P. N. Appleton

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

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Publications (291)874.99 Total impact

  • Lauranne Lanz · Patrick M. Ogle · Katherine Alatalo · Philip N. Appleton
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel observations of 22 radio galaxies, selected for the presence of shocked, warm molecular hydrogen emission. We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 33 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared to investigate the impact of jet feedback on star formation activity. These galaxies are massive, early-type galaxies with normal gas-to-dust ratios, covering a range of optical and IR colors. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) is suppressed by a factor of ~3-6, depending on how molecular gas mass is estimated. We suggest this suppression is due to the shocks driven by the radio jets injecting turbulence into the interstellar medium (ISM), which also powers the luminous warm H2 line emission. Approximately 25% of the sample shows suppression by more than a factor of 10. However, the degree of SFR suppression does not correlate with indicators of jet feedback including jet power, diffuse X-ray emission, or intensity of warm molecular H2 emission, suggesting that while injected turbulence likely impacts star formation, the process is not purely parametrized by the amount of mechanical energy dissipated into the ISM. Radio galaxies with shocked warm molecular gas cover a wide range in SFR-stellar mass space, indicating that these galaxies are in a variety of evolutionary states, from actively star-forming and gas-rich to quiescent and gas-poor. SFR suppression appears to have the biggest impact on the evolution of galaxies that are moderately gas-rich.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The build-up of galaxies is regulated by a complex interplay between gravitational collapse, galaxy merging and feedback related to AGN and star formation. The energy released by these processes has to dissipate for gas to cool, condense, and form stars. How gas cools is thus a key to understand galaxy formation. \textit{Spitzer Space Telescope} infrared spectroscopy revealed a population of galaxies with weak star formation and unusually powerful H$_2$ line emission. This is a signature of turbulent dissipation, sustained by large-scale mechanical energy injection. The cooling of the multiphase interstellar medium is associated with emission in the H$_2$ lines. These results have profound consequences on our understanding of regulation of star formation, feedback and energetics of galaxy formation in general. The fact that H$_2$ lines can be strongly enhanced in high-redshift turbulent galaxies will be of great importance for the \textit{James Webb Space Telescope} observations which will unveil the role that H$_2$ plays as a cooling agent in the era of galaxy assembly.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H$_2$-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H$_2$ bright galaxies, with CARMA. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and early-type galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies show star formation suppression of $\langle$S$\rangle$=10$\pm$5, distributed bimodally, with five objects exhibiting suppressions of S$\gtrsim$10 and depletion timescales $\gtrsim$10Gyr. This star formation inefficiency is also seen in the efficiency per freefall time. We investigate the gas-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal ratios. It is likely that the cause of the suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence into the molecular gas. Galaxies with high star formation suppression (S$\gtrsim$10) also appear to be those in the most advanced stages of transition across optical and infrared color space. This supports the idea that some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses star formation by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work on poststarburst galaxies with molecular reservoirs, indicates that galaxies do not need to expel their molecular reservoirs prior to quenching star formation and transitioning from blue spirals to red early-type galaxies. This may imply that star formation quenching can occur without the need to starve a galaxy of cold gas first.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first X-ray observations of the Taffy galaxies (UGC 12914/5) with the Chandra observatory, and detect soft X-ray emission in the region of the gas-rich, radio-continuum-emitting Taffy bridge. The results are compared to Herschel observations of dust and diffuse [CII] line-emitting gas. The diffuse component of the Taffy bridge has an X-ray luminosity of L(X) (0.5-8keV) =5.4 x 10^39 erg s^-1, which accounts for 19% of the luminosity of the sum for the two galaxies. The total mass in hot gas is (0.8--1.3) x 10^8 M_sun, which is approximately 1% of the total (HI~+~H2) gas mass in the bridge, and ~11% of the mass of warm molecular hydrogen discovered by Spitzer. The soft X-ray and dense CO-emitting gas in the bridge have offset distributions, with the X-rays peaking along the north-western side of the bridge in the region where stronger far-IR dust and diffuse [CII] gas is observed by Herschel. We detect nine Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the system, the brightest of which is found in the bridge, associated with an extragalactic HII region. We suggest that the X-ray--emitting gas has been shocked--heated to high temperatures and "splashed" into the bridge by the collision. The large amount of gas stripped from the galaxies into the bridge and its very long gas depletion timescale (>10 Gyr) may explain why this system, unlike most major mergers, is not a powerful IR emitter.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Many of the transformative processes in the Universe have taken place in regions obscured by dust, and are best studied with far-IR spectroscopy. We present the Cryogenic-Aperture Large Infrared-Submillimeter Telescope Observatory (CALISTO), a 5-meter class, space-borne telescope actively cooled to 4 K, emphasizing moderate-resolution spectroscopy in the crucial 35 to 600 micron band. CALISTO will enable NASA and the world to study the rise of heavy elements in the Universe's first billion years, chart star formation and black hole growth in dust-obscured galaxies through cosmic time, and conduct a census of forming planetary systems in our region of the Galaxy. CALISTO will capitalize on rapid progress in both format and sensitivity of far-IR detectors. Arrays with a total count of a few 100,000 detector pixels will form the heart of a suite of imaging spectrometers in which each detector reaches the photon background limit. This document contains a large overview paper on CALISTO, as well as six 2-3 page scientific white papers, all prepared in response to NASA's Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group (COPAG's) request for input on future mission concepts. The Far-IR Science Interest Group will meet from 3-5 June 2015 with the intention of reaching consensus on the architecture for the Far-IR Surveyor mission. This white paper describes one of the architectures to be considered by the community. One or more companion papers will describe alternative architectures.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The [C II] 157.74 μm transition is the dominant coolant of the neutral interstellar gas, and has great potential as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. Using the Herschel KINGFISH sample of 46 nearby galaxies, we investigate the relation of [C II] surface brightness and luminosity with SFR. We conclude that [C II] can be used for measurements of SFR on both global and kiloparsec scales in normal star-forming galaxies in the absence of strong active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The uncertainty of the Σ[C II] - ΣSFR calibration is ±0.21 dex. The main source of scatter in the correlation is associated with regions that exhibit warm IR colors, and we provide an adjustment based on IR color that reduces the scatter. We show that the color-adjusted Σ[C II] - ΣSFR correlation is valid over almost five orders of magnitude in ΣSFR, holding for both normal star-forming galaxies and non-AGN luminous infrared galaxies. Using [C II] luminosity instead of surface brightness to estimate SFR suffers from worse systematics, frequently underpredicting SFR in luminous infrared galaxies even after IR color adjustment (although this depends on the SFR measure employed). We suspect that surface brightness relations are better behaved than the luminosity relations because the former are more closely related to the local far-UV field strength, most likely the main parameter controlling the efficiency of the conversion of far-UV radiation into gas heating. A simple model based on Starburst99 population-synthesis code to connect SFR to [C II] finds that heating efficiencies are 1%-3% in normal galaxies.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a 70ks Chandra observation of the radio galaxy 3C293. This galaxy belongs to the class of molecular hydrogen emission galaxies (MOHEGs) that have very luminous emission from warm molecular hydrogen. In radio galaxies, the molecular gas appears to be heated by jet-driven shocks, but exactly how this mechanism works is still poorly understood. With Chandra, we observe X-ray emission from the jets within the host galaxy and along the 100 kpc radio jets. We model the X-ray spectra of the nucleus, the inner jets, and the X-ray features along the extended radio jets. Both the nucleus and the inner jets show evidence of 10^7 K shock-heated gas. The kinetic power of the jets is more than sufficient to heat the X-ray emitting gas within the host galaxy. The thermal X-ray and warm H2 luminosities of 3C293 are similar, indicating similar masses of X-ray hot gas and warm molecular gas. This is consistent with a picture where both derive from a multiphase, shocked interstellar medium (ISM). We find that radio-loud MOHEGs that are not brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), like 3C293, typically have LH2/LX~1 and MH2/MX~1, whereas MOHEGs that are BCGs have LH2/LX~0.01 and MH2/MX~0.01. The more massive, virialized, hot atmosphere in BCGs overwhelms any direct X-ray emission from current jet-ISM interaction. On the other hand, LH2/LX~1 in the Spiderweb BCG at z=2, which resides in an unvirialized protocluster and hosts a powerful radio source. Over time, jet-ISM interaction may contribute to the establishment of a hot atmosphere in BCGs and other massive elliptical galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present ALMA Cycle-0 observations of the CO (6-5) line emission and of the 435um dust continuum emission in the central kpc of NGC 1614, a local luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) at a distance of 67.8 Mpc (1 arcsec = 329 pc). The CO emission is well resolved by the ALMA beam (0".26 x 0".20) into a circum-nuclear ring, with an integrated flux of f_{CO(6-5)} = 898 (+-153) Jy km/s, which is 63(+-12)% of the total CO(6-5) flux measured by Herschel. The molecular ring, located between 100pc < r < 350pc from the nucleus, looks clumpy and includes seven unresolved (or marginally resolved) knots with median velocity dispersion of 40 km/s. These knots are associated with strong star formation regions with \Sigma_{SFR} 100 M_\sun/yr/kpc^{2} and \Sigma_{Gas} 1.0E4 M_\sun/pc^{2}. The non-detections of the nucleus in both the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435um continuum rule out, with relatively high confidence, a Compton-thick AGN in NGC 1614. Comparisons with radio continuum emission show a strong deviation from an expected local correlation between \Sigma_{Gas} and \Sigma_{SFR}, indicating a breakdown of the Kennicutt-Schmidt law on the linear scale of 100 pc.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present archival Spitzer photometry and spectroscopy, and Herschel photometry, of the peculiar "Green Valley" elliptical galaxy NGC~3226. The galaxy, which contains a low-luminosity AGN, forms a pair with NGC~3227, and is shown to lie in a complex web of stellar and HI filaments. Imaging at 8 and 16$\mu$m reveals a curved plume structure 3 kpc in extent, embedded within the core of the galaxy, and coincident with the termination of a 30 kpc-long HI tail. In-situ star formation associated with the IR plume is identified from narrow-band HST imaging. The end of the IR-plume coincides with a warm molecular hydrogen disk and dusty ring, containing 0.7-1.1 $\times$ 10$^7$ M$_{\odot}$ detected within the central kpc. Sensitive upper limits to the detection of cold molecular gas may indicate that a large fraction of the H$_2$ is in a warm state. Photometry, derived from the UV to the far-IR, shows evidence for a low star formation rate of $\sim$0.04 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ averaged over the last 100 Myrs. A mid-IR component to the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) contributes $\sim$20$\%$ of the IR luminosity of the galaxy, and is consistent with emission associated with the AGN. The current measured star formation rate is insufficient to explain NGC3226's global UV-optical "green" colors via the resurgence of star formation in a "red and dead" galaxy. This form of "cold accretion" from a tidal stream would appear to be an inefficient way to rejuvenate early-type galaxies, and may actually inhibit star formation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: NGC1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at $\dot{M}_{\rm out} \approx 110 M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 $M_\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact ($\lesssim50$pc) source that could either be powered by an AGN or by an ultra-compact starburst. The ratio of the SF surface density ($\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$) to the gas surface density ($\Sigma_{\rm H_2}$) indicates that SF is suppressed by a factor of $\approx 50$ compared to normal star-forming galaxies if all gas is forming stars, and $\approx$150 for the outskirt (98%) dense molecular gas if the central region is is powered by an ultra-compact starburst. The AGN-driven bulk outflow could account for this extreme suppression by hindering the fragmentation and gravitational collapse necessary to form stars through a process of turbulent injection. This result suggests that even relatively common, low-power AGNs are able to alter the evolution of their host galaxies as their black holes grow onto the M-$\sigma$ relation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The [CII] 157.74 $\mu$m transition is the dominant coolant of the neutral interstellar gas, and has great potential as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. Using the Herschel KINGFISH sample of 46 nearby galaxies, we investigate the relation of [CII] surface brightness and luminosity with SFR. We conclude that [CII] can be used for measurements of SFR on both global and kiloparsec scales in normal star-forming galaxies in the absence of strong active galactic nuclei (AGN). The uncertainty of the $\Sigma_{\rm [CII]}-\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ calibration is $\pm$0.21 dex. The main source of scatter in the correlation is associated with regions that exhibit warm IR colors, and we provide an adjustment based on IR color that reduces the scatter. We show that the color-adjusted $\Sigma_{\rm[CII]}-\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$ correlation is valid over almost 5 orders of magnitude in $\Sigma_{\rm SFR}$, holding for both normal star-forming galaxies and non-AGN luminous infrared galaxies. Using [CII] luminosity instead of surface brightness to estimate SFR suffers from worse systematics, frequently underpredicting SFR in luminous infrared galaxies even after IR color adjustment (although this depends on the SFR measure employed). We suspect that surface brightness relations are better behaved than the luminosity relations because the former are more closely related to the local far-UV field strength, most likely the main parameter controlling the efficiency of the conversion of far-UV radiation into gas heating. A simple model based on Starburst99 population-synthesis code to connect SFR to [CII] finds that heating efficiencies are $1\%-3\%$ in normal galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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    Katherine Alatalo · Philip N. Appleton · Ute Lisenfeld
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the evolution of galaxies from the starforming blue cloud to the quiescent red sequence has been revolutionized by observations taken with Herschel Space Observatory, and the onset of the era of sensitive millimeter interferometers, allowing astronomers to probe both cold dust as well as the cool interstellar medium in a large set of galaxies with unprecedented sensitivity. Recent Herschel observations of of H2-bright Hickson Compact Groups of galaxies (HCGs) has shown that [CII] may be boosted in diffuse shocked gas. CARMA CO(1-0) observations of these [CII]-bright HCGs has shown that these turbulent systems also can show suppression of SF. Here we present preliminary results from observations of HCGs with Herschel and CARMA, and their [CII] and CO(1-0) properties to discuss how shocks influence galaxy transitions and star formation.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: We present [C II] and [O I] observations from Herschel and CO(1–0) maps from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA) of the Hickson Compact Group HCG 57, focusing on the galaxies HCG 57a and HCG 57d. HCG 57a has been previously shown to contain enhanced quantities of warm molecular hydrogen consistent with shock and/or turbulent heating. Our observations show that HCG 57d has strong [C II] emission compared to LFIR and weak CO(1–0), while in HCG 57a, both the [C II] and CO(1–0) are strong. HCG 57a lies at the upper end of the normal distribution of [C II]/CO and [C II]/FIR ratios, and its far-IR cooling supports a low density warm diffuse gas that falls close to the boundary of acceptable PDR models. However, the power radiated in the [C II] and warm H_2 emission have similar magnitudes, as seen in other shock-dominated systems and predicted by recent models. We suggest that shock-heating of the [C II] is a viable alternative to photoelectric heating in violently disturbed diffuse gas. The existence of shocks is also consistent with peculiar CO kinematics in the galaxy, indicating highly non-circular motions are present. These kinematically disturbed CO regions also show evidence of suppressed star formation, falling a factor of 10–30 below normal galaxies on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We suggest that the peculiar properties of both galaxies are consistent with a highly dissipative off-center collisional encounter between HCG 57d and 57a, creating ring-like morphologies in both systems. Highly dissipative gas-on-gas collisions may be more common in dense groups because of the likelihood of repeated multiple encounters. The possibility of shock induced SF suppression may explain why a subset of these HCG galaxies have been found previously to fall in the mid-infrared green valley.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of a prominent bifurcation between early-type galaxies and late-type galaxies, in [4.6]-[12] micron colors from the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We then use an emission-line diagnostic comparison sample to explore the nature of objects found both within, and near the edges of, this WISE infrared transition zone (IRTZ). We hypothesize that this birfurcation might be due to the presence of hot dust and PAH emission features in late-type galaxies. Using a sample of galaxies selected through the Shocked Poststarburst Galaxy Survey (SPOGS), we are able to identify galaxies with strong Balmer absorption (EW(Hdelta)>5 Angstroms) as well as emission lines inconsistent with star formation (deemed SPOG candidates, or SPOGs*) that lie within the optical green valley. Seyferts and low ionization nuclear emission line regions, whose u-r colors tend to be red, are strongly represented within the IRTZ, whereas SPOGs* tend to sit near the star-forming edge. Although AGN are well-represented in the IRTZ, we argue that the dominant IRTZ population are galaxies that are in late stages of transitioning across the optical green valley, shedding the last of their remnant interstellar media.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    U. Lisenfeld · P. N. Appleton · M. E. Cluver · P. Guillard · K. Alatalo · P. Ogle
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Galaxies in Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) are believed to experience morphological transformations from blue, star-forming galaxies to red, early-type galaxies. Galaxies with a high ratio between the luminosities of the warm H_2 to the 7.7 μm PAH emission (so-called Molecular Hydrogen Emission Galaxies, MOHEGs) are predominantly in an intermediate phase, the green valley. Their enhanced H_2 emission suggests that the molecular gas is affected in the transition. Aims. We study the properties of the molecular gas traced by CO in galaxies in HCGs with measured warm H_2 emission in order to look for evidence of the perturbations affecting the warm H_2 in the kinematics, morphology and mass of the molecular gas. Methods. We observed the CO(1–0) emission of 20 galaxies in HCGs and complemented our sample with 11 CO(1–0) spectra from the literature. Most of the galaxies have measured warm H_2 emission, and 14 of them are classified as MOHEGs. We mapped some of these galaxies in order to search for extra-galactic CO emission. We analyzed the molecular gas mass derived from CO(1–0), M_H_2, and its kinematics, and then compared it to the mass of the warm molecular gas, the stellar mass and star formation rate (SFR). Results. Our results are the following. (i) The mass ratio between the CO-derived and the warm H_2 molecular gas is in the same range as found for field galaxies. (ii) Some of the galaxies, mostly MOHEGs, have very broad CO linewidths of up to 1000 km s^(-1) in the central pointing. The line shapes are irregular and show various components. (iii) In the mapped objects we found asymmetric distributions of the cold molecular gas. (iv) The star formation efficiency (=SFR/M_H_2) of galaxies in HCGs is very similar to isolated galaxies. No significant difference between MOHEGs and non-MOHEGs or between early-type and spiral galaxies has been found. In a few objects the SFE is significantly lower, indicating the presence of molecular gas that is not actively forming stars. (v) The molecular gas masses, M_H_2, and ratios M_H_2/L_K are lower in MOHEGs (predominantly early-types) than in non-MOHEGs (predominantly spirals). This trend remains when comparing MOHEGs and non-MOHEGs of the same morphological type. Conclusions. We found differences in the molecular gas properties of MOHEGs that support the view that they have suffered (or are presently suffering) perturbations of the molecular gas, as well as a decrease in the molecular gas content and associated SFR. Higher resolution observations of the molecular gas are needed to shed light on the nature of these perturbations and their cause.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • P. M. Ogle · L. Lanz · P. N. Appleton
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    ABSTRACT: We present a Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph map of H2 emission from the nearby galaxy NGC 4258 (Messier 106). The H2 emission comes from 9.4 ± 0.4 × 106M ☉ of warm molecular hydrogen heated to 240-1040 K in the inner anomalous arms, a signature of jet interaction with the galaxy disk. The spectrum is that of a molecular hydrogen emission galaxy (MOHEG), with a large ratio of H2 over 7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission (0.37), characteristic of shocked molecular gas. We find close spatial correspondence between the H2 and CO emission from the anomalous arms. Our estimate of cold molecular gas mass based on CO emission is 10 times greater than our estimate of 1.0 × 108M ☉ based on dust emission. We suggest that the X CO value is 10 times lower than the Milky Way value because of high kinetic temperature and enhanced turbulence. The H2 disk has been overrun and is being shocked by the jet cocoon, and much of the gas originally in the disk has been ejected into the galaxy halo in an X-ray hot outflow. We measure a modest star formation rate of 0.08 M ☉ yr–1 in the central 3.4 kpc2 that is consistent with the remaining gas surface density.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We present Herschel/PACS observations of extended [CII]157.7{\mu}m line emission detected on ~ 1 - 10 kpc scales in 60 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We find that most of the extra-nuclear emission show [CII]/FIR ratios >~ 4 x 10^-3, larger than the mean ratio seen in the nuclei, and similar to those found in the extended disks of normal star-forming galaxies and the diffuse inter-stellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy. The [CII] "deficits" found in the most luminous local LIRGs are therefore restricted to their nuclei. There is a trend for LIRGs with warmer nuclei to show larger differences between their nuclear and extra-nuclear [CII]/FIR ratios. We find an anti-correlation between [CII]/FIR and the luminosity surface density, {\Sigma}_IR, for the extended emission in the spatially-resolved galaxies. However, there is an offset between this trend and that found for the LIRG nuclei. We use this offset to derive a beam filling-factor for the star-forming regions within the LIRG disks of ~ 6 % relative to their nuclei. We confront the observed trend to photo-dissociation region (PDR) models and find that the slope of the correlation is much shallower than the model predictions. Finally, we compare the correlation found between [CII]/FIR and {\Sigma}_IR with measurements of high-redshift starbursting IR-luminous galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We present our initial results on the CO rotational spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the J to J–1 transitions from J = 4 up to 13 from Herschel SPIRE spectroscopic observations of 65 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey. The observed SLEDs change on average from one peaking at J ≤ 4 to a broad distribution peaking around J ~ 6 to 7 as the IRAS 60-to-100 μm color, C(60/100), increases. However, the ratios of a CO line luminosity to the total infrared luminosity, L IR, show the smallest variation for J around 6 or 7. This suggests that, for most LIRGs, ongoing star formation (SF) is also responsible for a warm gas component that emits CO lines primarily in the mid-J regime (5 J 10). As a result, the logarithmic ratios of the CO line luminosity summed over CO (5–4), (6–5), (7–6), (8–7) and (10–9) transitions to L IR, log R midCO, remain largely independent of C(60/100), and show a mean value of –4.13 () and a sample standard deviation of only 0.10 for the SF-dominated galaxies. Including additional galaxies from the literature, we show, albeit with a small number of cases, the possibility that galaxies, which bear powerful interstellar shocks unrelated to the current SF, and galaxies, in which an energetic active galactic nucleus contributes significantly to the bolometric luminosity, have their R midCO higher and lower than , respectively.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    Patrick M. Ogle · Lauranne Lanz · Philip N. Appleton
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    ABSTRACT: We present a Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) map of H2 emission from the nearby galaxy NGC 4258 (Messier 106). The H2 emission comes from 9.4E6 Msun of warm molecular hydrogen heated to 240-1040 K in the inner anomalous arms, a signature of jet interaction with the galaxy disk. The spectrum is that of a molecular hydrogen emission galaxy (MOHEG), with a large ratio of H2 over 7.7 micron PAH emission (0.37), characteristic of shocked molecular gas. We find close spatial correspondence between the H2 and CO emission from the anomalous arms. Our estimate of cold molecular gas mass based on CO emission is 10 times greater than our estimate of 1.0E8 Msun based on dust emission. We suggest that the X(CO) value is 10 times lower than the Milky Way value because of high kinetic temperature and enhanced turbulence. The H2 disk has been overrun and is being shocked by the jet cocoon, and much of the gas originally in the disk has been ejected into the galaxy halo in an X-ray-hot outflow. We measure a modest star formation rate of 0.08 Msun/yr in the central 3.4 square kpc that is consistent with the remaining gas surface density.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014
  • Patrick M. Ogle · Lauranne Lanz · Philip N. Appleton
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    ABSTRACT: We present a Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) map of H2 emission from the nearby galaxy NGC 4258 (Messier 106). The H2 emission comes from 9.4E6 Msun of warm molecular hydrogen heated to 240-1040 K in the inner anomalous arms, a signature of jet interaction with the galaxy disk. The spectrum is that of a molecular hydrogen emission galaxy (MOHEG), with a large ratio of H2 over 7.7 micron PAH emission (0.37), characteristic of shocked molecular gas. We find close spatial correspondence between the H2 and CO emission from the anomalous arms. Our estimate of cold molecular gas mass based on CO emission is 10 times greater than our estimate of 1.0E8 Msun based on dust emission. We suggest that the X(CO) value is 10 times lower than the Milky Way value because of high kinetic temperature and enhanced turbulence. The H2 disk has been overrun and is being shocked by the jet cocoon, and much of the gas originally in the disk has been ejected into the galaxy halo in an X-ray-hot outflow. We measure a modest star formation rate of 0.08 Msun/yr in the central 3.4 square kpc that is consistent with the remaining gas surface density.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014

Publication Stats

5k Citations
874.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2015
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2014
    • University of Crete
      • Department of Physics
      Retimo, Crete, Greece
    • Yale University
      • Department of Physics
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2013
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2008-2013
    • NASA
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 2012
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2010-2011
    • University of Oregon
      • Department of Physics
      Eugene, OR, United States
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France
  • 1986-2008
    • Iowa State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Ames, Iowa, United States
  • 2004
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 1996
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1992
    • Drake University
      • Physics and Astronomy
      Clovis, California, United States
  • 1987-1992
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 1990
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1988
    • University of Groningen
      • Kapteyn Astronomical Institute
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1981-1986
    • The University of Manchester
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom