[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) transcription factors are key regulators of gene transcription within immune cells. The NFAT-interacting protein, (NIP45), augments NFAT-driven IL-4 expression by a mechanism that relies on arginine methylation. To establish the function of NIP45 in vivo, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of the gene encoding this cofactor. NIP45-deficient T helper cells displayed profound defects in the expression of NFAT-regulated cytokine genes, including IL-4. Whereas NIP45 deficiency does not interfere with T helper cell NFAT activation or lineage-specific transcription-factor expression, NIP45 acts as an enhancer for the assembly of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 and the protein arginine methyltransferase 1-linked histone 4 arginine 3 methylation with the IL-4 promoter. Our study reveals an essential role for NIP45 in promoting robust cytokine expression in vivo, which is required for the efficient handling of parasites. We propose that NIP45 acts as a molecular rheostat serving to amplify the type-2 immune response.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the innate immune function of mast cells in the acute phase of parasitic and bacterial infections is well established, their participation in chronic immune responses to indolent infection remains incompletely understood. In parasitic infection with Trichinella spiralis, the immune response incorporates both lymphocyte and mast cell-dependent effector functions for pathogen eradication. Among the mechanistic insights still unresolved in the reaction to T. spiralis are the means by which mast cells respond to parasites and the mast cell effector functions that contribute to the immunologic response to this pathogen. We hypothesized that mast cell elaboration of tryptase may comprise an important effector component in this response. Indeed, we find that mice deficient in the tryptase mouse mast cell protease-6 (mMCP-6) display a significant difference in their response to T. spiralis larvae in chronically infected skeletal muscle tissue. Mechanistically, this is associated with a profound inability to recruit eosinophils to larvae in mMCP-6-deficient mice. Analysis of IgE-deficient mice demonstrates an identical defect in eosinophil recruitment. These findings establish that mast cell secretion of the tryptase mMCP-6, a function directed by the activity of the adaptive immune system, contributes to eosinophil recruitment to the site of larval infection, thereby comprising an integral link in the chronic immune response to parasitic infection.
Preview · Article · May 2008 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is generally agreed that most colon cancers develop from adenomatous polyps, and it is this fact on which screening strategies are based. Although there is overwhelming evidence to link intrinsic genetic lesions with the formation of these preneoplastic lesions, recent data suggest that the tumor stromal environment also plays an essential role in this disease. In particular, it has been suggested that CD34(+) immature myeloid precursor cells are required for tumor development and invasion. Here we have used mice conditional for the stabilization of beta-catenin or defective for the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene to reinvestigated the identity and importance of tumor-infiltrating hematopoietic cells in polyposis. We show that, from the onset, polyps are infiltrated with proinflammatory mast cells (MC) and their precursors. Depletion of MC either pharmacologically or through the generation of chimeric mice with genetic lesions in MC development leads to a profound remission of existing polyps. Our data suggest that MC are an essential hematopoietic component for preneoplastic polyp development and are a novel target for therapeutic intervention.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sperm of the oyster, Crassostrea gigas, have ring-shaped acrosomes that, after exocytosis, bind the sperm to the egg vitelline layer. Isolated acrosomal rings contain proteins of various sizes: 35-, 48-, 63-, 75- and 88-kDa. These proteins, called bindins, have identical 24-residue signal peptides and conserved 97-residue N-terminal sequences, and they differ in mass because of the presence of between 1 and 5 tandemly repeated 134-residue fucose-binding lectin (F-lectin) domains. Southern blots suggest that oyster bindin is a single copy gene, but F-lectin repeat number and sequence are variable within and between individuals. Eight residues in the F-lectin fucose-binding groove are subject to positive diversifying selection, indicating a history of adaptive evolution at the lectin's active site. There is one intron in the middle of each F-lectin repeat, and recombination in this intron creates many combinations of repeat halves. Alternative splicing creates many additional size and sequence variants of the repeat array. Males contain full-length bindin cDNAs of all 5 possible sizes, but only one or two protein mass forms exist in each individual. Sequence analysis indicates that recombination and alternate splicing create hundreds, possibly thousands, of different bindin sequences in C. gigas. The extreme within-species sequence variation in the F-lectin sequence of oyster bindin is a novel finding; most male gamete-recognition proteins are much less variable. In experimental conditions oyster eggs have poor polyspermy blocks, and bindin diversity could be an evolutionary response by sperm to match egg receptors that have diversified to avoid being fertilized by multiple sperm.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2008 · The International Journal of Developmental Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that joint swelling, synovial thickening, and cartilage matrix depletion induced by the injection of anti-collagen monoclonal antibodies and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in BALB/c mice are increased in the absence of inhibitory leukocyte immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptor B4 (LILRB4; formerly gp49B1) in a neutrophil-dependent manner. Because both mast cells and neutrophils express LILRB4, we sought a mast cell requirement with mast cell-deficient mouse strains, but unexpectedly obtained full arthritis in Kit(W-sh) mice and full resistance in Kit(W/KitW-v) mice. Kit(W-sh) mice were indeed mast cell deficient as assessed by histology and the absence of IgE/mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in the ear and joint as well as passive systemic anaphylaxis. Deletion of LILRB4 in Kit(W-sh) mice exacerbated anti-collagen/LPS-induced joint swelling that was abolished by neutrophil depletion, establishing a counterregulatory role for LILRB4 in the absence of mast cells. Whereas blood neutrophil levels and LPS-elicited tissue neutrophilia were equal in Kit(W-sh) and Kit+ mice, both were impaired in Kit(W/KitW-v) mice. Although both strains are mast cell deficient and protected from IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions, their dramatically different responses to autoantibody-mediated, neutrophil-dependent immune complex arthritis suggest that other host differences determine the extent of mast cell involvement. Thus, a conclusion for an absolute mast cell role in a pathobiologic process requires evidence from both strains.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2007 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells (MCs) are a heterogeneous population of tissue-resident bone marrow-derived cells; distinct MC subpopulations are situated at specific microanatomic locations. The phenotype of the murine synovial MC remains undefined. Since MCs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory arthritis, we sought to define the phenotype of the murine synovial MC population in normal and arthritic joints. We also examined the contribution of lymphocytes to synovial MC physiology.
The MC phenotype in healthy and K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritic synovial tissue was defined using immunohistochemical staining of prototypic MC-specific proteases (murine MC proteases [mMCP] 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7) (chymases and tryptases). MC numbers and density were determined by histomorphometry in healthy and arthritic synovia. The lymphocyte contribution to MC populations was assessed using RAG-null mice.
We found that synovial MCs display a connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) phenotype in both normal and arthritic synovial tissue, which expresses mMCP-4, -5, -6, and -7, but not mMCP-1 or mMCP-2. In addition, MC hyperplasia was seen in the arthritic synovium. In RAG-null mice, the phenotype and degree of MC hyperplasia were identical to those observed in normal mice with and without arthritis. Furthermore, in contrast to skin CTMCs, all synovial MCs expressed mMCP-6, demonstrating discrete differences between synovial CTMCs and other anatomic CTMC populations.
Our findings demonstrate that the murine synovial MC population is composed of lymphocyte-independent CTMCs and identify arthritic synovium as a model system by which to gain insight into the poorly understood physiology of CTMCs in chronic inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Th2 cell-dependent inflammatory response is a central component of asthma, and the ways in which it is regulated is a critical question. The cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) are 5-lipoxygenase pathway products implicated in asthma, in particular, by their function as smooth muscle constrictors of airways and microvasculature. To elucidate additional roles for cys-LTs in the pathobiology of pulmonary inflammation, we used an OVA sensitization and challenge protocol with mice lacking leukotriene C(4) synthase (LTC(4)S), the terminal enzyme for cys-LT generation. Ag-induced pulmonary inflammation, characterized by eosinophil infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia with mucus hypersecretion, and accumulation and activation of intraepithelial mast cells was markedly reduced in LTC(4)S(null) mice. Furthermore, Ag-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum, Th2 cell cytokine mRNA expression in the lung, and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine were significantly reduced in LTC(4)S(null) mice compared with wild-type controls. Finally, the number of parabronchial lymph node cells from sensitized LTC(4)S(null) mice and their capacity to generate Th2 cell cytokines ex vivo after restimulation with Ag were also significantly reduced. In contrast, delayed-type cutaneous hypersensitivity, a prototypic Th1 cell-dependent response, was intact in LTC(4)S(null) mice. These findings provide direct evidence of a role for cys-LTs in regulating the initiation and/or amplification of Th2 cell-dependent pulmonary inflammation.
Full-text · Article · May 2006 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reperfusion injury (RI), a potential life-threatening disorder, represents an acute inflammatory response after periods of ischemia resulting from myocardial infarction, stroke, surgery, or trauma. The recent identification of a monoclonal natural IgM that initiates RI led to the identification of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain type II A and C as the self-targets in two different tissues. These results identify a novel pathway in which the innate response to a highly conserved self-antigen expressed as a result of hypoxic stress results in tissue destruction.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia with subsequent reperfusion (IR) injury is a significant clinical problem that occurs after physical and surgical trauma, myocardial infarction, and organ transplantation. IR injury of mouse skeletal muscle depends on the presence of both natural IgM and an intact C pathway. Disruption of the skeletal muscle architecture and permeability also requires mast cell (MC) participation, as revealed by the fact that IR injury is markedly reduced in c-kit defective, MC-deficient mouse strains. In this study, we sought to identify the pathobiologic MC products expressed in IR injury using transgenic mouse strains with normal MC development, except for the lack of a particular MC-derived mediator. Histologic analysis of skeletal muscle from BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice revealed a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.85) between the extent of IR injury and the level of MC degranulation. Linkage between C activation and MC degranulation was demonstrated in mice lacking C4, in which only limited MC degranulation and muscle injury were apparent. No reduction in injury was observed in transgenic mice lacking leukotriene C(4) synthase, hemopoietic PGD(2) synthase, N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-2 (enzyme involved in heparin biosynthesis), or mouse MC protease (mMCP) 1. In contrast, muscle injury was significantly attenuated in mMCP-5-null mice. The MCs that reside in skeletal muscle contain abundant amounts of mMCP-5 which is the serine protease that is most similar in sequence to human MC chymase. We now report a cytotoxic activity associated with a MC-specific protease and demonstrate that mMCP-5 is critical for irreversible IR injury of skeletal muscle.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mice with a disrupted gp49B gene, which encodes gp49B1 that is expressed on certain hematopoietic cells and has two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM), exhibit augmented FcepsilonRI-initiated mast cell degranulation and resultant tissue edema. gp49B1-deficient (gp49B(-/-)) mice also exhibit exaggerated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intravascular neutrophil aggregation leading to cutaneous microangiopathy. To determine whether gp49B(-/-) mice exhibit elevated cytokine and chemokine levels leading to pathologic inflammation, we quantified clinical and morphologic parameters of arthritis and tissue levels of contributory mediators in gp49B(-/-) and gp49B1-sufficient (gp49B(+/+)) mice injected with anti-type II collagen monoclonal antibody (mAb) and LPS. Clinical scores for joint swelling and histological assessments of synovial thickness and cartilage matrix depletion at day 7 were significantly 2.3- to 2.5-fold greater and were more prolonged in gp49B(-/-) mice. At day 5, the amounts of IL-1beta, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, and MIP-2 were 2.1-, 2.5-, and 12-fold greater in joint extracts from gp49B(-/-) mice. A significant 2.7-fold more neutrophils infiltrated the synovium of gp49B(-/-) mice at day 7, and neutrophilia persisted with the delayed resolution of the synovitis. mAb-mediated depletion of neutrophils prevented the synovitis in both strains. Thus, gp49B1 counter-regulates the cytokine and chemokine induction and attendant neutrophilia that are all essential for synovitis and cartilage matrix depletion.
No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells (MCs) initiate immune responses from mucosal surfaces and perivascular spaces. Stem cell factor (SCF) regulates MC development and viability, but the role of innate serum factors in MC development is unexplored. Cultured cord blood-derived human MCs (hMCs) express mRNA transcripts for all 4 known receptors for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an abundant serum-associated lipid growth factor. In an SCF-dependent serum-free culture system, LPA (2.5-10 microM) increased the total number of hMCs by approximately 10-fold compared with cultures maintained in the absence of LPA under otherwise identical conditions. LPA was comitogenic with SCF but did not prolong MC survival. LPA-mediated proliferation was blocked by VPC-32179, a competitive antagonist of LPA(1) and LPA(3) receptors, and by pertussis toxin, and it was also attenuated by GW9662, a selective antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma. LPA accelerated the acquisition of hMC granules and increased Kit expression. hMCs derived in the presence of LPA were functional, as evidenced by their immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent histamine release and by their characteristic proliferative responses to interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, and IL-9 in combination with SCF. Thus, LPA acts through LPA receptor and PPAR-gamma-dependent pathways to accelerate hMC proliferation and differentiation, and it modulates their phenotype without providing cytoprotection. LPA could facilitate MC hyperplasia in inflammation associated with either innate or adaptive immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) mediate both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice, as demonstrated by the
attenuation of the IgE/antigen-mediated increase in microvascular permeability and of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis,
respectively, in a strain with targeted disruption of leukotriene C4 synthase to prevent cys-LT synthesis. Our earlier finding that the acute, but not the chronic, injury was attenuated in a
strain with targeted disruption of the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 (CysLT1) receptor suggested that the chronic injury might be mediated through the CysLT2 receptor. Thus, we generated CysLT2 receptor-deficient mice by targeted gene disruption. These mice developed normally and were fertile. The increased vascular
permeability associated with IgE-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was significantly reduced in CysLT2 receptor-null mice as compared with wild-type mice, whereas plasma protein extravasation in response to zymosan A-induced
peritoneal inflammation was not altered. Alveolar septal thickening after intratracheal injection of bleomycin, characterized
by interstitial infiltration with macrophages and fibroblasts and the accumulation of collagen fibers, was significantly reduced
in CysLT2 receptor-null mice as compared with the wild-type mice. The amounts of cys-LTs in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after bleomycin
injection were similar in the CysLT2 receptor-null mice and the wild-type mice. Thus, in response to a particular pathobiologic event the CysLT2 receptor can mediate an increase in vascular permeability in some tissues or promote chronic pulmonary inflammation with
Preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Features of chronic asthma include airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammatory infiltrates, and structural changes in the airways,
termed remodeling. The contribution of eosinophils, cells associated with asthma and allergy, remains to be established. We
show that in mice with a total ablation of the eosinophil lineage, increases in airway hyperresponsiveness and mucus secretion
were similar to those observed in wild-type mice, but eosinophil-deficient mice were significantly protected from peribronchiolar
collagen deposition and increases in airway smooth muscle. These data suggest that eosinophils contribute substantially to
airway remodeling but are not obligatory for allergen-induced lung dysfunction, and support an important role for eosinophil-targeted
therapies in chronic asthma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine hindlimb reperfusion injury (I/R), is initiated by activation of the classical pathway of complement. Complement receptor-2 knockout mice (Cr2-/-) are protected from I/R injury due to defective B-1 cells with a resulting deficient natural immunoglobulin M (IgM) repertoire. Cr2-/- and wild type (WT) mice were studied to isolate the antibody or antibodies responsible for initiation of I/R.
IgM-secreting B-1 cell clones were produced with hybridoma technology from WT cells. Of 21 clones tested in murine I/R models, only 1 clone, CM22, was found to restore injury in protected mice. Cr2-/- mice reconstituted with IgM from individual clones, WT serum, or saline were subjected to 2 hours hindlimb ischemia and 3 hours reperfusion and compared with WT.
Muscle injury in Cr2-/- mice reconstituted with CM22 was similar to injury in WT mice reconstituted with saline and Cr2-/- mice reconstituted with WT serum. This injury was 137% greater (P < .05) than in both Cr2-/- mice reconstituted with saline and those reconstituted with a different IgM clone, CM31. IgM and C3 deposition was found only on injured muscle of WT mice or Cr2-/- mice reconstituted with CM22 or WT serum.
A single clone of self-reactive IgM, CM22, can initiate complement-dependent I/R injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs), leukotriene (LT) C(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), are smooth muscle constrictors that signal via the CysLT(1) receptor. Here we report that the cys-LTs play an important role in chronic pulmonary inflammation with fibrosis induced by bleomycin in mice. Targeted disruption of LTC(4) synthase, the pivotal enzyme for cys-LT biosynthesis, protected significantly against alveolar septal thickening by macrophages and fibroblasts and collagen deposition. In contrast, targeted disruption of the CysLT(1) receptor significantly increased both the concentration of cys-LTs in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the magnitude of septal thickening as defined by morphology, digital image analysis, and deposition of reticular fibers. These findings change our understanding of the pathobiology mediated by the cys-LTs by revealing their role in chronic inflammation with fibrosis, likely via the CysLT(2) receptor, and by uncovering a dual role for the CysLT(1) receptor, namely proinflammatory acute constriction of smooth muscle and antiinflammatory counteraction of chronic injury.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2004 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RationaleTrichinella spirals infection elicits a vigorous IgE response and pronounced intestinal and splenic mastocytosis. As IgE both activates mast cells (MC) and promotes their survival in culture, we examined its role in MC responses and parasite elimination in T. spiralis-infected mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RationalePhenotypically heterogeneous populations of mast cells (MCs) originate from a single bone marrow derived precursor (MCp) that lacks distinctive granules. Although allergic or helminth induced mucosal inflammation involves reactive MC hyperplasia, the responsible mechanisms are incompletely studied.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trichinella spiralis infection elicits a vigorous IgE response and pronounced intestinal and splenic mastocytosis in mice. Since IgE both activates mast cells (MC) and promotes their survival in culture, we examined its role in MC responses and parasite elimination in T. spiralis-infected mice. During primary infection, wild-type but not IgE-deficient (IgE(-/-)) BALB/c mice mounted a strong IgE response peaking 14 days into infection. The splenic mastocytosis observed in BALB/c mice following infection with T. spiralis was significantly diminished in IgE(-/-) mice while eosinophil responses were not diminished in either the blood or jejunum. Similar levels of peripheral blood eosinophilia and jejunal mastocytosis occurred in wild-type and IgE-deficient animals. Despite the normal MC response in the small intestine, serum levels of mouse MC protease-1 also were lower in parasite-infected IgE(-/-) animals and these animals were slower to eliminate the adult worms from the small intestine. The number of T. spiralis larvae present in the skeletal muscle of IgE(-/-) mice 28 days after primary infection was about twice that in BALB/c controls, and the fraction of larvae that was necrotic was reduced in the IgE-deficient animals. An intense deposition of IgE in and around the muscle larvae was observed in wild-type but not in IgE null mice. We conclude that IgE promotes parasite expulsion from the gut following T. spiralis infection and participates in the response to larval stages of the parasite. Furthermore, our observations support a role for IgE in the regulation of MC homeostasis in vivo.
Preview · Article · Feb 2004 · The Journal of Immunology