K. E. K. Coppin

University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, England, United Kingdom

Are you K. E. K. Coppin?

Claim your profile

Publications (118)461.29 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigate the properties of the galaxies selected from the deepest 850-micron survey undertaken to date with SCUBA-2 on the JCMT. This deep 850-micron imaging was taken in parallel with deep 450-micron imaging in the very best observing conditions as part of the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. A total of 106 sources were uncovered at 850 microns from ~150, sq. arcmin in the centre of the COSMOS/UltraVISTA/CANDELS field, imaged to a typical rms depth of ~0.25 mJy. We utilise the wealth of available deep multi-frequency data to establish the complete redshift distribution for this sample, yielding = 2.38 +- 0.09, a mean redshift comparable with that derived for all but the brightest previous sub-mm samples. We have also been able to establish the stellar masses of the majority of the galaxy identifications, enabling us to explore their location on the star-formation-rate:stellar-mass (SFR:M*) plane. Crucially, our new deep sample reaches flux densities equivalent to SFR ~ 100 Msun/yr, enabling us to confirm that sub-mm galaxies form the high-mass end of the `main sequence' (MS) of star-forming galaxies at z > 1.5 (with a mean specific SFR of sSFR = 2.25 +- 0.19 /Gyr at z ~ 2.5). Our results are consistent with no significant flattening of the MS towards high masses at these redshifts, suggesting that reports of such flattening possibly arise from under-estimates of dust-enshrouded star-formation activity in massive star-forming galaxies. However, our findings add to the growing evidence that average sSFR rises only slowly at high redshift, resulting in log(sSFR) being an apparently simple linear function of the age of the Universe.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We study the 850-μm emission in X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the ∼2 deg2 COSMOS field using new data from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey. We find 19 850-μm bright X-ray AGN in a ‘high-sensitivity’ region covering 0.89 deg2 with flux densities of S850 = 4–10 mJy. The 19 AGN span the full range in redshift and hard X-ray luminosity covered by the sample – 0.7 ≲ z ≲ 3.5 and 43.2 ≲ log10(LX) ≲ 45. We report a highly significant stacked 850-μm detection of a hard X-ray flux-limited population of 699 z > 1 X-ray AGN – S850 = 0.71 ± 0.08 mJy. We explore trends in the stacked 850-μm flux densities with redshift, finding no evolution in the average cold dust emission over the redshift range probed. For type 1 AGN, there is no significant correlation between the stacked 850-μm flux and hard X-ray luminosity. However, in type 2 AGN the stacked submillimeter flux is a factor of 2 higher at high luminosities. When averaging over all X-ray luminosities, no significant differences are found in the stacked submillimeter fluxes of type 1 and type 2 AGN as well as AGN separated on the basis of X-ray hardness ratios and optical-to-infrared colours. However, at log10(L2 − 10/erg s−1) > 44.4, dependences in average submillimeter flux on the optical-to-infrared colours become more pronounced. We argue that these high-luminosity AGN represent a transition from a secular to a merger-driven evolutionary phase where the star formation rates and accretion luminosities are more tightly coupled. Stacked AGN 850-μm fluxes are compared to the stacked fluxes of a mass-matched sample of K-band-selected non-AGN galaxies. We find that at 10.5 <log10(M*/M⊙)<11.5, the non-AGN 850-μm fluxes are 1.5–2 times higher than in type 2 AGN of equivalent mass. We suggest these differences are due to the presence of massive dusty, red starburst galaxies in the K-band-selected non-AGN sample, which are not present in optically selected catalogues covering a smaller area.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present Early Science observations with the Large Millimeter Telescope, AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum images and wide bandwidth spectra (73–111 GHz) acquired with the Redshift Search Receiver, towards four bright lensed submillimetre galaxies identified through the Herschel Lensing Survey-snapshot and the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 Cluster Snapshot Survey. This pilot project studies the star formation history and the physical properties of the molecular gas and dust content of the highest redshift galaxies identified through the benefits of gravitational magnification. We robustly detect dust continuum emission for the full sample and CO emission lines for three of the targets. We find that one source shows spectroscopic multiplicity and is a blend of three galaxies at different redshifts (z = 2.040, 3.252, and 4.680), reminiscent of previous high-resolution imaging follow-up of unlensed submillimetre galaxies, but with a completely different search method, that confirm recent theoretical predictions of physically unassociated blended galaxies. Identifying the detected lines as 12CO (Jup = 2–5) we derive spectroscopic redshifts, molecular gas masses, and dust masses from the continuum emission. The mean H2 gas mass of the full sample is (2.0 ± 0.2) × 1011 M⊙/μ, and the mean dust mass is (2.0 ± 0.2) × 109 M⊙/μ, where μ ≈ 2–5 is the expected lens amplification. Using these independent estimations we infer a gas-to-dust ratio of δGDR ≈ 55–75, in agreement with other measurements of submillimetre galaxies. Our magnified high-luminosity galaxies fall on the same locus as other high-redshift submillimetre galaxies, extending the $L^{\prime }_{\rm CO}$–LFIR correlation observed for local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies to higher far-infrared and CO luminosities.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present high-resolution 870-um ALMA continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1-square degrees 850-um maps from the SCUBA--2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the brightest sources in the field (median SCUBA2 flux S_850=8.7+/-0.4 mJy). We detect 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) at >4-sigma significance in our 30 ALMA maps. In 61+/-17% of the ALMA maps the single-dish source comprises a blend of >=2 SMGs, where the secondary SMGs are Ultra--Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) with L_IR>10^12 Lo. The brightest SMG contributes on average 80+/-4% of the single-dish flux density, and in the ALMA maps containing >=2 SMGs the secondary SMG contributes 25+/-3% of the integrated ALMA flux. We construct source counts and show that multiplicity boosts the apparent single-dish cumulative counts by 20% at S_870>7.5mJy, and by 60% at S_870>12mJy. We combine our sample with previous ALMA studies of fainter SMGs and show that the counts are well-described by a double power-law with a break at 8.5+/-0.6mJy. The break corresponds to a luminosity of ~6x10^12Lsol or a star-formation rate of ~1000Mo/yr. For the typical sizes of these SMGs, which are resolved in our ALMA data with r=1.2+/-0.1kpc, this yields a limiting SFR density of ~100Msol/yr/kpc2. Finally, the number density of S_870>2mJy SMGs is 80+/-30 times higher than that derived from blank-field counts. An over-abundance of faint SMGs is inconsistent with line-of-sight projections dominating multiplicity in the brightest SMGs, and indicates that a significant proportion of these high-redshift ULIRGs must be physically associated.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present adaptive optics-assisted integral field spectroscopy around the Hα or Hβ lines of 12 gravitationally lensed galaxies obtained with VLT/SINFONI, Keck/OSIRIS and Gemini/NIFS. We combine these data with previous observations and investigate the dynamics and star formation properties of 17 lensed galaxies at 1 < z < 4. Thanks to gravitational magnification of 1.4–90 times by foreground clusters, effective spatial resolutions of 40–700 pc are achieved. The magnification also allows us to probe lower star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses than unlensed samples; our target galaxies feature dust-corrected SFRs derived from Hα or Hβ emission of ∼0.8–40 M⊙ yr−1, and stellar masses M* ∼ 4 × 108–6 × 1010 M⊙. All of the galaxies show velocity gradients, with 59 per cent consistent with being rotating discs and a likely merger fraction of 29 per cent, with the remaining 12 per cent classed as ‘undetermined’. We extract 50 star-forming clumps with sizes in the range 60 pc–1 kpc from the Hα (or Hβ) maps, and find that their surface brightnesses, Σclump and their characteristic luminosities, L0, evolve to higher luminosities with redshift. We show that this evolution can be described by fragmentation on larger scales in gas-rich discs, and is likely to be driven by evolving gas fractions.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We analyse HST WFC3/$H_{160}$-band observations of a sample of 48 ALMA-detected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South field, to study their stellar morphologies and sizes. We detect 79$\pm$17% of the SMGs in the $H_{160}$-band imaging with a median sensitivity of 27.8 mag, and most (80%) of the non-detections are SMGs with 870$\mu$m fluxes of $S_{870} < $3 mJy. With a surface brightness limit of $\mu_H \sim $26 mag arcsec$^{-2}$, we find that 82$\pm$9% of the $H_{160}$-band detected SMGs at $z =$ 1-3 appear to have disturbed morphologies, meaning they are visually classified as either irregulars or interacting systems, or both. By determining a S\'ersic fit to the $H_{160}$ surface-brightness profiles we derive a median S\'ersic index of $n = $1.2$\pm$0.3 and a median half-light radius of $r_e = $4.4$^{+1.1}_{-0.5}$ kpc for our SMGs at $z = $1-3. We also find significant displacements between the positions of the $H_{160}$-component and 870$\mu$m emission in these systems, suggesting that the dusty star-burst regions and less-obscured stellar distribution are not co-located. We find significant differences in the sizes and the S\'ersic index between our $z = $2-3 SMGs and $z \sim $2 quiescent galaxies, suggesting a major transformation of the stellar light profile is needed in the quenching processes if SMGs are progenitors of the red-and-dead $z\sim$2 galaxies. Given the short-lived nature of SMGs, we postulate that the majority of the $z = $2-3 SMGs with $S_{870} \gtrsim $2 mJy are early/mid-stage major mergers.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present high-resolution (0.3'') ALMA 870um imaging of 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field and investigate the size and morphology of the sub-millimeter (sub-mm) emission on 2-10kpc scales. We derive a median intrinsic angular size of FWHM=0.30$\pm$0.04'' for the 23 SMGs in the sample detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >10. Using the photometric redshifts of the SMGs we show that this corresponds to a median physical half-light diameter of 2.4$\pm$0.2kpc. A stacking analysis of the SMGs detected at an SNR <10 shows they have sizes consistent with the 870um-bright SMGs in the sample. We compare our results to the sizes of SMGs derived from other multi-wavelength studies, and show that the rest-frame ~250um sizes of SMGs are consistent with studies of resolved 12CO (J=3-2 to 7-6) emission lines, but that sizes derived from 1.4GHz imaging appear to be approximately two times larger on average, which we attribute to cosmic ray diffusion. The rest-frame optical sizes of SMGs are around four times larger than the sub-millimeter sizes, indicating that the star formation in these galaxies is compact relative to the pre-existing stellar distribution. The size of the starburst region in SMGs is consistent with the majority of the star formation occurring in a central region, a few kpc in extent, with a median star formation rate surface density of 90$\pm$30Msol/yr/kpc$^2$, which may suggest that we are witnessing an intense period of bulge growth in these galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present detections at 850 μm of the Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) population at z ≈ 3, 4, and 5 using data from the Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array 2 Cosmology Legacy Survey in the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey ‘Ultra Deep Survey’ field. We employ stacking to probe beneath the survey limit, measuring the average 850 μm flux density of LBGs at z ≈ 3, 4, and 5 with typical ultraviolet luminosities of L1700 ≈ 1029 erg s−1 Hz−1. We measure 850 μm flux densities of (0.25 ± 0.03), (0.41 ± 0.06), and (0.88 ± 0.23) mJy, respectively, finding that they contribute at most 20 per cent to the cosmic far-infrared (IR) background at 850 μm. Fitting an appropriate range of spectral energy distributions to the z ∼ 3, 4, and 5 LBG stacked 24–850 μm fluxes, we derive IR luminosities of L8-1000 μm ≈ 3.2, 5.5, and 11.0 × 1011 L⊙ [and star formation rates (SFRs) of ≈50–200 M⊙ yr−1], respectively. We find that the evolution in the IR luminosity density of LBGs is broadly consistent with model predictions for the expected contribution of luminous-to-ultraluminous IR galaxies at these epochs. We observe a positive correlation between stellar mass and IR luminosity and confirm that, for a fixed mass, the reddest LBGs (UV slope β → 0) are redder due to dust extinction, with SFR(IR)/SFR(UV) increasing by about an order of magnitude over −2 < β < 0 with SFR(IR)/SFR(UV) ∼ 20 for the reddest LBGs. Furthermore, the most massive LBGs tend to have higher obscured-to-unobscured ratios, hinting at a variation in the obscuration properties across the mass range.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the detection of $^{12}$CO(2-1) in the $z = 4.44$ submillimetre galaxy ALESS65.1 using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. A previous ALMA study of submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South determined the redshift of this optically and near-infrared undetected source through the measurement of [CII] 157.74 $\mu$m emission. Using the luminosity of the $^{12}$CO(2-1) emission we estimate the gas mass to be $M_{\rm gas} \sim 1.7 \times 10^{10}$ ${\rm M}_\odot$. The gas depletion timescale of ALESS65.1 is $\sim$ 25 Myr, similar to other high redshift submillimetre galaxies and consistent with $z > 4$ SMGs being the progenitors of massive "red-and-dead" galaxies at $z > 2$. The ratio of the [CII], $^{12}$CO and far-infrared luminosities implies a strong far-ultraviolet field of $G_0 \sim 10^{3.25}$, which is at the high end of the far-ultraviolet fields seen in local starbursts, but weaker than the far-ultraviolet fields of most nearby ULIRGs. The high ratio of $L_{\rm [CII]}/L_{\rm FIR} = 1.0 \times 10^{-3}$ observed in ALESS65.1, combined with $L_{\rm [CII]}/L_{\rm CO} \sim 2300$, is consistent with ALESS65.1 having more extended regions of intense star formation than local ULIRGs.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present spatially resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) [CII] observations of the z=4.7555 submillimetre galaxy, ALESS 73.1. Our 0.5" FWHM map resolves the [CII] emitting gas which is centred close to the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The gas kinematics are dominated by rotation but with high turbulence, v_rot/sigma_int~3.1, and a Toomre Q parameter <1 throughout the disk. By fitting three independent thin rotating disk models to our data, we derive a total dynamical mass of 3+-2x10^10 M_sol. This is close to the molecular gas mass derived from previous CO(2-1) observations, and implies a CO to H_2 conversion factor alpha_CO<2.3M_sol(K km/s/pc^2)^-1. The mass budget also constrains the stellar mass to <3.1x10^10 M_sol, and entails a gas fraction of f_gas>~0.4. The diameter of the dust continuum emission is <2 kpc, while the star-formation rate is as high as 1000 M_sol/yr. Combined with our stellar mass constraint, this implies an extreme specific star formation rate >80 Gyr^{-1}, especially since there are no clear indications of recent merger activity. Finally, our high signal-to-noise [CII] measurement revises the observed [NII]/[CII] ratio, which suggests a close to solar metallicity, unless the [CII] flux contains significant contributions from HII regions. Our observations suggest that ALESS73.1 is a nascent galaxy undergoing its first major burst of star formation, embedded within an unstable but metal-rich gas disk.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the detection at 850um of the central source in SSA22-LAB1, the archetypal Lyman-alpha Blob (LAB), a 100kpc-scale radio-quiet emission-line nebula at z=3.1. The flux density of the source, $S_{850}=4.6\pm1.1$mJy implies the presence of a galaxy, or group of galaxies, with a total luminosity of $L_{\rm IR}\approx10^{12}L_\odot$. The position of an active source at the center of a ~50kpc-radius ring of linearly polarized Ly-alpha emission detected by Hayes et al. (2011) suggests that the central source is leaking Ly-alpha photons preferentially in the plane of the sky, which undergo scattering in HI clouds at large galactocentric radius. The Ly-alpha morphology around the submillimeter detection is reminiscent of biconical outflow, and the average Ly-alpha line profiles of the two `lobes' are dominated by a red peak, expected for a resonant line emerging from a medium with a bulk velocity gradient that is outflowing relative to the line center. Taken together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the central active galaxy (or galaxies) is responsible for a large fraction of the extended Ly-alpha emission and morphology. Less clear is the history of the cold gas in the circumgalactic medium being traced by Ly-alpha: is it mainly pristine material accreting into the halo that has not yet been processed through an interstellar medium (ISM), now being blown back as it encounters an outflow, or does it mainly comprise gas that has been swept-up within the ISM and expelled from the galaxy?
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We study the sub-millimeter properties of color-selected galaxies via a stacking analysis applied for the first time to interferometric data at sub-millimeter wavelengths. We base our study on 344 GHz ALMA continuum observations of ~20''-wide fields centered on 86 sub-millimeter sources detected in the LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) Sub-millimeter Survey. We select various classes of galaxies (K-selected, star-forming sBzK galaxies, extremely red objects, and distant red galaxies) according to their optical/near-infrared fluxes. We find clear, >10σ detections in the stacked images of all these galaxy classes. We include in our stacking analysis Herschel/SPIRE data to constrain the dust spectral energy distribution of these galaxies. We find that their dust emission is well described by a modified blackbody with T dust ≈ 30 K and β = 1.6 and infrared luminosities of (5-11) × 1011L ☉ or implied star formation rates of 75-140 M ☉ yr–1. We compare our results with those of previous studies based on single-dish observations at 870 μm and find that our flux densities are a factor 2-3 higher than previous estimates. The discrepancy is observed also after removing sources individually detected in ALESS maps. We report a similar discrepancy by repeating our analysis on 1.4 GHz observations of the whole ECDFS. Hence, we find tentative evidence that galaxies that are associated in projected and redshift space with sub-mm bright sources are brighter than the average population. Finally, we put our findings in the context of the cosmic star formation rate density as a function of redshift.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The large gas and dust reservoirs of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) could potentially provide ample fuel to trigger an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but previous studies of the AGN fraction in SMGs have been controversial largely due to the inhomogeneity and limited angular resolution of the available submillimeter surveys. Here we set improved constraints on the AGN fraction and X-ray properties of the SMGs with Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and Chandra observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This study is the first among similar works to have unambiguously identified the X-ray counterparts of SMGs; this is accomplished using the fully submillimeter-identified, statistically reliable SMG catalog with 99 SMGs from the ALMA LABOCA E-CDF-S Submillimeter Survey. We found 10 X-ray sources associated with SMGs (median redshift z = 2.3), of which eight were identified as AGNs using several techniques that enable cross-checking. The other two X-ray detected SMGs have levels of X-ray emission that can be plausibly explained by their star formation activity. Six of the eight SMG-AGNs are moderately/highly absorbed, with N H > 1023 cm?2. An analysis of the AGN fraction, taking into account the spatial variation of X-ray sensitivity, yields an AGN fraction of for AGNs with rest-frame 0.5-8?keV absorption-corrected luminosity ≥7.8 × 1042?erg?s?1; we provide estimated AGN fractions as a function of X-ray flux and luminosity. ALMA's high angular resolution also enables direct X-ray stacking at the precise positions of SMGs for the first time, and we found four potential SMG-AGNs in our stacking sample.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the first photometric redshift distribution for a large sample of 870 μm submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with robust identifications based on observations with ALMA. In our analysis we consider 96 SMGs in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, 77 of which have 4-19 band photometry. We model the SEDs for these 77 SMGs, deriving a median photometric redshift of z phot = 2.3 ± 0.1. The remaining 19 SMGs have insufficient photometry to derive photometric redshifts, but a stacking analysis of Herschel observations confirms they are not spurious. Assuming that these SMGs have an absolute H-band magnitude distribution comparable to that of a complete sample of z ~ 1-2 SMGs, we demonstrate that they lie at slightly higher redshifts, raising the median redshift for SMGs to z phot = 2.5 ± 0.2. Critically we show that the proportion of galaxies undergoing an SMG-like phase at z ≥ 3 is at most 35% ± 5% of the total population. We derive a median stellar mass of M = (8 ± 1) × 1010M ☉, although there are systematic uncertainties of up to 5 × for individual sources. Assuming that the star formation activity in SMGs has a timescale of ~100 Myr, we show that their descendants at z ~ 0 would have a space density and MH distribution that are in good agreement with those of local ellipticals. In addition, the inferred mass-weighted ages of the local ellipticals broadly agree with the look-back times of the SMG events. Taken together, these results are consistent with a simple model that identifies SMGs as events that form most of the stars seen in the majority of luminous elliptical galaxies at the present day.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We exploit ALMA 870um (345GHz) observations of submillimetre sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South to investigate the far-infrared properties of high-redshift submillimetre galaxies (SMGs). Using the precisely located 870um ALMA positions of 99 SMGs, together with 24um and radio imaging of this field, we deblend the Herschel/SPIRE imaging of this region to extract their far-infrared fluxes and colours. The median photometric redshifts for ALMA LESS (ALESS) SMGs which are detected in at least two SPIRE bands increases with wavelength of the peak in their SEDs, with z=2.3+/-0.2, 2.5+/-0.3 and 3.5+/-0.5 for the 250, 350 and 500-um peakers respectively. We find that 34 ALESS SMGs do not have a >3-sigma counterpart at 250, 350 or 500-um. These galaxies have a median photometric redshift of z=3.3+/-0.5, which is higher than the full ALESS SMG sample; z=2.5+/-0.2. Using the photometric redshifts together with the 250-870um photometry, we estimate the far-infrared luminosities and characteristic dust temperature of each SMG. The median infrared luminosity of the S_870um>2mJy SMGs is L_IR=(3.0+/-0.3)x10^{12}Lo(SFR=300+/-30Mo/yr). At a fixed luminosity, the characteristic dust temperature of these high-redshift SMGs is 2-3K lower than comparably luminous galaxies at z=0, reflecting the more extended star formation occurring in these systems. By extrapolating the 870um number counts to S_ 870um=1mJy, we show that the contribution of S_870um>1mJy SMGs to the cosmic star formation budget is 20% of the total over the redshift range z~1-4. We derive a median dust mass for these SMGs of M_d=(3.6+/-0.3)x10^8Mo and by adopting an appropriate gas-to-dust ratio, we estimate an average molecular mass of M_H2=(4.2+/-0.4)x10^{10}Mo. Finally, we use our estimates of the H2 masses to show that SMGs with S_870um>1mJy contain ~10% of the z~2 volume-averaged H2 mass density at this epoch.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the results of an infrared (IR) study of high-redshift galaxy clusters with the MIPS camera on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have assembled a sample of 42 clusters from the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey-1 over the redshift range 0.3 < z < 1.0 and spanning an approximate range in mass of 1014-15M ?. We statistically measure the number of IR-luminous galaxies in clusters above a fixed inferred IR luminosity of 2 × 1011M ?, assuming a star forming galaxy template, per unit cluster mass and find it increases to higher redshift. Fitting a simple power-law we measure evolution of (1 + z)5.1 ? 1.9 over the range 0.3 < z < 1.0. These results are tied to the adoption of a single star forming galaxy template; the presence of active galactic nuclei, and an evolution in their relative contribution to the mid-IR galaxy emission, will alter the overall number counts per cluster and their rate of evolution. Under the star formation assumption we infer the approximate total star formation rate per unit cluster mass (?SFR/M cluster). The evolution is similar, with ?SFR/M cluster ~ (1 + z)5.4 ? 1.9. We show that this can be accounted for by the evolution of the IR-bright field population over the same redshift range; that is, the evolution can be attributed entirely to the change in the in-falling field galaxy population. We show that the ?SFR/M cluster (binned over all redshift) decreases with increasing cluster mass with a slope (?SFR/) consistent with the dependence of the stellar-to-total mass per unit cluster mass seen locally. The inferred star formation seen here could produce ~5%-10% of the total stellar mass in massive clusters at z = 0, but we cannot constrain the descendant population, nor how rapidly the star-formation must shut-down once the galaxies have entered the cluster environment. Finally, we show a clear decrease in the number of IR-bright galaxies per unit optical galaxy in the cluster cores, confirming star formation continues to avoid the highest density regions of the universe at z ~ 0.75 (the average redshift of the high-redshift clusters). While several previous studies appear to show enhanced star formation in high-redshift clusters relative to the field we note that these papers have not accounted for the overall increase in galaxy or dark matter density at the location of clusters. Once this is done, clusters at z ~ 0.75 have the same or less star formation per unit mass or galaxy as the field.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · The Astronomical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigate the multi-wavelength properties of a sample of 450-\mu m selected sources from the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS). A total of 69 sources were identified above 4\sigma\ in deep SCUBA-2 450-\mu m observations overlapping the UDS and COSMOS fields and covering 210 sq. arcmin to a typical depth of \sigma 450=1.5 mJy. Reliable cross identification are found for 58 sources (84 per cent) in Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/IR data. The photometric redshift distribution (dN/dz) of 450\mu m-selected sources is presented, showing a broad peak in the redshift range 1<z<3, and a median of z=1.4. Combining the SCUBA-2 photometry with Herschel SPIRE data from HerMES, the submm spectral energy distribution (SED) is examined via the use of modified blackbody fits, yielding aggregate values for the IR luminosity, dust temperature and emissivity of =10^12 +/- 0.8 L_sol, =42 +/- 11 K and <\beta_D>=1.6 +/- 0.5, respectively. The relationship between these SED parameters and the physical properties of galaxies is investigated, revealing correlations between T_D and LIR and between \beta_D and both stellar mass and effective radius. The connection between star formation rate and stellar mass is explored, with 24 per cent of 450 \mu m sources found to be ``star-bursts'', i.e. displaying anomalously high specific SFRs. However, both the number density and observed properties of these ``star-burst'' galaxies are found consistent with the population of normal star-forming galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a wide-field (30 arcmin diameter) 850 μm Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 map of the spectacular three-component merging supercluster, RCS 231953+00, at z = 0.9. The brightest submillimetre galaxy (SMG) in the field (S850 ≈ 12 mJy) is within 30 arcsec of one of the cluster cores (RCS 2319–C), and is likely to be a more distant, lensed galaxy. Interestingly, the wider field around RCS 2319–C reveals a local overdensity of SMGs, exceeding the average source density by a factor of 4.5, with a <1 per cent chance of being found in a random field. Utilizing Herschel observations from the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, we find that three of these SMGs have similar submillimetre colours. We fit their observed 250–850 μm spectral energy distributions to estimate their redshift, yielding 2.5 < z < 3.5, and calculate prodigious star formation rates ranging from 500 to 2500 M⊙ yr−1. We speculate that these galaxies are either lensed SMGs, or signpost a physical structure at z ≈ 3: a ‘protocluster’ inhabited by young galaxies in a rapid phase of growth, destined to form the core of a massive galaxy cluster by z = 0.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 survey of 126 submillimeter sources from the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey (LESS). Our 870 μm survey with ALMA (ALESS) has produced maps ~3× deeper and with a beam area ~200× smaller than the original LESS observations, doubling the current number of interferometrically-observed submillimeter sources. The high resolution of these maps allows us to resolve sources that were previously blended and accurately identify the origin of the submillimeter emission. We discuss the creation of the ALESS submillimeter galaxy (SMG) catalog, including the main sample of 99 SMGs and a supplementary sample of 32 SMGs. We find that at least 35% (possibly up to 50%) of the detected LABOCA sources have been resolved into multiple SMGs, and that the average number of SMGs per LESS source increases with LESS flux density. Using the (now precisely known) SMG positions, we empirically test the theoretical expectation for the uncertainty in the single-dish source positions. We also compare our catalog to the previously predicted radio/mid-infrared counterparts, finding that 45% of the ALESS SMGs were missed by this method. Our ~16 resolution allows us to measure a size of ~9 kpc × 5 kpc for the rest-frame ~300 μm emission region in one resolved SMG, implying a star formation rate surface density of 80 M ☉ yr–1 kpc–2, and we constrain the emission regions in the remaining SMGs to be <10 kpc. As the first statistically reliable survey of SMGs, this will provide the basis for an unbiased multiwavelength study of SMG properties.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present 12CO(2–1) observations of the submillimetre galaxy ALESS65.1 performed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 42.3 GHz. A previous Atacama Large Millimeter Array study of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South detected [C ii] 157.74 μm emission from this galaxy at a redshift of z = 4.44. No 12CO(2–1) emission was detected but we derive a firm upper limit to the cold gas mass in ALESS65.1 of $M_{\rm gas} < 1.7 \times 10^{10} {\rm M}_{{\odot }}$. The estimated gas depletion time-scale is <50 Myr, which is similar to other high-redshift SMGs, and consistent with z > 4 SMGs being the likely progenitors of massive red-and-dead galaxies at z > 2. The ratio of the [C ii], 12CO and far-infrared luminosities implies a strong far-ultraviolet field of G0 ≳ 103, as seen in Galactic star-forming regions or local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The observed $L_{\rm [C {\small {II}}]}/L_{\rm FIR} = 2.3 \times 10^{-3}$ is high compared to local ULIRGs and, combined with $L_{\rm [C {\small {II}}]}/L_{\rm CO} \gtrsim 2700$, it is consistent with ALESS65.1 either having an extended (several kpc) [C ii] emitting region or lower than solar metallicity.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Publication Stats

4k Citations
461.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013-2015
    • University of Hertfordshire
      • Centre for Astrophysics Research (CAR)
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2014
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
    • Dalhousie University
      • Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 2009-2013
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008-2012
    • Durham University
      • • Institute for Computational Cosmology "ICC"
      • • Department of Physics
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004-2007
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada