J O Heidenreich

University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States

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Publications (34)70.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Optimal vessel contrast is a prerequisite for vascular imaging. Consecutive stationary imaging of multiple fields of view is contrary to the continuous contrast material passage through the vascular tree. A continuous acquisition of a magnetic resonance (MR) sequence might overcome this limitation. To investigate the image quality of a continuously moving table (CMT) acquisition compared with the established multistep approach for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) of the aorto-iliofemoral run-off. Institutional review board approved this retrospective interindividual study of 60 consecutive patients referred to CE-MRA for peripheral arterial disease. Thirty patients underwent CE-MRA using the routine multistep acquisition and 30 patients were scanned using the CMT technique at 1.5 Tesla. All patients received a fixed contrast dose of 25 mL gadoterate meglumine. A quantitative analysis was performed to assess the relative contrast of 10 vascular segments from the proximal abdominal aorta to the distal calf arteries. A qualitative evaluation of three separate vascular regions (abdomen and pelvis, thighs, and calves) was performed. Two radiologists graded independently arterial vessel conspicuity, venous contamination, presence of artifacts, and diagnostic confidence on a 4-point scale. Overall scan time, including all localizer scans, was recorded. Statistical differences were tested using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction. No significant differences were found between the continuously moving table acquisition and the multistep acquisition with regard to the relative vascular contrast and the qualitative image criteria. The agreement between both readers was significant (Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient, 0.373). The absolute reader agreement was 71.4%. The mean overall scan time was 12 min 44 s for the CMT protocol and 21 min 41 s for the multistep protocol. Aorto-iliofemoral run-off CE-MRA acquired with CMT technique provides a high image quality equivalent to a multistep technique at an overall scan time reduction of 41.3%.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Acta Radiologica
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    ABSTRACT: It is domonstrated how the bolus passage distorts dynamically the image when applied to an patient with an AVM.
    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2012
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    Full-text · Dataset · Nov 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of hemodynamics in arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is important for estimating the risk of bleeding as well as planning and monitoring therapy. In tissues with perfusion values significantly higher than cerebral cortex, continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) permits both adequate representation and quantification of perfusion. Thirteen patients who had cerebral AVMs were examined with two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques: perfusion imaging using a CASL technique with two delay times, 800 and 1200 ms, and T(2)-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (T(2)-DCE-MRI). The signal-to-noise ratio obtained in our study with the CASL technique at 3 T was sufficient to estimate perfusion in gray matter. Both nidal and venous perfusion turned out larger by factors of 1.71±2.01 and 2.48±1.51 in comparison to T(2)-DCE-MRI when using CASL at delay times of 800 and 1200 ms, respectively. Moreover, the venous and nidal perfusion values of the AVMs measured at T(2)-DCE-MRI did not correlate with those observed at CASL. Evaluation of average perfusion values yielded significantly different results when using a shorter versus a longer delay time. Average gray matter perfusion was 15.8% larger when measured at delay times of w=800 ms versus w=1200 ms, while nidal perfusion was 15.7% larger and venous perfusion was 34.6% larger, respectively. In conclusion, the extremely high perfusion within an AVM could be successfully quantified using CASL. A shorter postlabeling delay time of w=800 ms seems to be more appropriate than a longer time of w=1200 ms because of possible inflow of unlabeled spins at the latter.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    S.S. Arora · B.M. Plato · R.J. Sattenberg · R.K. Downs · K.S. Remmel · J.O. Heidenreich
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    ABSTRACT: A significant percentage of children with hemangiomas may have PHACES syndrome which refers to the association of posterior fossa malformations, facial hemangiomas, arterial cerebrovascular abnormalities, cardiovascular anomalies, eye abnormalities and ventral defects like sternal clefting or supraumbilical raphe. A variety of factors have led to under diagnosis of PHACES syndrome in the past including lack of awareness and limited imaging modalities. Also, patients with PHACES syndrome with arterial cerebrovascular abnormalities can present with acute ischemic stroke. However, these patients usually present before one year of age. We describe a 29-year-old woman with no history of cerebrovascular disease who initially presented with symptoms of a stroke and was subsequently diagnosed to have PHACES syndrome exhibiting an array of multiple unusual imaging findings. We also discuss the current literature and recommendations about PHACES syndrome.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Interventional Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Acta Radiologica
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    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a patient with pre-existing multiple sclerosis, who presented with horizontal diplopia, and a prior episode of progressive ataxia and dizziness lasting one week. While initially attributed to multiple sclerosis, subsequent imaging demonstrated a concurrent left cerebellar gangliocytoma, also known as Lhermitte-Duclos disease.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2010 · Journal of Radiology Case Reports
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    R S Brindle · P M Fernandez · R J Sattenberg · M B Flyn · J O Heidenreich
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a 65-year-old woman with an asymptomatic idiopathic lingual artery aneurysm which is suspected to be congenital. We review the literature on external carotid artery branch aneurysms, diagnostic evaluation and discuss treatment options for the various types and the specific chosen in the case presented.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Interventional Neuroradiology
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to monitor both intraparenchymal injection of NaCl solution and subsequent radiofrequency ablation (RFA) within tissues pretreated with NaCl, report the low- and high-field-strength MR appearance of NaCl-enhanced RFAs, and compare MR findings with pathologic findings. Ten ex vivo calf liver specimens were injected with saturated NaCl (seven were mixed with methylene blue during MR fluoroscopic monitoring) and reexamined with fast imaging with steady-state progression (FISP), true FISP, reversed FISP (PSIF), and fast spin-echo T2-weighted MR sequences. The NaCl-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated for various sequences, and CNRs were compared with the Student t test. Distribution on MR images was compared with the results of pathologic analysis. Forty additional in vivo monopolar RFAs were performed in paraspinal muscles of seven minipigs after animal care committee approval (10 standard control ablations, 30 were preceded by direct injection of saturated NaCl at various volumes [3-9 mL] and rates [1 or 6mL/min]). Postablation low-field-strength (n = 20) and high-field-strength (n = 20) MR examinations consisted of T2-weighted imaging, short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) imaging, and contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. Ablation shape, conspicuity, volume, and signal intensity were compared between the two groups and with the results of pathologic analysis. The difference in volumes with and without NaCl injection was evaluated by using two-way analysis of variance. Mean CNR was highest on fast spin-echo T2-weighted images and was significantly higher for PSIF than for FISP (P < .0001) or true FISP (P = .003). NaCl distribution on MR images corresponded with the results of pathologic analysis in ex vivo livers. Interactive in vivo monitoring of NaCl injection and electrode placement was feasible. NaCl-enhanced ablations had irregular shapes, a higher CNR, and significantly larger volumes (F = 22.0; df = 1, 90; P < .00001). All ablations had intermediate or low signal intensity with high-signal-intensity rims on all images. Fluid signals overlaid NaCl-enhanced ablations on fast spin-echo T2-weighted and STIR images, particularly on high-field-strength MR images. MR imaging can be used to reliably monitor the distribution of injected NaCl solution in tissues. Interventional MR imaging techniques can be used to guide and monitor RFAs within NaCl pretreated tissues, with good correlation with pathologic results.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Radiology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · American Journal of Neuroradiology
  • J O Heidenreich · D Hsu · G Wang · J A Jesberger · R W Tarr · O O Zaidat · J L Sunshine
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    ABSTRACT: Despite some limitations, a perfusion/diffusion mismatch can provide a working estimate of the ischemic penumbra in hyperacute stroke and has successfully been used to triage patients. To evaluate whether the addition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to clinical and non-contrast computed tomography (CT) data alters diagnosis and choice of therapy. We retrospectively analyzed clinical records, and CT and MRI data fully available in 97 of 117 patients. Upon clinical examination and CT, a diagnosis and treatment path was scored and compared to treatment path after addition of MRI data. The MRI protocol included T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images (DWI), and perfusion-weighted images (PWI), and MR angiography (MRA). MRI data were acquired in less than 15 min. In 20 of 97 patients (21%), the diagnosis changed after MRI. In 25 of 97 patients (26%), the presumptive treatment plan was changed after MRI evaluation. Thirteen patients had their treatment changed from thrombolytic to nonthrombolytic therapy. Three patients were changed from nonthrombolytic to intraarterial (IA) thrombolysis. In one patient, treatment was changed from intravenous (IV) to IA thrombolysis, and in five patients it was changed from IA to IV thrombolysis. In two patients, systemic heparin was added to antiplatelet therapy. The expansion of the acute stroke protocol to include MRI altered the therapy plan in 26% of our patients. The utility of MRI, shown here to improve patient stratification into best-treatment options, demonstrates the value of using MRI to optimize care in hyperacute stroke patients.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Acta Radiologica
  • JO Heidenreich · M Blaimer · R Kroeker · G Laub · JL Duerk · JL Sunshine · MA Griswold

    No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R
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    ABSTRACT: The characterization of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) angioarchitecture remains rewarding in planning and predicting therapy. The increased signal-to-noise ratio at higher field strength has been found advantageous in vascular brain pathologies. To evaluate whether 3.0T time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is superior to 1.5T TOF-MRA for the characterization of cerebral AVMs. Fifteen patients with AVM underwent TOF-MRA at 3.0T and 1.5T and catheter angiography (DSA), which was used as the gold standard. Blinded readers scored image quality on a four-point scale, nidus size, and number of feeding arteries and draining veins. Image quality of TOF-MRA at 3.0T was superior to 1.5T but still inferior to DSA. Evaluation of nidus size was equally good at 3.0T and 1.5T for all AVMs. In small AVMs, however, there was a tendency of size overestimation at 3.0T. MRA at 3.0T had increased detection rates for feeding arteries (+21%) and superficial (+13%) and deep draining veins (+33%) over 1.5T MRA. 3.0T TOF-MRA offers superior characterization of AVM angioarchitecture compared with 1.5T TOF-MRA. The image quality of MRA at both 3.0 and 1.5T is still far from equal to DSA, which remains the gold standard for characterization of AVM.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Acta Radiologica
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    ABSTRACT: The 170-ms electrophysiological processing stage (N170 in EEG, M170 in MEG) is considered an important computational step in face processing. Hence its neuronal sources have been modelled in several studies. The current study aimed to specify the relation of the dipolar sources underlying N170 and M170. Whole head EEG and MEG were measured simultaneously during the presentation of unfamiliar faces. An Independent Component Analysis (ICA) was applied to the data prior to localization. N170 and M170 were then modelled with a pair of dipoles in a four-shell ellipse (EEG)/homogeneous sphere (MEG) arranged symmetrically across midline. The dipole locations were projected onto the individual structural MR brain images. Dipoles were localized in fusiform gyri in ten out of eleven individuals for EEG and in seven out of eleven for MEG. N170 and M170 were co-localized in the fusiform gyrus in six individuals. The ICA shifted some of the single-subject dipoles up from cerebellum to fusiform gyrus mainly due to the removal of cardiac activity. The group mean dipole locations were also found in posterior fusiform gyri, and did not differ significantly between EEG and MEG. The result was replicated in a repeated measurement 3 months later.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · NeuroImage
  • JO Heidenreich · S Paul · JJ Derakhshan · SG Nour · MJ Riffe · MA Griswold · JL Duerk · JL Sunshine

    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · RöFo - Fortschritte auf dem Gebiet der R
  • T L Schulte · T A Pietilä · J Heidenreich · M Brock · R Stendel
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic low back pain remains a major health problem. Facet joint injection therapy is an easy to perform therapeutic option. However, few prospective studies use a standardized protocol to investigate injection therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate quantity and duration of clinical improvement after this protocol, and to identify the best time for additional repetitive injection therapy. Thirty-nine patients (21 men, 18 women; mean age 55.2 years [range, 29-87 years]) with lumbar facet syndrome were treated with injection using a standardized protocol (prednisolone acetate, lidocaine 1%, phenol 5%) under fluoroscopic control. Follow-up was based on a specially designed questionnaire. Analysis included MacNab criteria, visual analogue scale, and pain disability index. Reduction of pain was found up to 6 months after treatment. The outcome was assessed excellent or good by 62% (24 patients) of the patients after 1 month, by 41% (16 patients) after 3 months, and by 36% (14 patients) after 6 months. There was no influence of age, body mass index, or previous lumbar spinal surgery on improvement after treatment. There were no severe side effects. Short-lasting self limiting mild side effects were found in 26% (increased back pain, numbness, heartburn, headache, allergy). Facet joint injection therapy using a standardized protocol is safe, effective, and easy to perform. The clinical effect is limited, and we recommend repetitive injection according to this protocol after 3 months.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Acta Neurochirurgica
  • SA Schmitz · I Platzek · D Kunz · R Mahlberg · K-J Wolf · J O Heidenreich
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    ABSTRACT: To propose a semi-quantitative computed tomography (CT) protocol for determining uncalcified pineal tissue (UCPT), and to evaluate its reproducibility in modification of studies showing that the degree of calcification is a potential marker of deficient melatonin production and may prove an instability marker of circadian rhythm. Twenty-two pineal gland autopsy specimens were scanned in a skull phantom with different slice thickness twice and the uncalcified tissue visually assessed using a four-point scale. The maximum gland density was measured and its inverse graded on a non-linear four-point scale. The sum of both scores was multiplied by the gland volume to yield the UCPT. The within-subject variance of UCPT was determined and compared between scans of different slice thickness. The UCPT of the first measurement, in arbitrary units, was 39+/-52.5 for 1 mm slice thickness, 44+/-51.1 for 2 mm, 45+/-34.8 for 4 mm, and 84+/-58.0 for 8 mm. Significant differences of within-subject variance of UCPT were found between 1 and 4 mm, 1 and 8 mm, and 2 and 8 mm slice thicknesses (P<0.05). A superior reproducibility of the semi-quantitative CT determination of UCPT was found using 1 and 2 mm slice thicknesses. These data support the use of thin slices of 1 and 2 mm. The benefit in reproducibility from thin slices has to be carefully weighted against their considerably higher radiation exposure.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Acta Radiologica
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasospasm secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage leads to increased cerebrovascular resistance and may cause ischemia in the affected vascular territories. The currently available therapeutic options for treating vasospasm are limited. The effect of ethanol at a concentration of 0.75 g/kg body weight on blood flow velocity in the major cerebral arteries was studied. In 31 healthy persons, the major extra- and intracranial cerebral vessels were examined by Doppler ultrasonography before and following oral ingestion of 0.75 g/kg body weight of ethanol. An additional 20 healthy subjects served as a control group. Ethanol in the applied concentration significantly increased the systolic, diastolic, and mean blood flow velocities and significantly decreased the pulsatility indices in the middle cerebral artery (MCA). It may reduce vascular resistance and may increase cerebral blood flow in the area supplied by the MCA in healthy persons.
    No preview · Article · May 2006 · Alcohol
  • A M Schilling · J O Heidenreich · K-J Wolf
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    ABSTRACT: Recent technical developments led to a change in the significance of the different imaging modalities in the whole spectrum of neuroradiology and thus also in the field of imaging of the cervical spine. The main part in diagnostic imaging of the upper cervical spine is taken by high-resolution multislice CT and MRI. Conventional X-rays serve as an initial screening technique if required.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Der Orthopäde
  • A. M. Schilling · J. O. Heidenreich · K.-J. Wolf
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    ABSTRACT: Zusammenfassung Die technischen Entwicklungen des letzten Jahrzehnts haben zu einer Veränderung der Wertigkeit bildgebender Verfahren in der gesamten Neuroradiologie und damit auch für die Darstellung des kraniozervikalen Übergangs geführt. Den Hauptbeitrag zur bildgebenden Diagnostik der oberen Halswirbelsäule (HWS) liefern heutzutage die hochauflösende Mehrzeilenspiralcomputertomografie (CT) und die Magnetresonanztomografie (MRT). Konventionelle Röntgenübersichten dienen bei Bedarf noch zu einer ersten Orientierung.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Der Orthopäde

Publication Stats

363 Citations
70.13 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2013
    • University of Louisville
      • Department of Radiology
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States
  • 2005-2011
    • Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
      • Department of Nephrology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
  • 2006-2007
    • Case Western Reserve University
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2002-2005
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • Institute of Veterinary Pathology
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany