[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular damages poses risks to children with Kawasaki disease (KD). Although hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesteremia are risk factors of cardiovascular damages, studies on the blood lipid metabolism in KD are still limited. This study aims to analyze the blood lipids and coagulation in KD.
Triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels in the plasma and serum from 20 children with KD were examined in comparison with 10 healthy children (HC) as well as 10 children with high fever from identified bacterial infections (BT). Using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, we profiled the lipid species. Blood coagulation was analyzed. Statistics was analyzed by one-way ANOVA using SigmaStat.
We found that in KD, plasma TG level was significantly increased, but not serum TG. A total of 19 molecular species of TG were identified, and they were all increased in KD and BT patients, and more pronounced in KD. On the other hand, major molecular species of plasma phosphotidylcholine and lyso-phosphotidylcholine were decreased in KD and BT. Pronounced hypercoagulation was found in KD blood.
Our data indicate hyperlipidemia in KD, especially for TG, which contributes to the hypercoagulation and the potential risk of cardiovascular damages. Evaluation of blood lipid levels in severe KD patients could provide valuable information for treatment and prognosis, thus would be worthy of consideration.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Lipids in Health and Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) <l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019). BW <750 g and GA <28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed countries.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that the risk of cardiovascular disease(CVD) in adulthood is influenced by the environment in early life. Intrauterine and early postnatal malnutrition and the following catch-up growth have a long-term effect on blood pressure and endothelial function in adulthood. Well-established prenatal or/and postnatal animal models are used to study the impact of different nutritional intervention on CVD in adulthood. This article reviews the early original cause of chronic CVD in adulthood with the hypothesis of DOHaD(the developmental origins of health and disease), and proposes possible preventions in early life on the basis of this theory.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Zhejiang da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) plays an important role in the developmental origin of adult cardiovascular diseases. In an EUGR rat model, we reported an elevated pulmonary arterial pressure in adults and genome-wide epigenetic modifications in pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs). However, the underlying mechanism of the early nutritional insult that results in pulmonary vascular consequences later in life remains unclear.
A rat model was used to investigate the physiological and structural effect of EUGR on early pulmonary vasculature by evaluating right ventricular systolic pressure and pulmonary vascular density in male rats. Epigenetic modifications of the Notch1 gene in PVECs were evaluated.
EUGR decreased pulmonary vascular density with no significant impact on right ventricular systolic pressure at 3 weeks. Decreased transcription of Notch1 was observed both at 3 and 9 weeks, in association with decreased downstream target gene, Hes-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and bisulfite sequencing were performed to analyze the epigenetic modifications of the Notch1 gene promoter in PVECs. EUGR caused a significantly increased H3K27me3 in the proximal Notch1 gene promoter, and increased methylation of single CpG sites in the distal Notch1 gene promoter, both at 3 and 9 weeks.
We conclude that EUGR results in decreased pulmonary vascular growth in association with decreased Notch1 in PVECs. This may be mediated by increased CpG methylation and H3K27me3 in the Notch1 gene promoter region.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Respiratory research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disease characterized by lung endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular remodeling. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been proved to be a potential therapeutic strategy to treat PH. Autophagy has been found to be protective to hypoxia-induced PH. In this study, we applied high shear stress (HSS)-induced PH, and examined whether EPCs confer resistance against HSS-induced PH through autophagy.
Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) were cultured under HSS with proinflammatory factors in an artificial capillary system to mimic the PH condition. Levels of p62, a selective autophagy substrate, were quantified by western blotting. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion test.
The p62 level in PMVECs was increased at 4 hours after HSS, peaked at 12 hours and declined at 24 hours. The cell viability gradually decreased. Compared with PMVECs cultured by empty medium, in cells cultured by EPC-conditioned medium (EPC-CM), the cell viability was significantly higher; however, p62 levels were also significantly higher, suggesting inhibition of autophagy by EPC-CM. Adding choloquine to suppress autophagy decreased the cell viability of PMVECs under PH.
EPC-CM could suppress the autophagic activity of PMVECs in HSS-induced PH. However, suppression of autophagy leads to cell death. EPCs could fight against PH through cellular or molecular pathways independent of autophagy. But it is not proved if induction of autophagy could be a potential strategy to treat HSS-induced PH as hypoxia-induced PH.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · World Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Epidemiological studies have revealed that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or low birth weight is linked to the later development of asthma. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms play an important role in the fetal origins of adult disease. However, little is known regarding the correlation between epigenetic regulation and the development of asthma following IUGR.Methods
An IUGR and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitization/challenge rat model was used to study whether epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the development of asthma following IUGR.ResultsMaternal nutrient restriction increased histone acetylation levels of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene promoter in lung tissue of offspring, but did not cause significant alterations of DNA methylation. The effect was maintained until 10 weeks after birth. Furthermore, these epigenetic changes may have induced IUGR individuals to be highly sensitive to OVA challenge later in life, resulting in more significant changes related to asthma.Conclusions
These findings suggest that epigenetic mechanisms might be closely associated with the development of asthma following IUGR, providing further insight for improved prevention of asthma induced by environmental factors.
Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Respiratory Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic hypoxia pulmonary hypertension (CH-PHT) in adulthood is likely to be of fetal origin following intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Oxygen (O2)-sensitive voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv channels) in resistance pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an important role in scaling pulmonary artery pressure. Expression and functional changes of Kv channels are determined, in part, by embryonic development. We hypothesized that O2-sensitive Kv channels play an important role in exaggerated CH-PHT following IUGR. We established a rat model of IUGR by restricting maternal food during the entire pregnancy and exposed IUGR rats and their age-matched controls aged12 weeks to hypoxia for 2 weeks. We found that hypoxia exposure significantly induced increased pulmonary artery (PA) pressure and thicker smooth muscle layer in the IUGR group relative to controls. We compared the constriction of the resistance PA to inhibitors of K(+) channels, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), and barium chloride (BaCl2). Despite the thickness of the smooth muscle layer, the constriction to 4-AP was significantly reduced in the IUGR group exposed to hypoxia. Consistent with these changes in pulmonary vascular reactivity, 2 weeks of hypoxia induced weaker 4-AP-sensitive Kv currents in a single IUGR PASMC. Moreover, after 2 weeks of hypoxia, Kv1.5 expression in resistance PAs decreased significantly in the IUGR group. Overexpression of Kv1.5 in cultured PASMCs could offset hypoxia-induced cell proliferation and hypoxia-inhibited Kv currents in the IUGR group. These results suggest that the inhibited expression of Kv1.5 in PASMCs contribute to the development of exaggerated CH-PHT in IUGR rats during adulthood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To observe the effects of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) on the patient-ventilator synchrony, gas exchange, and ventilatory parameters in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) during mechanical ventilation.
Ten preterm infants with RDS received mechanical ventilation in NAVA mode for 60 minutes and in synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) mode for 60 minutes, and the two modes were given in a random order. The vital signs, patient-ventilator synchrony, blood gas values, and ventilatory parameters were compared between the two ventilation modes.
Inspiratory trigger delay was significantly shorter with NAVA than with SIMV (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in arterial pH, PaCO2, PaO2 and PaO2/FiO2 between the two modes. The spontaneous respiratory rate, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), electrical activity of the diaphragm and work of breathing were significantly lower in NAVA than in SIMV (P<0.05).
Compared with SIMV, NAVA appears to improve patient-ventilator synchrony, decrease PIP, and reduce diaphragmatic muscle load and work of breathing in preterm infants with RDS during mechanical ventilation.
No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the diagnostic value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) in predicting outcome of newborns who were at high risk for central nervous system without severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
Forty-two consecutive patients at risks for neurological disorders referred to our level-III NICU were prospectively enrolled in the study over a period of 3 years. They were classified on the basis of their primary diagnoses including hypoglycemic brain damage, meningoencephalitis, bilirubin encephalopathy, and metabolic disease. Clinical data were collected. Amplitude-integrated and raw EEG tracings were assessed for background pattern, sleep-wake cycling, and epileptiform activity. The neuromotor development of survivors was assessed by using the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB).
The characteristic of aEEG tracings in 42 infants showed continuous normal voltage (CNV)(n = 15), discontinuous voltage (DC)(n = 9), burst-suppression (BS) BS(+) (n = 6), BS(-)(n = 7), flat (FT, n = 5); mature sleep-wake cycling (SWC, n = 4), immature SWC (n = 14), no SWC (n = 24); 30 infants (71.4%) had electrical seizures: single seizure (n = 6); repetitive seizures (n = 7), and status epilepticus (SE) (n = 17).aEEG of 20 infants who had poor outcome showed FT (n = 5), BS(-)/SE (n = 6), BS(-)/ repetitive seizures (n = 1) , BS(+)/SE (n = 1), BS(+)/repetitive seizures (n = 1), DC/SE(n = 6). Chi-square analysis and Spearman rank correlation analysis showed the classification of aEEG background pattern, SWC and comprehensive score (score system was developed by evaluation of the above 3 variables) were correlated with the outcome of these infants at high neurological risks.
Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography can provide important information of the status of cerebral function in neonates at high neurological risk and help to predict their outcome.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the value of the score for neonatal acute physiology (score for neonatal acute physiology, SNAP) in predicting outcome and risk of surgery of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).
A total of 62 NEC patients in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Zhejiang University Children's Hospital were reviewed from October 2001 to October 2011. All the patients were classified into surgery group and non-surgery group according to whether the patient had the surgical intervention. Also the patients were divided into death group and alive group according to the outcome. Data on gestational age at birth, gender, birth weight, early clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis of all patients were collected. SNAP-II and score for neonatal acute physiology and perinatal extension II (SNAPPE-II) were calculated on the day of diagnosis.
Abdominal distension, which was seen in 91.9% of the cases, was the commonest early clinical manifestation. The next was residual and bloody stool. SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II score in surgery group (26.5,26.5) were higher than that of the non-surgery group (13.0, 13.0,P = 0.002, 0.006). And the same scores in death group (29.0,32.0) were higher than those in the alive group (8.0, 8.0) (P = 0.000, 0.000). Measuring the scores as a predictor of surgery, the area under ROC curve for SNAP-II was 0.745, and was 0.714 for SNAPPE-II. The area under ROC curve for SNAP-II was 0.916, and was 0.929 for SNAPPE-II.The best positive point of SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II for predicting surgery was 22 and 28. The best positive point of SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II for predicting death was 18.5 and 22.
The SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II score may be used to predict the prognosis and the risk of surgery in the NEC patients. The scores are also good predictors of mortality in the early period when NEC occurs.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize amplitude-integrated electroencephalo graphic (aEEG) traces in neonates with acute bilirubin encephalopathy (ABE), explore the value of aEEG in early diagnosis and prediction of neurological outcome of ABE.
aEEG records of 10 cases with ABE (Oct 2009-Nov 2011) were reviewed to identify neonates with a diagnosis of ABE. Clinical data were collected. The aEEG traces were classified according to background activity (normal, moderate, or severely abnormal), presence of seizures and sleep-wake cycling (SWC). Brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were studied. The neuromotor development of survivors with ABE was assessed by using the Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB).
The characteristics of aEEG tracings in these infants with ABE were shown continuous normal voltage (CNV, n = 5), discontinuous voltage (DNV, n = 4), discontinuous voltage with burst-suppression (BS)BS+ (n = 1); mature SWC (n = 2), immature SWC (n = 5), no SWC (n = 3); 8 infants (80%) had electrical seizures: single seizure (n = 2); repetitive seizures (n = 2), and status epilepticus (SE) (n = 4). Among the 10 infants with ABE, no infants had normal aEEG, 3 had mildly abnormal aEEG, and 7 had severely abnormal aEEG. Eight infants accepted BAEP test, 2 were mildly abnormal and 6 were severely abnormal. Six infants accepted MRI, 1 was normal and 5 were abnormal. By chi-square analysis and Spearman rank correlation analysis, the results of aEEG classification were correlated with the phase of ABE and the severity of BAEP. These infants were followed up for more than 6 months (range 6 months to 1 year). In 3 infants with mildly abnormal aEEG, 2 were normal and 1 was transit in infanib score at 6 months of age. Of 7 infants with severely abnormal aEEG, 1 died, 3 were abnormal (2 Spastic dyskinesia and 1 hypotonia), 2 were transit in infanib score at 6 months old. 1 lost to follow-up.
Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography can provide important information of the status of cerebral function in neonates with ABE and help to predict its neurological outcome.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence reveals that intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) can cause varying degrees of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) later in life. Moreover, epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origin of adult disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of epigenetics in the development of PAH following IUGR.
The IUGR rats were established by maternal undernutrition during pregnancy. Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVEC) were isolated from the rat lungs by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). We investigated epigenetic regulation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene in PVEC of 1-day and 6-week IUGR rats, and response of IUGR rats to hypoxia.
The maternal nutrient restriction increased the histone acetylation and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) binding levels in the ET-1 gene promoter of PVEC in IUGR newborn rats, and continued up to 6 weeks after birth. These epigenetic changes could result in an IUGR rat being highly sensitive to hypoxia later in life, causing more significant PAH or pulmonary vascular remodeling.
These findings suggest that epigenetics is closely associated with the development of hypoxic PAH following IUGR, further providing a new insight for improved prevention and treatment of IUGR-related PAH.
Preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Respiratory research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The history of clinical application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been more than 30 years. But in China, there were only a few ECMO centers with limited successful cases reported by the end of twentieth century. The high morbidities and mortalities in current pediatric ECMO practice are noted in China. Therefore, it is necessary to review the experience on rescue use of ECMO in critically ill pediatric patients.
A retrospective analysis was done for patients who had been receiving ECMO treatment to rescue refractory cardiorespiratory failure from different causes in a hospital between July 2007 and May 2011.
A total of 12 patients were treated with ECMO; 7 of them were male and 5 female, they aged 6 days to 11 years, weighed 2.8 - 35 (17.21 ± 11.64) kg. The underlying causes of cardiorespiratory failure were as follows: two cases with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to respiratory failure, 4 with failure of weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, 3 with fulminant myocarditis, 1 with right ventricular cardiomyopathy leading to repeated cardiac arrest, 1 with preoperative severe hypoxemia, and 1 with anaphylactic shock complicated with massive pulmonary hemorrhage and severe hypoxemia. Of the 12 cases, 3 were established ECMO (E-CPR) while underwent chest compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The mean ECMO support time was 151.75 (15 - 572) h. Seven patients (58.33%) were weaned from ECMO, 6 patients (50.00%) were successfully discharged. Six cases had bleeding from sutures, 2 cases with severe bleeding underwent thoracotomy hemostasis, 2 presented with acute renal failure. Infection was documented in 3 cases, hyperbilirubinemia in 2 cases, lower limb ischemia in 1 case, hyperglycemia in 3 cases, disseminated intravascular coagulation in 1 case, membrane lung leakage in 2 cases, systemic hemolysis in 3 cases, oxygenator failure in 2 cases and oxygenator thrombosis in one case. During the follow-up between 6 months and 4.5 years, 5 patients survived with good quality of life, without any documented central nervous system disorders. One case survived with the right lower extremity disorder from ischemic damage. His motor function has been improved following orthopedic operation at one year after discharge.
ECMO is a justifiable alternative treatment for reversible severe cardiopulmonary failure in critically ill children.
No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Zhonghua er ke za zhi. Chinese journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous reports indicated that mutations in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3) cause fatal respiratory failure in term infants, and common ABCA3 gene polymorphisms have been characterized at the population level in Caucasians. But the role of ABCA3 in relation to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in newborns has not been evaluated within a Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ABCA3 gene, and to assess the ABCA3 gene as a candidate gene for susceptibility to RDS in newborns.
Eight SNPs were selected and genotyped in 203 newborns. The data analysis and statistical tests were used for allele frequencies, haplotype and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium pairwise linkage disequilibrium measures.
There was a haplotype association with SNP rs313909 and SNP rs170447, but no haplotype association was observed among the newborns with and without RDS (P > 0.05). The minor allele frequency (G) of the coding SNP (cSNP) rs323043 (P585P) was significantly increased in preterm infants with RDS.
There is an association between a synonymous cSNP rs323043 and the development of RDS.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Chinese medical journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is diagnosed as a sustained elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure to more than 25 mm Hg at rest or to more than 30 mm Hg with exercise. PAH is an intrinsic disease of the pulmonary vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells in association with plexiform lesions, medial thickening, concentric laminar intimal fibrosis and thrombotic lesions. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is the characteristic pathological change of PAH. The pathogenesis of PAH has been studied at the level of smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Existing research does not adequately explain susceptibility to the disease, and recent evidence reveals that epigenetic alterations may be involved in PAH. Epigenetics refers to all heritable changes in phenotype or in gene expression states, including chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, histone modification and RNA interference, which are not involved in the DNA sequence itself. This review will focus on recent advances in epigenetics related to PAH, including epigenetic changes of superoxide dismutase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway. This will provide new insight for improved treatment and prevention of PAH. Future work aimed at specific epigenetic treatments may prove to be an effective therapy for patients with PAH.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Hypertension Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effective treatment and/or prevention strategies for neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) have been an important topic in neonatal medicine. However, mechanisms of impaired pulmonary vascular structure in hypoxia-induced PPHN are poorly understood and consequently limit the development of effective treatment. In this study, we aimed to explore the molecular signaling cascades in the lungs of a PPHN animal model and used primary cultured rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells to analyze the physiological benefits of ghrelin during the pathogenesis of PPHN. Randomly selected newborn rats were exposed to hypoxia (10-12%) or room air and received daily s.c. injections of ghrelin (150 μg/kg) or saline. After 2 weeks, pulmonary hemodynamics and morphometry were assessed in the rats. Compared with the control, hypoxia increased pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy, and arteriolar wall thickness. Ghrelin treatment reduced both the magnitude of PH and the RV/(left ventricle+septum (Sep)) weight ratio. Ghrelin protected neonatal rats from hypoxia-induced PH via the upregulation of phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β)/β-catenin signaling and associated with β-catenin translocation to the nucleus in the presence of growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1a. Our findings suggest that s.c. administration of ghrelin improved PH and attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling after PPHN. These beneficial effects may be mediated by the regulation of p-GSK3β/β-catenin expression. We propose ghrelin as a novel potential therapeutic agent for PPHN.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: captopril is well tolerated in most patients. There is no report of acute deterioration in renal function after administration of captopril in neonates with congestive heart failure secondary to congenital heart defects with large left-to-right shunts.
we report a premature neonate with double outlet right ventricle and congestive heart failure who developed acute renal failure after administration of captopril at a low dose of 0.1 mg/kg per 8 hours.
on the third day after captopril therapy, the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen increased to 2.6 mg/dl and 73 mg/dl respectively, and hyperkalemia appeared. Captopril was discontinued immediately. On the fourth day, the infant developed oliguria which persisted for 24 hours and resolved on the fifth day when the serum potassium normalized to 4.5 mmol/L. The level of serum creatinine peaked at 3.9 mg/dL on the sixth day and gradually decreased to normal on the ninth day after administration of captopril. The captopril-induced acute renal failure resolved completely after cessation of the drug.
attention should be given to captopril therapy in premature neonates with congestive heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease with large left-to-right shunts. Routine hemodynamic examination and biochemical monitoring are suggested before and during captopril therapy.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · World Journal of Pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a major clinical problem. Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PPHN. The eNOS expression in endothelial cells is controlled by epigenetic regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of the eNOS gene in PPHN.
The rat model of PPHN was induced by hypoxia and indomethacin. Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells were isolated from the fetal rat lungs by magnetic-activated cell sorting. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and bisulfite sequencing methods were used to analyze epigenetic regulation.
The levels of acetylated histone H3 and acetylated histone H4 at the proximal promoter of the eNOS gene in pulmonary vascular endothelial cells from PPHN were significantly higher than those from the control group (P < 0.01, respectively). Total methylation percentage of the eNOS gene promoter in PPHN rat was slightly lower than that of control, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (24.7 ± 2.0 vs. 27.3 ± 2.3%, P = 0.408). These changes of epigenetic modifications at the eNOS gene promoter were consistent with increased levels of eNOS mRNA and protein in PPHN.
The increased expression of eNOS in PPHN was associated with epigenetic regulation.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of Hypertension