[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aim:
Cellular retinol binding protein-1 regulates retinol bioavailability and contributes to cell differentiation maintenance, but its role in ovarian carcinogenesis remains uncertain. We investigated CRBP-1 expression in ovarian tumors and CRBP-1 signaling-regulated pathways.
Materials and methods:
We performed immunohistochemistry, methylation-specific PCR, gene copy number analysis in ovarian tumors and proliferation/apoptosis evaluation, gene array, blot and real-time PCR in CRBP-1-transfected A2780 ovarian cancer cells.
CRBP-1 expression was reduced or absent in G2 and G3 ovarian carcinomas. CRBP-1 silencing in 60% of G2 and 66.7% of G3 carcinomas was due to CRBP-1 promoter methylation. A2780 CRBP-1-transfected cells showed increased retinol-induced apoptosis, retinoid-induced reduced clonogenicity and down-regulation of proliferation and transcription genes, including AKT1, AKT3, EGFR, FOS, JUN, STAT1 and STAT5A.
CRBP-1 loss in G2/G3 ovarian carcinomas and increased apoptotic susceptibility to retinoids in CRBP-1-transfected-A2780 cells suggest CRBP-1 screening as a target to ensure efficacy of an adjuvant retinoid therapy.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Anticancer research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma in a background of secretory endometrium can be difficult. We attempt to establish the diagnostic criteria to be used in such cases. We examined 80 cases of endometrial hyperplasia, carcinoma, and other conditions with glandular crowding arising in secretory endometrium, analyzed their morphologic features, assessed the volume percentage stroma in each case and performed Ki67 immunostaining on 27 cases. Thirteen cases each of secretory and gestational endometrium served as controls. The mean age of the patients was 45 yr. The non-neoplastic diseases included simple hyperplasia without atypia (56%), endometrial polyps (12.5%), and chronic endometritis with glandular crowding (3%). The proportion of cases with complex hyperplasia without atypia was 10%. Neoplastic diseases included atypical complex hyperplasia (12.5%) and endometrioid carcinoma (6%). The secretory changes were usually less advanced in the hyperplastic glands than in the background endometrium. The morphologic features that best distinguished hyperplasia or carcinoma from secretory endometrium included glandular crowding that stood out from the background; architectural disorder (the long axes of the glands pointing in different directions or parallel to the endometrial surface); dilated, irregularly shaped glands, including budding or branching glands and staghorn-shaped glands; stroma of a polyp; cribriform or confluent glands in cases of carcinoma; nuclear atypia in cases of atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma; and crowded nonsecretory glands. The volume percentage stroma of neoplastic lesions was less than that of non-neoplastic ones (34% vs. 61%, P=0.000001) and that of secretory endometrium (34% vs. 68%, P=0.000038). Non-neoplastic lesions did not have significantly more crowded glands than secretory endometrium (61% vs. 68%, P=0.11). Gestational endometrium had more crowded glands than non-neoplastic lesions (39% vs. 61%, P=0.000004), an approximately equal volume percentage stroma with complex hyperplasia without atypia (39% vs. 43%, P=0.51), and less crowded glands than neoplastic lesions (39% vs. 34%, P=0.03). The Ki67 index of the neoplastic lesions was higher than that of the controls, including secretory and gestational endometria (positive nuclei per 100 epithelial cells, 44.8 vs. 4.6, P=0.0004), of the non-neoplastic lesions (44.8 vs. 5.4, P=0.002) and of complex hyperplasia without atypia (44.8 vs. 9.3, P=0.007). Hyperplasia and carcinoma in secretory endometrium can be diagnosed on the basis of increased glandular crowding, architectural irregularity, nuclear atypia, and increased Ki67 index.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is a report of a paratubal adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) located within the right broad ligament in a 62-year-old woman. These are rare tumors with only 8 cases reported so far. Because of an overlap of topographic, morphologic, and immunohistochemical features, it is not always possible to differentiate between the broad ligament GCT and female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (FATWO). Although nuclear grooving is not an exclusive feature of GCT and can be seen in a variety of other neoplasms, in the context of the differential diagnosis between broad ligament GCT and FATWO, the presence of this feature may be very useful in establishing the diagnosis of broad ligament GCT.
No preview · Article · Dec 2011 · International Journal of Surgical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yolk sac tumor (YST) occurs rarely in older women, either in association with a variety of ovarian epithelial tumors or, considerably less often, without an identifiable epithelial precursor. The patients often have elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein that roughly correlate with the amount of the YST component. In postmenopausal women with an ovarian mass and elevated serum levels of α-fetoprotein, a tumor of this type should be suspected. Endometrioid carcinoma is the most common putative precursor, and the tumor is often associated with an endometriotic cyst; however, malignant Müllerian mixed tumor and mucinous neoplasms have also been reported as precursors. We report 4 cases of YST in postmenopausal women. Of the 3 cases with an identified epithelial component, 1 was serous carcinoma, another was clear cell adenocarcinoma, and the third was an admixture of endometrioid and clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from an endometriotic cyst. Although a precursor epithelial ovarian neoplasm, typically a malignancy (somatic carcinoma), is usually identified, no precursor neoplasm was observed in 1 of our cases and in 5 cases from the literature. We believe that YSTs in older women, whether or not an epithelial component is detected histologically, constitute a single entity that is distinct from YSTs in younger patients and should be treated aggressively. Neoplasms with a YST component in older women are less responsive to the chemotherapy currently used for ovarian germ cell tumors; therefore, adjuvant therapy should include platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial ovarian cancer and germ cell tumors. Of the 24 reported cases, including our own, 17 died of neoplasms within 25 months and another was living with disease at 2 months. However, 2 more recent patients treated aggressively with platinum-based chemotherapy designed to treat both epithelial and germ cell tumor components with stage 1 disease are living and have been disease free >1 year after operation.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we discuss the advances in our knowledge of the pathology of pure ovarian stromal neoplasms and discuss tumor-like conditions of ovarian stroma that can mimic ovarian stromal neoplasms clinically, macroscopically, or histologically. This review emphasizes recent studies and those that have significantly advanced our knowledge in the past. The neoplasms in this group occur over a wide age range and are often unilateral. In difficult cases, immunocytochemistry provides improved diagnostic accuracy. The most useful antibodies in this regard are inhibin and calretinin that are positive in most tumors and tumor-like proliferations in the ovarian stromal category. Steroidogenic factor 1 is a promising new marker that has not yet been completely validated. Recent studies of tumors in the fibroma-thecoma group suggest that nuclear atypia is more significant than mitotic activity in the assessment of the biological behavior of these neoplasms. Wherever applicable, we discuss molecular techniques that are currently diagnostically useful.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · The American journal of surgical pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the expression of cyclooxygenases (COX)-2 in nonepithelial ovarian malignancies.COX-2 immunohistochemical staining was performed on newly prepared deparaffinized slides from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue blocks of unselected nonepithelial ovarian malignancies diagnosed between January 1993 and October 2009 after reconfirmation of the diagnosis. Staining was assessed according to intensity of staining and the proportion of stained cells. Staining of more than 10% of the cells was considered positive.During the study period, 26 histologically proven nonepithelial ovarian malignancies were diagnosed. Of them, 16 were granulosa cell tumors and 10 were germ cell tumors (4 dysgerminomas and 6 immature teratomas). Five (31.2%) granulosa cell tumors had positive immunohistochemical COX-2 staining. Positive staining was observed only in 1 immature teratoma and in none of the dysgerminomas.Our data seem to indicate that COX-2 expression by immunohistochemical methods is not frequent in nonepithelial ovarian malignancies.
No preview · Article · Jan 2011 · International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we distinguish two clinical and pathological entities that are similarly named: luteinized thecoma and luteinized thecoma associated with sclerosing peritonitis. Ovarian luteinized thecoma lacks definitive criteria for malignancy. Based on our case study of a mitotically active neoplasm without nuclear atypia in which the patient was living and well 19 years after operation and comparison with prior studies of luteinized thecoma and the closely related entity of cellular fibroma, we propose presumptive criteria for malignancy for this rare neoplasm. Increased mitotic activity in luteinized thecoma without significant nuclear atypia is not an indication of malignant behavior, and such cases should therefore be referred to as mitotically active cellular luteinized thecoma. We also contrast neoplasms in the luteinized thecoma category with the entity originally reported as luteinized thecoma associated with sclerosing peritonitis. In the latter, the ovarian stromal proliferations are typically bilateral, can have an exceedingly high mitotic rate as was seen in our illustrative case, often incorporate non-neoplastic ovarian structures at their periphery, and are responsive to medical therapy. In our patient with sclerosing peritonitis, both the ovarian masses and peritoneal sclerosis underwent complete regression following treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and high doses of steroids, and an ovarian biopsy taken 2 months after therapy showed a histologically normal ovary. The patient subsequently became pregnant and delivered a normal infant. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of successful medically conservative treatment of a young patient with this entity that led to complete relief of symptoms and allowed preservation of fertility. Because recent observations support the non-neoplastic nature of the ovarian stromal proliferations, we advocate use of the previously proposed term luteinized thecomatosis associated with sclerosing peritonitis for this entity.
No preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Pathology - Research and Practice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Luteinized thecoma of the ovary associated with sclerosing peritonitis is a rare tumor that has no standard definitive treatment regimen.
A 25 year-old patient diagnosed with luteinized thecoma and sclerosing peritonitis in the omentum. The patient received high dose corticosteroids (IV Hydrocortisone 500 mg/d) and GnRH agonist (IM Leuprolide 3.75 mg) in order to achieve ovarian suppression and relief of the clinical peritonitis. She was re-admitted two weeks later due to bowel obstruction which was treated conservatively. The steroid regimen was continued by oral intake for 5 weeks with complete remission of the peritonitis related symptoms. The bilateral enlarged ovarian tumor-like solid was the prominent finding in consecutive ultrasound exams with no decrease in size despite of the above mentioned protocol. Thus, the patient was re-operated for exploration and biopsies of the ovary and the pathology report showed no evidence of remnant disease in the ovary, or in the peritoneum. Completing follow-up of 15 months since the last operation, the patient is asymptomatic. She conceived spontaneously and currently is in her 24th week of a normal pregnancy.
This is the first case report in the English literature of a successful medical conservative treatment of a young patient with luteinized thecoma associated with sclerosing peritonitis that led to complete relief of the symptoms and allowed fertility preservation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Gynecologic Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumors of the uterus resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were reported by Clement and Scully in 1976 and were divided in 2 groups: group 1, endometrial stromal tumors, and group 2, mural uterine tumors-both with elements resembling ovarian sex cord tumors. In the former, the sex cord component constitutes a minor portion of an endometrial stromal neoplasm, whereas in the latter, it is the predominant or exclusive component of a uterine wall lesion composed of a variety of mesenchymal elements. An origin from endometrial stromal cells, adenomyosis, stromal myosis, endometriosis, or multipotential cells within the myometrium was postulated in both groups of tumors. In group 1 tumors, the prognosis depends on the type, grade, and stage of the underlying stromal neoplasm. Group 2 tumors seemed to be benign, although because of the occasional recurrence of these tumors, they should be considered of low-grade malignant potential. In recent years, the histological features in group 2 were found to be much more varied than those in group 1 and consisted among others of retiform areas, glomeruloid structures, and Leydig-like cells. In group 1 tumors, the sex cord elements remained limited to cords, trabeculae, nests, and tubules. Eventually, the abbreviation ESTSCLE, or endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, was given to group 1 tumors, whereas UTROSCT, or uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor, was used for group 2 tumors. The most significant information in recently conducted studies concerns the immunophenotype of these lesions especially of UTROSCT. Out of the plethora of the immunohistochemical stains, a panel of 4 including calretinin, inhibin, CD99, and Melan A has emerged which seemed to be the most characteristic sex cord markers. Positivity for calretinin and at least for 1 of the other above-mentioned markers may thus confirm the diagnosis of UTROSCT. Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, on the other hand, usually express only 1 sex cord marker, mostly calretinin. However, additional studies are necessary to confirm these observations. In conclusion, UTROSCT and, to a lesser degree, ESTSCLE, are polyphenotypic neoplasms, which, according to the evidence available at present, most likely arise from pluripotential uterine mesenchymal cells. In UTROSCT, the differentiation into sex cord components is predominant or exclusive, whereas in ESTSCLE, it is minor.
No preview · Article · May 2008 · International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the modulation of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP)-1 and the desmosomal plaque proteins plakophilin (PKP)-1 and desmoplakin (DP) in correlation with the Ki67+ proliferation index (PI) during the progression of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
Using in situ imaging by brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopy, the expression of CRBP-1 protein and transcripts, PKP-1, DP and the Ki67 PI were analysed in 38 low-grade (L) SIL, 56 high-grade (H) SIL, 49 SCC, 30 control cervices and 10 human papillomavirus-positive condylomatous lesions.
CRBP-1+ cells increased from 11.4% in the normal cervix to 80.3% in LSILs, 92.3% in HSILs and slightly decreased to 78.3% in invasive SCCs (P = 0.0001) in close association with the Ki67 PI (r =0.41; P < 0.0001). PKP-1+ and DP+ cells were correlated (0.32; P < 0.0001) and decreased from normal (81% versus 92.3%) to LSIL (53.1% versus 85.3%), to HSIL (46.4% versus 67.5%) and SCC (35.1% versus 35.9%). The Ki67+ PI was inversely correlated with DP (-0.20, P = 0.0014) and PKP-1 (-0.19, P = 0.015). Condylomata retained low CRBP-1 and high expression of PKP-1 and DP.
The gain of CRBP-1 and the loss of desmosomal proteins occur early in cervical carcinogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the expression of Her-2/neu in nonepithelial ovarian malignancies.
Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tissue blocks of 20 unselected nonepithelial ovarian malignancies (12 granulosa cell tumors and 8 germ cell tumors) diagnosed between 1993 and 2005 were immunohistochemically stained for Her-2/neu.
Immunohistochemical staining for Her-2/neu was not present in any of these nonepithelial malignancies examined.
Our limited sample size does not allow a generalized conclusion concerning the lack of Her-2/neu expression in nonepithelial ovarian malignancies, but it adds information with regard to the expression of this oncogene in these rare neoplasms and seems to indicate that it is not a frequent occurrence.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular retinol binding protein-1 (CRBP-1) contributes to the maintenance of the differentiative state of endometrial glandular cells through the regulation of bioavailability of retinol and derivatives, but its role in endometrial oncogenetic process remains unclear. Antibodies to CRBP-1, estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR) were applied to paraffin sections of proliferative (n = 10) and secretory endometrium (n = 9), and to endometrial polyps (n = 6), simple (n = 7), complex (n = 3) and atypical endometrial hyperplasias (n = 9) as well as to 47 endometrioid carcinomas of different histological grade (G) (G1, n = 18; G2, n = 19; G3, n = 10). Four serous and two clear cell carcinomas were also examined. In glandular cells, CRBP-1 positivity was mainly cytoplasmic and rarely in the nuclei. CRBP-1 immunodetection was weakly positive in proliferative and low and focal in secretory endometrium and higher in atypical as compared to simple and complex hyperplasias. CRBP-1 expression in G1 endometrioid carcinomas was similar to that in atypical hyperplasias. In the latter, the highest CRBP-1 expression was observed in areas of squamous differentiation. Semiquantitative evaluation revealed a significant decrease of cytoplasmic CRBP-1 immunoreactivity with the increase of tumor grade. Among G3 endometrioid carcinomas, 60% were CRBP-1 negative, whereas the remaining cases showed a very low and focal positivity. Serous carcinomas were also CRBP-1 negative. When areas of different grading were present within the same tumor, less differentiated areas retained a lower CRBP-1 immunoreaction. The progressive decrease of CRBP-1 paralleled that of ER and PR immunodetection. RT-PCR in eight endometrioid carcinomas suggested a decrease of CRBP-1 with the increase of tumor grade also at transcriptional level. Our results indicate that CRBP-1 immunodetection may constitute an additional tool for histological grading of endometrial carcinoma. The CRBP-1 loss during the progression of endometrial cancer suggests a new potential target for pharmacological strategies aimed to counteract its progression by increased intracellular retinol bioavailability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of a retiform Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of intermediate differentiation presenting as a uterine intracavity polypoid mass in a 63-year-old woman. In contrast to sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma and to hitherto reported uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs), which are primarily characterized by tubular glands and solid tubules, this tumor, which most likely represents a UTROSCT, showed a large spectrum of histologic features typical of a genuine retiform Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by a battery of immunohistochemical stains, which also served as a tool for differential diagnosis with other neoplasms. The tumor cells were positive for broad spectrum keratin (CK) CK18, vimentin, calretinin, and progesterone receptor. Only a few isolated cells stained for inhibin. The tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK5/6, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), thrombomodulin, 013 (CD99), melan A, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), alpha-1-antitrypsin, estrogen receptor, S100, neurone specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin, synaptophysin, desmin, caldesmon, and CD10. Divergent differentiation of uterine cells seems to be the most likely pathogenetic mechanism. To the best of our knowledge, no UTROSCT showing such a variety of histologic features indicative of a true sex cord tumor has been reported before.
Preview · Article · Nov 2005 · International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of a retiform Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of intermediate differentiation presenting as a uterine intracavity polypoid mass in a 63-year-old woman. In contrast to sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma and to hitherto reported uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs), which are primarily characterized by tubular glands and solid tubules, this tumor, which most likely represents a UTROSCT, showed a large spectrum of histologic features typical of a genuine retiform Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by a battery of immunohistochemical stains, which also served as a tool for differential diagnosis with other neoplasms. The tumor cells were positive for broad spectrum keratin (CK) CK18, vimentin, calretinin, and progesterone receptor. Only a few isolated cells stained for inhibin. The tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK5/6, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), thrombomodulin, 013 (CD99), melan A, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), α-1-antitrypsin, estrogen receptor, S100, neurone specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin, synaptophysin, desmin, caldesmon, and CD10. Divergent differentiation of uterine cells seems to be the most likely pathogenetic mechanism. To the best of our knowledge, no UTROSCT showing such a variety of histologic features indicative of a true sex cord tumor has been reported before.
No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of cutaneous bronchogenic cyst, partially lined by gastric mucosa of antral type in a 9-year-old boy. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of gastric mucosa in bronchogenic cutaneous cyst in the literature.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · American Journal of Dermatopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastases to the uterus are rare, accounting for less than 10% of all cases of metastases to the female genital tract from extragenital cancers. The endometrium is even less frequently affected by metastases. Lobular carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer that metastasizes to the uterus.
Two cases of infiltrating lobular carcinoma of the breast metastatic to endometrium and myometrium, one of them harboring an endometrioid adenocarcinoma, are reported. Both patients were on tamoxifen therapy and presented with uterine bleeding.
To the best of our knowledge, uterine carcinoma serving as recipient of metastatic carcinoma from the breast has not been previously documented. This possibility should be considered when an unusual bimorphic pattern appears in a tumor until proven otherwise.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Gynecologic Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular retinol-binding protein-1 (CRBP-1) contributes to the maintenance of the differentiated state of the endometrium through retinol bioavailability regulation. The aim was to analyse CRBP-1 expression in endometrial stromal cells at eutopic and ectopic sites in different physiopathological conditions.
Antibodies to CRBP-1, CD10 and alpha-smooth muscle actin were applied to proliferative (n = 10), secretory (n = 9) and atrophic (n = 7) endometrium, decidua (n = 4), adenomyosis (n = 5), endometriosis (n = 10), endometrial polyps (n = 9), simple endometrial hyperplasia (n = 6), well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma (n = 6) and submucosal leiomyomas (n = 5). In some cases, Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were also applied. CRBP-1 was expressed by eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells more markedly during the late secretory phase and in decidua of pregnancy. CRBP-1 expression was low in the stroma of atrophic endometrium and absent in myometrium, leiomyomas and cervical stroma. CD10 immunoreactivity was weak in atrophic endometrium and in decidua.
CRBP-1 expression characterizes endometrial stromal cells at eutopic and ectopic sites and appears to be more specific than CD10. The level of CRBP-1 varies in intensity according to hormonal variations, reaching its maximum in predecidua and decidua. Thus, immunodetection of CRBP-1 may help to elucidate the physiopathological changes which occur in endometrial stroma and can also be applied as an adjuvant stromal marker.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laminaria are used worldwide for the preparation of the cervix for termination of pregnancy.
The patient presented with recurrent episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease. Her history was significant for treatment with laminaria 4 years before presentation. After 6 months of evaluation, a diagnostic dilation and curettage was performed with removal of laminaria fragments.
Evaluation for complete removal of laminaria is critical. Retention of laminaria should be considered in the workup of patients who have pelvic inflammatory disease or genital infections and have received laminaria in the past.
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Obstetrics and Gynecology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Beta-catenin is a cytoskeleton-associated signaling molecule shown to be elevated in various carcinomas but mostly in colon cancer owing to its impaired degradation. In contrast, its close homologue plakoglobin was shown to suppress the tumorigenicity of certain tumor cells. In the present study, we have used a semiquantitative immunohistochemical approach to evaluate the extent of nuclear localization of beta-catenin in human colonic adenocarcinomas and adenomas and compared it to the distribution of plakoglobin in the same tissues. We show that beta-catenin accumulates in the nuclei of the epithelium of primary and metastatic colonic adenocarcinoma as well as in colonic adenomas. In contrast, nuclear plakoglobin levels in these tissues were low, even compared to those found in epithelial cells of normal colon. These results support the view that the increase in beta-catenin levels in colon cancer cells occurs early in the tumorigenic process, leading to its nuclear localization, not only in invasive adenocarcinoma, but also in colonic adenoma with mild dysplasia.
No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · International Journal of Surgical Pathology