N. Elias-Rosa

Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (200)612.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this Letter we present an optical spectrum of SN 2011fe taken 1034 d after the explosion, several hundred days later than any other spectrum of a Type Ia supernova (disregarding light-echo spectra and Local Group remnants). The spectrum is still dominated by broad emission features, with no trace of a light echo or interaction of the supernova ejecta with surrounding interstellar material. Comparing this extremely late spectrum to an earlier one taken 331 d after the explosion, we find that the most prominent feature at 331 d – [Fe iii] emission around 4700 Å – has entirely faded away, suggesting a significant change in the ionization state. Instead, [Fe ii] lines are probably responsible for most of the emission at 1034 d. An emission feature at 6300–6400 Å has newly developed at 1034 d, which we tentatively identify with Fe i λ6359, [Fe i] λλ6231, 6394 or [O i] λλ6300, 6364. Interestingly, the features in the 1034 d spectrum seem to be collectively redshifted, a phenomenon that we currently have no convincing explanation for. We discuss the implications of our findings for explosion models, but conclude that sophisticated spectral modelling is required for any firm statement.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectroscopic and photometric observations for the Type Ibn supernova (SN) dubbed PSN J07285387+3349106. Using data provided by amateur astronomers, we monitored the photometric rise of the SN to maximum light, occurred on 2015 February 18.8 ut (JDmax(V) = 245 7072.0 ± 0.8). PSN J07285387+3349106 exploded in the inner region of an infrared luminous galaxy, and is the most reddened SN Ibn discovered so far. We apply multiple methods to derive the total reddening to the SN, and determine a total colour excess E(B − V)tot = 0.99 ± 0.48 mag. Accounting for the reddening correction, which is affected by a large uncertainty, we estimate a peak absolute magnitude of MV = −20.30 ± 1.50. The spectra are dominated by continuum emission at early phases, and He i lines with narrow P-Cygni profiles are detected. We also identify weak Fe iii and N ii features. All these lines show an absorption component which is blueshifted by about 900–1000 km s−1. The spectra also show relatively broad He i line wings with low contrast, which extend to above 3000 km s−1. From about two weeks past maximum, broad lines of O i, Mg ii and the Ca ii near-infrared triplet are identified. The composition and the expansion velocity of the circumstellar material, and the presence of He i and α-elements in the SN ejecta indicate that PSN J07285387+3349106 was produced by the core collapse of a stripped-envelope star. We suggest that the precursor was WNE-type Wolf–Rayet star in its dense, He-rich circumstellar cocoon.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectroscopic and photometric data of the Type Ibn supernova (SN) 2014av, discovered by the Xingming Observatory Sky Survey. Stringent pre-discovery detection limits indicate that the object was detected for the first time about 4 d after the explosion. A prompt follow-up campaign arranged by amateur astronomers allowed us to monitor the rising phase (lasting 10.6 d) and to accurately estimate the epoch of the maximum light, on 2014 April 23 (JD = 245 6771.1 ± 1.2). The absolute magnitude of the SN at the maximum light is MR = −19.76 ± 0.16. The post-peak light curve shows an initial fast decline lasting about three weeks, and is followed by a slower decline in all bands until the end of the monitoring campaign. The spectra are initially characterized by a hot continuum. Later on, the temperature declines and a number of lines become prominent mostly in emission. In particular, later spectra are dominated by strong and narrow emission features of He i typical of Type Ibn supernovae (SNe), although there is a clear signature of lines from heavier elements (in particular O i, Mg ii and Ca ii). A forest of relatively narrow Fe ii lines is also detected showing P-Cygni profiles, with the absorption component blueshifted by about 1200 km s−1. Another spectral feature often observed in interacting SNe, a strong blue pseudo-continuum, is seen in our latest spectra of SN 2014av. We discuss in this paper the physical parameters of SN 2014av in the context of the Type Ibn SN variety.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of the spectroscopic and photometric monitoring campaign of ASASSN-15ed. The transient was discovered quite young by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN) survey. Amateur astronomers allowed us to sample the photometric SN evolution around maximum light, which we estimate to have occurred on JD = 2457087.4 ± 0.6 in the r band. Its apparent r-band magnitude at maximum was r = 16.91 ± 0.10, providing an absolute magnitude Mr ≈ −20.04 ± 0.20, which is slightly more luminous than the typical magnitudes estimated for Type Ibn SNe. The post-peak evolution was well monitored, and the decline rate (being in most bands around 0.1 mag d−1 during the first 25 d after maximum) is marginally slower than the average decline rates of SNe Ibn during the same time interval. The object was initially classified as a Type Ibn SN because early-time spectra were characterized by a blue continuum with superimposed narrow P-Cygni lines of He i, suggesting the presence of a slowly moving (1200–1500 km s−1), He-rich circumstellar medium. Later on, broad P-Cygni He i lines became prominent. The inferred velocities, as measured from the minimum of the broad absorption components, were between 6000 and 7000 km s−1. As we attribute these broad features to the SN ejecta, this is the first time we have observed the transition of a Type Ibn SN to a Type Ib SN.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2013fc, a bright type II supernova (SN) in a circumnuclear star-forming ring in the luminous infrared galaxy ESO 154-G010, observed as part of the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. SN 2013fc is both photometrically and spectroscopically similar to the well-studied type IIn SN 1998S and to the bright type II-L SN 1979C. It exhibits an initial linear decline, followed by a short plateau phase and a tail phase with a decline too fast for 56Co decay with full γ-ray trapping. Initially, the spectrum was blue and featureless. Later on, a strong broad (∼8000 km s−1) H α emission profile became prominent. We apply a starlight stellar population model fit to the SN location (observed when the SN had faded) to estimate a high extinction of AV = 2.9 ± 0.2 mag and an age of $10_{-2}^{+3}$ Myr for the underlying cluster. We compare the SN to SNe 1998S and 1979C and discuss its possible progenitor star considering the similarities to these events. With a peak brightness of B = −20.46 ± 0.21 mag, SN 2013fc is 0.9 mag brighter than SN 1998S and of comparable brightness to SN 1979C. We suggest that SN 2013fc was consistent with a massive red supergiant (RSG) progenitor. Recent mass loss probably due to a strong RSG wind created the circumstellar matter illuminated through its interaction with the SN ejecta. We also observe a near-infrared excess, possibly due to newly condensed dust.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical and near-infrared observations of the type IIb supernova (SN) 2011fu from a few days to ∼300 d after explosion. The SN presents a double-peaked light curve (LC) similar to that of SN 1993J, although more luminous and with a longer cooling phase after the primary peak. The spectral evolution is also similar to SN 1993J's, with hydrogen dominating the spectra to ∼40 d, then helium gaining strength, and nebular emission lines appearing from ∼60 d post-explosion. The velocities derived from the P-Cygni absorptions are overall similar to those of other type IIb SNe. We have found a strong similarity between the oxygen and magnesium line profiles at late times, which suggests that these lines are forming at the same location within the ejecta. The hydrodynamical modelling of the pseudo-bolometric LC and the observed photospheric velocities suggest that SN 2011fu was the explosion of an extended star (R∼ 450 R⊙), in which 1.3 × 1051 erg of kinetic energy were released and 0.15 M⊙ of 56Ni were synthesized. In addition, a better reproduction of the observed early pseudo-bolometric LC is achieved if a more massive H-rich envelope than for other type IIb SNe is considered (0.3 M⊙). The hydrodynamical modelling of the LC and the comparison of our late-time spectra with nebular spectral models for type IIb SNe, point to a progenitor for SN 2011fu with a Zero Age Main Sequence (ZAMS) mass of 13–18 M⊙.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present our findings on a supernova (SN) impostor, SNHunt248, based on optical and near-IR data spanning $\sim$15 yrs before discovery, to $\sim$1 yr post-discovery. The light curve displays three distinct peaks, the brightest of which is at $M_{R} \sim -15.0$ mag. The post-discovery evolution is consistent with the ejecta from the outburst interacting with two distinct regions of circumstellar material. The 0.5 - 2.2 $\mu$m spectral energy distribution at -740 d is well-matched by a single 6700 K blackbody with $\log(L/L_\odot) \sim 6.1$. This temperature and luminosity support previous suggestions of a yellow hypergiant progenitor; however, we find it to be brighter than the brightest and most massive Galactic late-F to early-G spectral type hypergiants. Overall the historical light curve displays variability of up to $\sim \pm1$ mag. At current epochs ($\sim$1 yr post-outburst), the absolute magnitude ($M_{R} \sim -9$ mag) is just below the faintest observed historical absolute magnitude $\sim$10 yrs before discovery.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are powered by the radioactive decay of 56Ni to 56Co at early times, and the decay of 56Co to 56Fe from ∼60 d after explosion. We examine the evolution of the [Co iii] λ5893 emission complex during the nebular phase for SNe Ia with multiple nebular spectra and show that the line flux follows the square of the mass of 56Co as a function of time. This result indicates both efficient local energy deposition from positrons produced in 56Co decay and long-term stability of the ionization state of the nebula. We compile SN Ia nebular spectra from the literature and present 21 new late-phase spectra of 7 SNe Ia, including SN 2014J. From these we measure the flux in the [Co iii] λ5893 line and remove its well-behaved time dependence to infer the initial mass of 56Ni (MNi) produced in the explosion. We then examine 56Ni yields for different SN Ia ejected masses (Mej – calculated using the relation between light-curve width and ejected mass) and find that the 56Ni masses of SNe Ia fall into two regimes: for narrow light curves (low stretch s ∼ 0.7–0.9), MNi is clustered near MNi ≈ 0.4 M⊙ and shows a shallow increase as Mej increases from ∼1 to 1.4 M⊙; at high stretch, Mej clusters at the Chandrasekhar mass (1.4 M⊙) while MNi spans a broad range from 0.6 to 1.2 M⊙. This could constitute evidence for two distinct SN Ia explosion mechanisms.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectroscopic and photometric data of the peculiar SN 2001gh, discovered by the Southern inTermediate Redshift ESO Supernova Search at a redshift z = 0.16. SN 2001gh has relatively high luminosity at maximum (MB = −18.55 mag), while the light curve shows a broad peak. An early-time spectrum shows an almost featureless, blue continuum with a few weak and shallow P-Cygni lines that we attribute to He i. He i lines remain the only spectral features visible in a subsequent spectrum, obtained one month later. A remarkable property of SN 2001gh is the lack of significant spectral evolution over the temporal window of nearly one month separating the two spectra. In order to explain the properties of SN 2001gh, three powering mechanism are explored, including radioactive decays of a moderately large amount of 56Ni, magnetar spin-down, and interaction of SN ejecta with circumstellar medium. We favour the latter scenario, with a SN Ib wrapped in a dense, circumstellar shell. The fact that no models provide an excellent fit with observations, confirms the troublesome interpretation of the nature of SN 2001gh. A rate estimate for SN 2001gh-like event is also provided, confirming the intrinsic rarity of these objects.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the optical transient SN 2011A. Our data spans 140 days after discovery including $BVRIu'g'r'i'z'$ photometry and 11 epochs of optical spectroscopy. Originally classified as a type IIn supernova (SN IIn) due to the presence of narrow H$\alpha$ emission, this object shows exceptional characteristics. Firstly, the light curve shows a double plateau; a property only observed before in the impostor SN 1997bs. Secondly, SN 2011A has a very low luminosity ($M_{V}=-15.72$), placing it between normal luminous SNe IIn and SN impostors. Thirdly, SN 2011A shows low velocity and high equivalent width absorption close to the sodium doublet, which increases with time and is most likely of circumstellar origin. This evolution is also accompanied by a change of line profile; when the absorption becomes stronger, a P-Cygni profile appears. We discuss SN 2011A in the context of interacting SNe IIn and SN impostors, which appears to confirm the uniqueness of this transient. While we favour an impostor origin for SN 2011A, we highlight the difficulty in differentiating between terminal and non-terminal interacting transients.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present data for LSQ14bdq, a hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernova (SLSN) discovered by the La Silla QUEST survey and classified by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. The spectrum and light curve are very similar to slow-declining SLSNe such as PTF12dam. However, detections within $\sim1$ day after explosion show a bright and relatively fast initial peak, lasting for $\sim15$ days, prior to the usual slow rise to maximum light. The broader, main peak can be fit with either central engine or circumstellar interaction models. We discuss the implications of the precursor peak in the context of these models. It is too bright and narrow to be explained as a normal \Ni-powered SN, and we suggest that interaction models may struggle to fit the precursor and main peak simultaneously. We propose that the initial peak is from the post-shock cooling of an extended stellar envelope, and reheating by a central engine drives the second peak. In this picture, we show that an explosion energy of $\sim2\times10^{52}$\,erg and a progenitor radius of a few hundred solar radii are required to power the early emission. The two competing engine models involve rapidly spinning magnetars (neutron stars) or fall-back accretion onto a central black hole. The prompt energy required may favour the black hole scenario. The remarkably bright initial peak effectively rules out a compact Wolf-Rayet star as a progenitor, since the inferred energies and ejected masses become unphysical.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2009ib, a Type II-P supernova in NGC 1559. This object has moderate brightness, similar to those of the intermediate-luminosity SNe 2008in and 2009N. Its plateau phase is unusually long, lasting for about 130 d after explosion. The spectra are similar to those of the subluminous SN 2002gd, with moderate expansion velocities. We estimate the 56Ni mass produced as 0.046 ± 0.015 M⊙. We determine the distance to SN 2009ib using both the expanding photosphere method (EPM) and the standard candle method. We also apply EPM to SN 1986L, a Type II-P SN that exploded in the same galaxy. Combining the results of different methods, we conclude the distance to NGC 1559 as D = 19.8 ± 3.0 Mpc. We examine archival, pre-explosion images of the field taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, and find a faint source at the position of the SN, which has a yellow colour [(V − I)0 = 0.85 mag]. Assuming it is a single star, we estimate its initial mass as MZAMS = 20 M⊙. We also examine the possibility, that instead of the yellow source the progenitor of SN 2009ib is a red supergiant star too faint to be detected. In this case, we estimate the upper limit for the initial zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass of the progenitor to be ∼14–17 M⊙. In addition, we infer the physical properties of the progenitor at the explosion via hydrodynamical modelling of the observables, and estimate the total energy as ∼0.55 × 1051 erg, the pre-explosion radius as ∼400 R⊙, and the ejected envelope mass as ∼15 M⊙, which implies that the mass of the progenitor before explosion was ∼16.5–17 M⊙.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera 3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and NIR data provide complementary information. The combined data set covers the wavelength range 0.2–2 μm. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to E(B − V) = 1.4 mag. We study the wavelength-dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterized by the total-to-selective extinction RV. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with E(B − V) ≳ 1 mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find RV = 1.4 ± 0.1 and RV = 2.8 ± 0.1. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted RV by ∼50 per cent allowing us to also measure RV of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the Universe.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We assemble a sample of 24 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Parameterizing the light-curve shape through rise and decline time-scales shows that the two are highly correlated. Magnetar-powered models can reproduce the correlation, with the diversity in rise and decline rates driven by the diffusion time-scale. Circumstellar interaction models can exhibit a similar rise–decline relation, but only for a narrow range of densities, which may be problematic for these models. We find that SLSNe are approximately 3.5 mag brighter and have light curves three times broader than SNe Ibc, but that the intrinsic shapes are similar. There are a number of SLSNe with particularly broad light curves, possibly indicating two progenitor channels, but statistical tests do not cleanly separate two populations. The general spectral evolution is also presented. Velocities measured from Fe ii are similar for SLSNe and SNe Ibc, suggesting that diffusion time differences are dominated by mass or opacity. Flat velocity evolution in most SLSNe suggests a dense shell of ejecta. If opacities in SLSNe are similar to other SNe Ibc, the average ejected mass is higher by a factor 2–3. Assuming κ = 0.1 cm2 g−1, we estimate a mean (median) SLSN ejecta mass of 10 M⊙ (6 M⊙), with a range of 3–30 M⊙. Doubling the assumed opacity brings the masses closer to normal SNe Ibc, but with a high-mass tail. The most probable mechanism for generating SLSNe seems to be the core collapse of a very massive hydrogen-poor star, forming a millisecond magnetar.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Full-text · Dataset · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the interacting transient SN 2009ip taken during the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons. We characterize the photometric evolution as a steady and smooth decline in all bands, with a decline rate that is slower than expected for a solely 56Co-powered supernova at late phases. No further outbursts or eruptions were seen over a two year period from 2012 December until 2014 December. SN 2009ip remains brighter than its historic minimum from pre-discovery images. Spectroscopically, SN 2009ip continues to be dominated by strong, narrow (≲2000 km s− 1) emission lines of H, He, Ca, and Fe. While we make tenuous detections of [Fe ii] λ7155 and [O i] λλ6300, 6364 lines at the end of 2013 June and the start of 2013 October, respectively, we see no strong broad nebular emission lines that could point to a core-collapse origin. In general, the lines appear relatively symmetric, with the exception of our final spectrum in 2014 May, when we observe the appearance of a redshifted shoulder of emission at +550 km s− 1. The lines are not blueshifted, and we see no significant near- or mid-infrared excess. From the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of SN 2009ip until 820 d after the start of the 2012a event, we still see no conclusive evidence for core-collapse, although whether any such signs could be masked by ongoing interaction is unclear.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical observations of the peculiar Type Ibn supernova (SN Ibn) OGLE-2012-SN-006, discovered and monitored by the OGLE-IV survey, and spectroscopically followed by PESSTO at late phases. Stringent pre-discovery limits constrain the explosion epoch with fair precision to JD = 2456203.8 +- 4.0. The rise time to the I-band light curve maximum is about two weeks. The object reaches the peak absolute magnitude M(I) = -19.65 +- 0.19 on JD = 2456218.1 +- 1.8. After maximum, the light curve declines for about 25 days with a rate of 4 mag per 100d. The symmetric I-band peak resembles that of canonical Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe), whereas SNe Ibn usually exhibit asymmetric and narrower early-time light curves. Since 25 days past maximum, the light curve flattens with a decline rate slower than that of the 56Co to 56Fe decay, although at very late phases it steepens to approach that rate. An early-time spectrum is dominated by a blue continuum, with only a marginal evidence for the presence of He I lines marking this SN Type. This spectrum shows broad absorptions bluewards than 5000A, likely O II lines, which are similar to spectral features observed in super-luminous SNe at early epochs. The object has been spectroscopically monitored by PESSTO from 90 to 180 days after peak, and these spectra show the typical features observed in a number of SN 2006jc-like events, including a blue spectral energy distribution and prominent and narrow (v(FWHM) ~ 1900 km/s) He I emission lines. This suggests that the ejecta are interacting with He-rich circumstellar material. The detection of broad (10000 km/s) O I and Ca II features likely produced in the SN ejecta (including the [O I] 6300A,6364A doublet in the latest spectra) lends support to the interpretation of OGLE-2012-SN-006 as a core-collapse event.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical observations of the peculiar stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw discovered by the La Silla-QUEST survey. LSQ12btw reaches an absolute peak magnitude of M(g) = -19.3 +- 0.2, and shows an asymmetric light curve. Stringent prediscovery limits constrain its rise time to maximum light to less than 4 days, with a slower post-peak luminosity decline, similar to that experienced by the prototypical SN~Ibn 2006jc. LSQ13ccw is somewhat different: while it also exhibits a very fast rise to maximum, it reaches a fainter absolute peak magnitude (M(g) = -18.4 +- 0.2), and experiences an extremely rapid post-peak decline similar to that observed in the peculiar SN~Ib 2002bj. A stringent prediscovery limit and an early marginal detection of LSQ13ccw allow us to determine the explosion time with an uncertainty of 1 day. The spectra of LSQ12btw show the typical narrow He~I emission lines characterising Type Ibn SNe, suggesting that the SN ejecta are interacting with He-rich circumstellar material. The He I lines in the spectra of LSQ13ccw exhibit weak narrow emissions superposed on broad components. An unresolved Halpha line is also detected, suggesting a tentative Type Ibn/IIn classification. As for other SNe~Ibn, we argue that LSQ12btw and LSQ13ccw likely result from the explosions of Wolf-Rayet stars that experienced instability phases prior to core collapse. We inspect the host galaxies of SNe Ibn, and we show that all of them but one are hosted in spiral galaxies, likely in environments spanning a wide metallicity range.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We report the spectroscopic observation of CSS150213:100134+453359 in SDSS J100134.51+453339.9. The observation was performed with the Asiago 1.82m Copernico Telescope (+AFOSC; range 340-820 nm; resolution 1.4 nm), equipped with the CCD Andor IKON L936. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ATel.7120....1E
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015

Publication Stats

3k Citations
612.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2015
    • Institut de Ciències de l'Espai
      Sabadell, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2006-2015
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2010-2011
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2009-2010
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, CA, United States
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • Astrophysics Research Centre (ARC)
      Belfast, NIR, United Kingdom
  • 2007-2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2006-2008
    • Universidad de La Laguna
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain