[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known from earlier work that two conserved Glu residues, designated "catalytic carboxylates," are critical for function in P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Here the role of these residues (Glu-552 and Glu-1197 in mouse MDR3 Pgp) was studied further. Mutation E552Q or E1197Q reduced Pgp-ATPase to low but still measurable rates. Two explanations previously offered for effects of these mutations, namely that ADP release is slowed or that a second (drug site-resetting) round of ATP hydrolysis is blocked, were evaluated and appeared unsatisfactory. Thus the study was extended to include E552A, -D, and -K and E1197A, -D, and -K mutants. All reduced ATPase to similar low but measurable rates. Orthovanadate-trapping experiments showed that mutation to Gln, Ala, Asp, or Lys altered characteristics of the transition state but did not eliminate its formation in contrast e.g. with mutation of the analogous catalytic Glu in F1-ATPase. Retention of ATP as well as ADP was seen in Ala, Asp, and Lys mutants. Mutation E552A in nucleotide binding domain 1 (NBD1) was combined with mutation S528A or S1173A in the LSGGQ sequence of NBD1 or NBD2, respectively. Synergistic effects were seen. E552A/S1173A had extremely low turnover rate for ATPase, while E552A/S528A showed zero or close to zero ATPase. Both showed orthovanadate-independent retention of ATP and ADP. We propose that mutations of the catalytic Glu residues interfere with formation and characteristics of a closed conformation, involving an interdigitated NBD dimer interface, which normally occurs immediately following ATP binding and progresses to the transition state.
Preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined mutation of "catalytic carboxylates" in both nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of P-glycoprotein generates a conformation capable of tight binding of 8-azido-ADP (Sauna, Z. E., Müller, M., Peng, X. H., and Ambudkar, S. V. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 13989-14000). Here we characterized this conformation using pure mouse MDR3 P-glycoprotein and natural MgATP and MgADP. Mutants E552A/E1197A, E552Q/E1197Q, E552D/E1197D, and E552K/E1197K had low but real ATPase activity in the order Ala > Gln > Asp > Lys, emphasizing the requirement for Glu stereochemistry. Mutant E552A/E1197A bound MgATP and MgADP (1 mol/mol) with K(d) 9.2 and 92 microm, showed strong temperature sensitivity of MgATP binding and equal dissociation rates for MgATP and MgADP. With MgATP as the added ligand, 80% of bound nucleotide was in the form of ATP. None of these parameters was vanadate-sensitive. The other mutants showed lower stoichiometry of MgATP and MgADP binding, in the order Ala > Gln > Asp > Lys. We conclude that the E552A/E1197A mutation arrests the enzyme in a conformation, likely a stabilized NBD dimer, which occludes nucleotide, shows preferential binding of ATP, does not progress to a normal vanadate-sensitive transition state, but hydrolyzes ATP and releases ADP slowly. Impairment of turnover is primarily due to inability to form the normal transition state rather than to slow ADP release. The Gln, Asp, and Lys mutants are less effective at stabilizing the occluded nucleotide, putative dimeric NBD, conformation. We envisage that in wild-type the occluded nucleotide conformation occurs transiently after MgATP binds to both NBDs with associated dimerization, and before progression to the transition state.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional roles of the two ABC signature sequences (“LSGGQ”) in the N- and C-terminal nucleotide binding domains of P-glycoprotein
were studied by mutating the conserved Ser residues to Ala. The two single mutants (S528A; S1173A) each impaired ATPase activity
mildly, and showed generally symmetrical effects on function, consistent with equivalent mechanistic roles of the two nucleotide
sites. Synergy between the two mutations when combined was remarkable and resulted in strong catalytic impairment. The Ser
residues are not involved significantly in MgATP- or MgADP-binding or in interdomain communication between catalytic sites
and drug binding sites. Retention of product MgADP is not the cause of reduced turnover. Mutation of Ser to Ala reduced the
strength of interaction with the chemical transition state specifically, as shown by vanadate-ADP and beryllium fluoride-ADP
trapping experiments. Therefore, the two conserved ABC signature motif Ser residues of P-glycoprotein cooperatively accelerate
ATP hydrolysis via chemical transition state interaction. Because the transition state complex is currently believed to form
in the dimerized state of the nucleotide binding domains, one may also conclude that both Ser-OH are necessary for correct
formation of the dimer state.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2004 · Journal of Biological Chemistry