[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the effectiveness of the mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program tailored to individuals with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). DESIGN:: A convenience sample recruited from clinical referrals over a 2-year period completed outcome measures pre- and posttreatment intervention. SETTING:: Post-acute brain injury rehabilitation center within a suburban medical facility. PARTICIPANTS:: Twenty-two individuals with mTBI and a time postinjury more than 7 months. Eleven participants were men and 11 were women, ranging in age from 18 to 62 years. INTERVENTION:: A 10-week group (with weekly 2-hour sessions) modeled after the MBSR program of Kabat-Zinn, but with modifications designed to facilitate implementation in a population of individuals with brain injury. (The treatment involved enhancement of attentional skills, in addition to increased awareness of internal and external experiences associated with the perspective change of acceptance and nonjudgmental attitude regarding those experiences). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Perceived Quality of Life Scale, Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory. Secondary measures included neuropsychological tests, a self-report problem-solving inventory, and a self-report measure of mindfulness. RESULTS:: Clinically meaningful improvements were noted on measures of quality of life (Cohen d = 0.43) and perceived self-efficacy (Cohen d = 0.50) with smaller but still significant effects on measures of central executive aspects of working memory and regulation of attention. CONCLUSION:: The MBSR program can be adapted for participants with mTBI. Improved performance on measures associated with improved quality of life and self-efficacy may be related to treatment directed at improving awareness and acceptance, thereby minimizing the catastrophic assessment of symptoms associated with mTBI and chronic disability. Additional research on the comparative effectiveness of the MBSR program for people with mTBI is warranted.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · The Journal of head trauma rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of comprehensive, holistic neuropsychologic (NP) rehabilitation compared with standard, multidisciplinary rehabilitation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Randomized practical controlled trial.
Postacute brain injury rehabilitation center within a suburban rehabilitation hospital.
Participants with TBI were recruited from clinical referrals and referrals from the community. Sixty-eight participants who met inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to treatment conditions. Most participants (88%) had sustained moderate or severe TBI, and greater than half (57%) were more than 1 year postinjury at the beginning of treatment.
Treatment was conducted 15 hours per week for 16 weeks. Standard neurorehabilitation consisted primarily of individual, discipline specific therapies (n=34). Intensive cognitive rehabilitation emphasized the integration of cognitive, interpersonal, and functional interventions within a therapeutic environment (n=34).
Primary outcomes were the Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) and Perceived Quality of Life scale (PQOL). Secondary outcomes included NP functioning, perceived self-efficacy, and community-based employment.
NP functioning improved in both conditions. Intensive cognitive rehabilitation participants showed greater improvements on the CIQ (effect size [ES]=0.59) and PQOL (ES=0.30) as well as improved self-efficacy for the management of symptoms (ES=0.26) compared with standard neurorehabilitation treatment. These gains were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. Standard neurorehabilitation participants showed improved productivity at the 6-month follow-up associated with the need for continued rehabilitation.
Improvements seen after intensive cognitive rehabilitation may be related to interventions directed at the self-regulation of cognitive and emotional processes and the integrated treatment of cognitive, interpersonal, and functional skills. The results show the effectiveness of comprehensive holistic NP rehabilitation for improving community functioning and quality of life after TBI compared with standard rehabilitation.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive cognitive rehabilitation program (ICRP) compared with standard neurorehabilitation (SRP) for persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Nonrandomized controlled intervention trial.
Community-based, postacute outpatient brain injury rehabilitation program.
Fifty-six persons with TBI.
Participants in ICRP (n=27) received an intensive, highly structured program of integrated cognitive and psychosocial interventions based on principles of holistic neuropsychologic rehabilitation. Participants in SRP (n=29) received comprehensive neurorehabilitation consisting primarily of physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and neuropsychologic treatment. Duration of treatment was approximately 4 months for both interventions.
Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ); and Quality of Community Integration Questionnaire assessing satisfaction with community functioning and satisfaction with cognitive functioning. Neuropsychologic functioning was evaluated for the ICRP participants.
Both groups showed significant improvement on the CIQ, with the ICRP group exhibiting a significant treatment effect compared with the SRP group. Analysis of clinically significant improvement indicated that ICRP participants were over twice as likely to show clinical benefit on the CIQ (odds ratio=2.41; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-7.2). ICRP participants showed significant improvement in overall neuropsychologic functioning; participants with clinically significant improvement on the CIQ also showed greater improvement of neuropsychologic functioning. Satisfaction with community functioning was not related to community integration after treatment. Satisfaction with cognitive functioning made a significant contribution to posttreatment community integration; this finding may reflect the mediating effects of perceived self-efficacy on functional outcome.
Intensive, holistic, cognitive rehabilitation is an effective form of rehabilitation, particularly for persons with TBI who have previously been unable to resume community functioning. Perceived self-efficacy may have significant impact on functional outcomes after TBI rehabilitation. Measures of social participation and subjective well-being appear to represent distinct and separable rehabilitation outcomes after TBI.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2004 · Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation