[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical studies evaluating targeted BRAFV600E inhibitors in advanced thyroid cancer patients are currently underway. Vemurafenib (BRAFV600E inhibitor) monotherapy has shown promising results thus far, although development of resistance is a clinical challenge. The objective of this study was to characterize development of resistance to BRAFV600E inhibition and to identify targets for effective combination therapy. We created a line of BCPAP papillary thyroid cancer cells resistant to vemurafenib by treating with increasing concentrations of the drug. The resistant BCPAP line was characterized and compared to its sensitive counterpart with respect to signaling molecules thought to be directly related to resistance. Expression and phosphorylation of several critical proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and dimerization was evaluated by immunoprecipitation. Resistance to vemurafenib in BCPAP appeared to be mediated by constitutive overexpression of phospho-ERK and by resistance to inhibition of both phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6 ribosomal protein after vemurafenib treatment. Expression of potential alternative signaling molecule, CRAF, was not increased in the resistant line, although formation of CRAF dimers appeared increased. Expression of membrane receptors HER2 and HER3 was greatly amplified in the resistant cancer cells. Papillary thyroid cancer cells were capable of overcoming targeted BRAFV600E inhibition by rewiring of cell signal pathways in response to prolonged vemurafenib therapy. Our study suggests that in vitro culture of cancer cells may be useful in assessing molecular resistance pathways. Potential therapies in advanced thyroid cancer patients may combine vemurafenib with inhibitors of CRAF, HER2/HER3, ERK, and/or mTOR to delay or abort development of resistance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over expression of various immunogenic melanoma associated antigens (MAAs) has been exploited in the development of immunotherapeutic melanoma vaccines. Expression of MAAs such as MART-1 and gp100 is modulated by the MAPK signaling pathway, which is often deregulated in melanoma. The protein BRAF, a member of the MAPK pathway, is mutated in over 60% of melanomas providing an opportunity for the identification and approval by the FDA of a small molecule MAPK signaling inhibitor PLX4032 that functions to inactivate mutant BRAF(V600E). To this end, we characterized five patient derived primary melanoma cell lines with respect to treatment with PLX4032. Cells were treated with 5μM PLX4032 and harvested. Western blotting analysis, RT-PCR and in vitro transwell migration and invasion assays were utilized to determine treatment effects. PLX4032 treatment modulated phosphorylation of signaling proteins belonging to the MAPK pathway including BRAF, MEK, and ERK and abrogated cell phenotypic characteristics such as migration and invasion. Most significantly, PLX4032 led to an up regulation of many MAA proteins in three of the four BRAF mutated cell lines, as determined at the protein and RNA level. Interestingly, MAGE-A1 protein and mRNA levels were reduced upon PLX4032 treatment in two of the primary lines. Taken together, our findings suggest that the BRAF(V600E) inhibitor PLX4032 has therapeutic potential over and above its known target and in combination with specific melanoma targeting vaccine strategies may have further clinical utility.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Fibromodulin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan important for extracellular matrix organization and essential for tissue repair in multiple organs. The main function of this proteoglycan is the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis; however, more recently described roles for fibromodulin have expanded to include regulation of angiogenesis, reprogramming of human fibroblasts into pluripotent cells, modulation of TGF-β activity, inflammatory processes and association with metastatic phenotypes. Additionally, fibromodulin has been identified as a novel tumor-associated antigen in leukemia, lymphoma, and leiomyoma. Knowledge about its expression in the prostate is limited.
Fibromodulin expression was analyzed in two different malignant and one non-tumorigenic prostatic cell lines in culture, and in benign and malignant human prostate tissue. Expression was analyzed by real time PCR, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. DNA sequencing was performed on a PCR fragment amplified with primers specific for the FMOD gene from cDNA obtained from the cultured cell lines.
Both immunostaining and real time PCR analysis of cell lines indicated that fibromodulin was differentially expressed in the cancerous cell lines compared to the non-tumorigenic cell line. Likewise, cancerous tissue expressed significantly higher levels of intracellular fibromodulin compared to matched, benign tissue from the same patients, as well as compared to tissue from patients with only benign disease.
The expression of fibromodulin was higher in prostatic cancer cells (cell-lines and human tissue) than in normal/benign prostatic cells. Additional studies are required to determine the biological and clinical significance and whether this proteoglycan has a role in carcinogenesis of the prostate or in prostate cancer related inflammatory processes.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Cancer biomarkers: section A of Disease markers
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hallmark of tuberculosis is the granuloma, an organized cellular accumulation playing a key role in host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These structures sequester and contain mycobacterial cells preventing active disease, while long term maintenance of granulomas leads to latent disease. Clear understanding on mechanisms involved in granuloma formation and maintenance is lacking.
To monitor granuloma formation and to determine gene expression profiles induced during the granulomatous response to M. tuberculosis (H37Ra).
We used a previously characterized in vitro human model. Cellular aggregation was followed daily with microscopy and Wright staining for 5 days. Granulomas were collected at 24 h, RNA extracted and hybridized to Affymetrix human microarrays.
Daily microscopic examination revealed gradual formation of granulomas in response to mycobacterial infection. Granulomatous structures persisted for 96 h, and then began to disappear.
Microarray analysis identified genes in the innate immune response and antigen presentation pathways activated during the in vitro granulomatous response to live mycobacterial cells, revealing very early changes in gene expression of the human granulomatous response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment options for advanced metastatic thyroid cancer patients are limited. Vemurafenib, a BRAFV600E inhibitor, has shown promise in clinical trials although cellular resistance occurs. Combination therapy that includes BRAFV600E inhibition and avoids resistance is a clinical need. We used an in vitro model to examine combination treatment with vemurafenib and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, metformin and rapamycin. Cellular viability and apoptosis were analyzed in thyroid cell lines by trypan blue exclusion and TUNEL assays. Combination of vemurafenib and metformin decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in both BCPAP papillary thyroid cancer cells and 8505c anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. This combination was also found to be active in vemurafenib-resistant BCPAP cells. Changes in expression of signaling molecules such as decreased mTOR expression in BCPAP and enhanced inhibition of phospho-MAPK in resistant BCPAP and 8505c were observed. The second combination of vemurafenib and rapamycin amplified cell death in BCPAP cells. We conclude that combination of BRAFV600E and mTOR inhibition forms the basis of a treatment regimen that should be further investigated in in vivo model systems. Metformin or rapamycin adjuvant treatment may provide clinical benefits with minimal side effects to BRAFV600E-positive advanced thyroid cancer patients treated with vemurafenib.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: The emergence of prostate cancer as a major health issue and the absence of curative treatment for metastatic disease requires the development of new treatment modalities. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are possible targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy. We have previously shown that PSA and PSMA can be expressed in recombinant bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strains.
Methods: The in vivo immunogenicity of the prostate-specific proteins produced by this recombinant BCG strain were examined by detection of specific antibody responses and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in mice vaccinated with these strains. These immune responses were compared with those of control mice vaccinated with phosphate buffered saline diluent or soluble PSA or PSMA.
Results: Mice vaccinated with rBCG-PSA developed low levels of anti-PSA antibodies and strong DTH to PSA. Mice vaccinated with rBCG-PSMA developed strong DTH to PSMA and no anti-PSMA antibodies.
Conclusions: We conclude that recombinant BCG expressing PSA or PSMA induce strong cellular immune responses to these antigens. We propose that the innate adjuvant capacity of BCG could help stimulate a specific immune response against prostate-specific proteins produced by the bacteria, which in turn, could lead to the eradication of undetected metastatic prostate cancer cells in post-surgical patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Prostate cancer progression is a complex process in which chemokines and their receptors play an important role related to tumor survival, growth, and metastasis.
Objectives: 1) To determine the expression profiles of proinflammatory chemokines in prostate cancer cell line supernatants and their association with the metastatic phenotype, and 2) To determine whether these chemokines are present in the exosomes released from prostate cancer cell lines examined.
Methods: Prostate cancer lines investigated included PWR-1E (non-tumorigenic), LNCaP (low metastatic potential) and PC-3 (high metastatic potential). The Human Common Chemokines Multi-Analyte ELISArray Kit (Qiagen) was used to evaluate the expression profiles of several proinflammatory chemokines in the supernatant and in the exosomal fraction of prostate cancer cells in culture. Chemokine profiles were correlated with the metastatic abilities of the cell lines analyzed. Chemokines evaluated were CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11.
Results: Differential chemokine profiles in the cell lines were observed in the supernatant and in the exosomal fractions.
Conclusions: Prostate cancer cell lines with different phenotypes have different chemokine profiles, both in supernatant and in the exosomal fraction of these cells in culture. These results may be useful for the design of diagnostic, prognostic and/ or therapeutic strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine-related cancer in the United States and its incidence is rising rapidly. Since among various genetic lesions identified in thyroid cancer, the BRAFV600E mutation is found in 50% of papillary thyroid cancers and 25% of anaplastic thyroid cancers, this mutation provides an opportunity for targeted drug therapy. Our laboratory evaluated cellular phenotypic effects in response to treatment with PLX4032, a BRAFV600E-specific inhibitor, in normal BRAF-wild-type thyroid cells and in BRAFV600E-positive papillary thyroid cancer cells.
Normal BRAF-wild-type thyroid cells and BRAFV600E-mutated papillary thyroid cancer cells were subjected to proliferation assays and analyzed for cell death by immunofluorescence. Cell cycle status was determined using an EdU uptake assay followed by laser scanning cytometry. In addition, expression of proteins within the MAPK signal transduction pathway was analyzed by Western blot.
PLX4032 has potent anti-proliferative effects selectively in BRAF-mutated thyroid cancer cells. These effects appear to be mediated by the drug's activity of inhibiting phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of BRAF within the pro-survival MAPK pathway. Interestingly, PLX4032 promotes the phosphorylation of these signaling molecules in BRAF-wild-type thyroid cells.
These findings support further evaluation of combinational therapy that includes BRAFV600E inhibitors in thyroid cancer patients harboring the BRAFV600E mutation.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · BMC Research Notes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estrogen aids in neo-vascularization of various tumors during hypoxic conditions, however the role of estrogen within the hypoxic environment of thyroid cancer is not known. In a series of experimentations, using human thyroid cancer cells, we observed that estrogen and hypoxia modulate the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling which is abrogated by the anti-estrogen fulvestrant and the HIF-1 inhibitor YC-1 (3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole). Furthermore, we found that the conditioned medium from estrogen treated thyroid cancer cells lead to enhanced migration and tubulogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which is abrogated by HIF-1 inhibitor. These findings, in addition to our previous and other scientific literature data, lead us to conclude that estrogen and hypoxia are interlinked in thyroid cancer and can equally modulate epithelial-endothelial cell interactions by mediating key cellular, metabolic and molecular processes of thyroid cancer progression. We believe that the hormonal component and cellular adaptation to oxygen tension of cancer cells are functionally equivalent with a cellular transition that can be exploited clinically for a combinational approach for thyroid cancer treatment involving antiestrogens as well as anti-hypoxic agents.
No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Current Medicinal Chemistry