGs at high-z are found in the cores of dynamically unrelaxed clusters. We investigate the rest-frame near-UV morphology of a subsample of the most star-forming BCGs using data from the Hubble Space Telescope, finding complex, highly asymmetric UV morphologies on scales as large as ~50-60 kpc. The high fraction of star-forming BCGs hosted in unrelaxed, non-cool core clusters at early times suggests that the dominant mode of fueling star formation in BCGs may have recently transitioned from galaxy-galaxy interactions to ICM cooling.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We use a sample of 37 of the densest clusters and protoclusters across 1.3 ≤ z ≤ 3.2 from the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) survey to study the formation of massive cluster galaxies. We use optical i′-band and infrared 3.6 and 4.5 μm images to statistically select sources within these protoclusters and measure their median observed colours; 〈i′ − [3.6]〉. We find the abundance of massive galaxies within the protoclusters increases with decreasing redshift, suggesting these objects may form an evolutionary sequence, with the lower redshift clusters in the sample having similar properties to the descendants of the high-redshift protoclusters. We find that the protocluster galaxies have an approximately unevolving observed-frame i′ − [3.6] colour across the examined redshift range. We compare the evolution of the 〈i′ − [3.6]〉 colour of massive cluster galaxies with simplistic galaxy formation models. Taking the full cluster population into account, we show that the formation of stars within the majority of massive cluster galaxies occurs over at least 2 Gyr, and peaks at z ∼ 2–3. From the median i′ − [3.6] colours, we cannot determine the star formation histories of individual galaxies, but their star formation must have been rapidly terminated to produce the observed red colours. Finally, we show that massive galaxies at z > 2 must have assembled within 0.5 Gyr of them forming a significant fraction of their stars. This means that few massive galaxies in z > 2 protoclusters could have formed via dry mergers.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We cross-match galaxy cluster candidates selected via their Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signatures in 129.1 deg2 of the South Pole Telescope 2500d SPT-SZ survey with optically identified clusters selected from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. We identify 25 clusters between 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 0.8 in the union of the SPT-SZ and redMaPPer (RM) samples. RM is an optical cluster finding algorithm that also returns a richness estimate for each cluster. We model the richness λ-mass relation with the following function 〈ln λ|M500〉 ∝ Bλln M500 + Cλln E(z) and use SPT-SZ cluster masses and RM richnesses λ to constrain the parameters. We find $B_\lambda = 1.14^{+0.21}_{-0.18}$ and $C_\lambda =0.73^{+0.77}_{-0.75}$. The associated scatter in mass at fixed richness is $\sigma _{\ln M|\lambda } = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.05}$ at a characteristic richness λ = 70. We demonstrate that our model provides an adequate description of the matched sample, showing that the fraction of SPT-SZ-selected clusters with RM counterparts is consistent with expectations and that the fraction of RM-selected clusters with SPT-SZ counterparts is in mild tension with expectation. We model the optical-SZE cluster positional offset distribution with the sum of two Gaussians, showing that it is consistent with a dominant, centrally peaked population and a subdominant population characterized by larger offsets. We also cross-match the RM catalogue with SPT-SZ candidates below the official catalogue threshold significance ξ = 4.5, using the RM catalogue to provide optical confirmation and redshifts for 15 additional clusters with ξ ∈ [4, 4.5].
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present a deep (100 ks) Chandra observation of IDCS J1426.5+3508, a spectroscopically confirmed, infrared-selected galaxy cluster at $z = 1.75$. This cluster is the most massive galaxy cluster currently known at $z > 1.5$, based on existing Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and gravitational lensing detections. We confirm this high mass via a variety of X-ray scaling relations, including $T_X$-M, $f_g$-M, $Y_X$-M and $L_X$-M, finding a tight distribution of masses from these different methods, spanning M$_{500}$ = 2.3-3.3 $\times 10^{14}$ M$_{\odot}$, with the low-scatter $Y_X$-based mass $M_{500,Y_X} = 2.6^{+1.5}_{-0.5} \times 10^{14}$ M$_\odot$. IDCS J1426.5+3508 is currently the only cluster at $z > 1.5$ for which X-ray, SZ and gravitational lensing mass estimates exist, and these are in remarkably good agreement. We find a relatively tight distribution of the gas-to-total mass ratio, employing total masses from all of the aforementioned indicators, with values ranging from $f_{gas,500}$ = 0.087-0.12. We do not detect metals in the intracluster medium (ICM) of this system, placing a 2$\sigma$ upper limit of $Z(r < R_{500}) < 0.18 Z_{\odot}$. This upper limit on the metallicity suggests that this system may still be in the process of enriching its ICM. The cluster has a dense, low-entropy core, offset by $\sim$30 kpc from the X-ray centroid, which makes it one of the few "cool core" clusters discovered at $z > 1$, and the first known cool core cluster at $z > 1.2$. The offset of this core from the large-scale centroid suggests that this cluster has had a relatively recent ($\lesssim$500 Myr) merger/interaction with another massive system.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We report the spectroscopic confirmation of SPT-CL J0546-5345 at 〈z〉 = 1.067. To date this is the most distant cluster to be spectroscopically confirmed from the 2008 South Pole Telescope (SPT) catalog, and indeed the first z>1 cluster discovered by the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich Effect (SZE). We identify 21 secure spectroscopic members within 0.9 Mpc of the SPT cluster position, 18 of which are quiescent, early-type galaxies. From these quiescent galaxies we obtain a velocity dispersion of 1179[superscript +232 subscript −167] km s[superscript −1], ranking SPT-CL J0546-5345 as the most dynamically massive cluster yet discovered at z>1. Assuming that SPT-CL J0546-5345 is virialized, this implies a dynamical mass of M[subscript 200] = 1.0[superscript +0.6 subscript −0.4] × 10[superscript 15] M[subscript ☉], in agreement with the X-ray and SZE mass measurements. Combining masses from several independent measures leads to a best-estimate mass of M[subscript 200] = (7.95 ± 0.92) × 10[superscript 14] M[subscript ☉]. The spectroscopic confirmation of SPT-CL J0546-5345, discovered in the wide-angle, mass-selected SPT cluster survey, marks the onset of the high-redshift SZE-selected galaxy cluster era.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Ongoing and near-future imaging-based dark energy experiments are critically dependent upon photometric redshifts (a.k.a. photo-z’s): i.e., estimates of the redshifts of objects based only on flux information obtained through broad filters. Higher-quality, lower-scatter photo-z’s will result in smaller random errors on cosmological parameters; while systematic errors in photometric redshift estimates, if not constrained, may dominate all other uncertainties from these experiments. The desired optimization and calibration is dependent upon spectroscopic measurements for secure redshift information; this is the key application of galaxy spectroscopy for imaging-based dark energy experiments.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Astroparticle Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The fraction of cluster galaxies that host luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is an important probe of AGN fueling processes, the cold interstellar medium at the centers of galaxies, and how tightly black holes and galaxies co-evolve. We present a new measurement of the AGN fraction in a sample of 13 clusters of galaxies (M ≥ 1014 M ☉) at 1 < z < 1.5 selected from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey, as well as the field fraction in the immediate vicinity of these clusters, and combine these data with measurements from the literature to quantify the relative evolution of cluster and field AGN from the present to z ~ 3. We estimate that the cluster AGN fraction at 1 < z < 1.5 is f[subscript A] = 3.0[+2.4 over -1.4] % for AGNs with a rest-frame, hard X-ray luminosity greater than L X, H ≥ 10[superscript 44] erg s[superscript –1]. This fraction is measured relative to all cluster galaxies more luminous than M[* over 3.6] (z) +1, where M[* over 3.6] is the absolute magnitude of the break in the galaxy luminosity function at the cluster redshift in the IRAC 3.6 μm bandpass. The cluster AGN fraction is 30 times greater than the 3σ upper limit on the value for AGNs of similar luminosity at z ~ 0.25, as well as more than an order of magnitude greater than the AGN fraction at z ~ 0.75. AGNs with L X, H ≥ 10[superscript 43] erg s[superscript –1] exhibit similarly pronounced evolution with redshift. In contrast to the local universe, where the luminous AGN fraction is higher in the field than in clusters, the X-ray and MIR-selected AGN fractions in the field and clusters are consistent at 1 < z < 1.5. This is evidence that the cluster AGN population has evolved more rapidly than the field population from z ~ 1.5 to the present. This environment-dependent AGN evolution mimics the more rapid evolution of star-forming galaxies in clusters relative to the field.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We study the stellar, Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) and intracluster medium (ICM) masses of 14 South Pole Telescope (SPT) selected galaxy clusters with median redshift $z=0.9$ and median mass $M_{500}=6\times10^{14}M_{\odot}$. We estimate stellar masses for each cluster and BCG using six photometric bands spanning the range from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared observed with the VLT, HST and Spitzer. The ICM masses are derived from Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations, and the virial masses are derived from the SPT Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect signature. At $z=0.9$ the BCG mass $M_{\star}^{\textrm{BCG}}$ constitutes $0.12\pm0.01$% of the halo mass for a $6\times10^{14}M_{\odot}$ cluster, and this fraction falls as $M_{500}^{-0.58\pm0.07}$. The cluster stellar mass function has a characteristic mass $M_{0}=10^{11.0\pm0.1}M_{\odot}$, and the number of galaxies per unit mass in clusters is larger than in the field by a factor $1.65\pm0.2$. Both results are consistent with measurements on group scales and at lower redshift. We combine our SPT sample with previously published samples at low redshift that we correct to a common initial mass function and for systematic differences in virial masses. We then explore mass and redshift trends in the stellar fraction (fstar), the ICM fraction (fICM), the cold baryon fraction (fc) and the baryon fraction (fb). At a pivot mass of $6\times10^{14}M_{\odot}$ and redshift $z=0.9$, the characteristic values are fstar=$1.1\pm0.1$%, fICM=$9.6\pm0.5$%, fc=$10.4\pm1.2$% and fb=$10.7\pm0.6$%. These fractions all vary with cluster mass at high significance, indicating that higher mass clusters have lower fstar and fc and higher fICM and fb. When accounting for a 15% systematic virial mass uncertainty, there is no statistically significant redshift trend at fixed mass in these baryon fractions. (abridged)
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Clusters of galaxies are expected to gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby generate a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurements of this effect can be used to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters using CMB data alone. Here we present a measurement of lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We develop a maximum likelihood approach to extract the CMB cluster lensing signal and validate the method on mock data. We quantify the effects of several potential sources of systematic error and find that they generally act to reduce the best-fit cluster mass. The net magnitude of the systematic shift to lower cluster mass is approximately the size of our statistical error bar, and we do not attempt to correct for it. We apply the maximum likelihood technique to 513 clusters selected via their SZ signatures in SPT data, and rule out the null hypothesis of no lensing at 3.0$\sigma$. The lensing-derived mass estimate for the full cluster sample is consistent with that inferred from the SZ flux: $M_{200,\rm{lens}} = 0.76^{+0.37}_{-0.36} M_{200,\rm{SZ}}$ (68% C.L., statistical error only).
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present 279 galaxy cluster candidates at z > 1.3 selected from the 94 deg2 Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) survey. We use a simple algorithm to select candidate high-redshift clusters of galaxies based on Spitzer/IRAC mid-infrared data combined with shallow all-sky optical data. We identify distant cluster candidates adopting an overdensity threshold that results in a high purity (80%) cluster sample based on tests in the Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey of the Boötes field. Our simple algorithm detects all three 1.4 < z ≤ 1.75 X-ray detected clusters in the Boötes field. The uniqueness of the SSDF survey resides not just in its area, one of the largest contiguous extragalactic fields observed with Spitzer, but also in its deep, multi-wavelength coverage by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), Herschel/SPIRE, and XMM-Newton. This rich data set will allow direct or stacked measurements of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect decrements or X-ray masses for many of the SSDF clusters presented here, and enable a systematic study of the most distant clusters on an unprecedented scale. We measure the angular correlation function of our sample and find that these candidates show strong clustering. Employing the COSMOS/UltraVista photometric catalog in order to infer the redshift distribution of our cluster selection, we find that these clusters have a comoving number density and a spatial clustering correlation scale length r 0 = (32 ± 7) h –1 Mpc. Assuming our sample is comprised of dark matter halos above a characteristic minimum mass, M min, we derive that at z = 1.5 these clusters reside in halos larger than . We find that the mean mass of our cluster sample is equal to ; thus, our sample contains the progenitors of present-day massive galaxy clusters.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS) is a comprehensive program to detect and characterize the most massive galaxy clusters in the universe at z~1, and is the only all-sky survey sensitive to galaxy clusters at this epoch. We propose a large snapshot program to obtain photometry for clusters drawn from the 2000 highest significance detections in the MaDCoWS catalog. From a previous pilot program and CARMA Sunyaev-Zel'dovich imaging, we have calibrated a low-scatter mass-richness relation. The proposed observations will yield photometric redshifts and richness estimates for the full snapshot sample. The requested observations are designed to be optimal for (1) investigation of the evolution of massive galaxies in the most overdense environments, (2) unbiased calibration of scaling relations for cluster mass observables, and (3) identification of extremely massive clusters that can be used for the fgas cosmological test and as constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity. These observations also have substantial legacy value, providing a fiducial reference sample for the next generation of wide-area cluster surveys. We intend for this survey to be a community resource for years to come.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a small 9.9 hour program to complete Spitzer/IRAC coverage of SZ-selected clusters at z>1 from the 2500 deg^2 SPT-SZ survey (10 clusters) as well as to image a representative sample of high-significance high-redshift SPTpol cluster candidates (20 candidates). Combined with existing optical imaging data, these IRAC data will permit us to (a) definitively confirm galaxy overdensities at the locations of these candidates, (b) estimate precise redshifts, and (c) measure stellar masses for cluster members, as well as the total stellar mass content of these extreme halos. This program will also enable the study of galaxy evolution in the richest environments for a mass-limited cluster sample over the redshift range 0 < z < 1.5 and will highlight the potential for high-z cluster science with the new generation of mm-wave surveys.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014

Publication Stats

7k Citations
973.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013-2015
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2011-2015
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      • Department of Physics
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • Institut d'astrophysique de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Department of Physics
      München, Bavaria, Germany
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012-2013
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • The Ohio State University
      • Center for Cosmology and Astoparticle Physics
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2011-2013
    • University of Chicago
      • Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006-2012
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008-2009
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2005-2008
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 2001-2008
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • Monash Centre for Astrophysics
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia