[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An examination of the economic consequences for older-age parents of losing an adult child to AIDS in Thailand based on quantitative data derived from a key informant study and a direct interview survey with parents yielded the following main findings: (1) parents frequently paid for their children's care and treatment, but government health insurance and to a lesser extent welfare measures helped alleviate these expenses; (2) parental caregiving often disrupted economic activity, although the resulting opportunity costs were limited by the typically short duration of caregiving; (3) parents commonly paid for funeral costs but benefited from funeral society memberships and customary contributions from those attending; (4) only a minority of parents supported AIDS orphans although orphaned grandchildren often ended up with their grandparents; (5) most deceased children had contributed financially to the parental household but only a minority were main providers. Poorer parents, however, were most likely to lose a main provider and experience severe financial hardship; and (6) although poorer parents spent much less on expenses related to the illness and death of their children, they were much more likely than better-off parents to be seriously burdened by these expenses. Programs are needed to address the plight of AIDS parents but should target those who are most susceptible to resulting economic hardship.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To review the evidence on the link between malaria and poverty.
Review of the published and grey literature to identify (i) the data available on the socio-economic distribution of malaria incidence and vulnerability, and (ii) the uptake of malaria control interventions.
We found mixed evidence on malaria incidence, with a number of studies identifying no relationship between socio-economic status and incidence, although a larger number of studies do find a link. There is strong evidence that uptake of preventive and treatment interventions is closely related to proxies for socio-economic status. More generally, the quality of the literature examining this issue is highly variable, with many different measures of socio-economic status and often inadequate descriptions of methods of data collection and analysis in relation to socio-economic status.
Important socio-economic differentials exist in access to malaria interventions, increasing the vulnerability of the poorest. More information is needed about how other methods of delivering malaria treatment and prevention can redress these inequalities.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Tropical Medicine & International Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article reviews evidence of the economic impact of interpersonal violence internationally. In the United States, estimates of the costs of interpersonal violence reach 3.3% of GDP. The public sector-and thus society in general-bears the majority of these costs. Interpersonal violence is defined to include violence between family members and intimate partners, and violence between acquaintances and strangers that is not intended to further the aims of any formally defined group or cause. Although these types of violence disproportionately affect poorer countries, there is a scarcity of studies of their economic impact in these countries. International comparisons are complicated by the calculation of economic losses based on foregone wages and income, thus undervaluing economic losses in poorer countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria, more than any other disease of major public health importance in developing countries, disproportionately affects poor people, with 58% of malaria cases occurring in the poorest 20% of the world's population. If malaria control interventions are to achieve their desired impact, they must reach the poorest segments of the populations of developing countries. Unfortunately, a growing body of evidence from benefit-incidence analyses has demonstrated that many public health interventions that were designed to aid the poor are not reaching their intended target. For example, the poorest 20% of people in selected developing countries were as much as 2.5 times less likely to receive basic public health services as the least-poor 20%. In the field of malaria control, a small number of studies have begun to shed light on differences by wealth status of malaria burden and of access to treatment and prevention services. These early studies found no clear difference in fever incidence based on wealth status, but did show significant disparities in both the consequences of malaria and in the use of malaria prevention and treatment services. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying factors that contribute to these disparities, and to examine possible inequities related to gender, social class, or other factors. To achieve impact and overcome such inequities, malaria control efforts must begin to incorporate approaches relevant to equity in program design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2004 · The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene