[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and rationale for the study. We assessed the association of CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV-RNA on sustained viral response (SVR) after therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR) in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. We examined two large cohorts of coinfected patients treated with PR in Spain between 2000 and 2008. SVR was defined as undetectable HCV-RNA at 24 weeks after the end of PR.
We studied 1682 patients, of whom 38% achieved SVR. Baseline factors independently associated with reduced odds of SVR included genotype 1 or 4, HCV-RNA > 500,000 IU/mL, advanced liver fibrosis, CDC clinical category C, and detectable HIV-RNA. By multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that, in comparison with patients with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and undetectable HIV-RNA, the odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] of SVR was 0.56 (0.41-0.78) for cART and detectable HIV-RNA, 0.86 (0.56-2.57) for no-cART and detectable HIV-RNA, and 1.38 (0.74-2.57) for no-cART and undetectable HIV-RNA.
Detectable HIV-RNA, but not CD4+ T-cell count, was associated with reduced odds of SVR. However, this finding was only confirmed for cART and detectable HIV-RNA, raising the question as whether this represents a true association of HIV-RNA on response to PR or a spurious association due to poor adherence to treatment.
No preview · Article · May 2015 · Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We compared the prognostic value of liver biopsy (LB) and FIB-4 index in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection.
We studied patients from the Grupo de Estudio del SIDA 3603 study cohort, in whom fibrosis was evaluated at baseline using both LB (Metavir score) and FIB-4 index. We assessed overall death (OD) and liver-related events (LREs), defined as decompensation or hepatocellular carcinoma, whichever occurred first. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the ability of LB and FIB-4 to predict outcomes. We also assessed the association between advanced fibrosis-LB (F3 or greater) or FIB-4 (≥3.25)-and outcomes using multivariate Cox regression analysis.
The study sample comprised 903 patients (328 with sustained virologic response [SVR]). Baseline fibrosis by LB was as follows: F0, n = 71; F1, n = 242; F2, n = 236; F3, n = 236; F4, n = 118. Fibrosis by FIB-4 was as follows: ≤1, n = 148; >1 to <3.25, n = 597; ≥3.25, n = 158. After a median follow-up of 62 months, there were 46 deaths and 71 LREs. The area under the ROC curves for OD/LREs was 0.648 and 0.742 for LB and FIB-4, respectively (P = .006). Similar results were found for patients without SVR and for OD and LREs separately. The adjusted hazard ratios of OD or LRE were 1.740 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.119-2.7.06; P = .014) for advanced fibrosis assessed by LB and 3.896 (95% CI, 2.463-6.160; P < .001) assessed by FIB-4.
FIB-4 outperformed LB as a predictor of OD and LRE. These findings are of relevance for clinical practice and research and call into question the role of LB as a gold standard for assessing prognosis in HIV/HCV coinfection.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
In general, HIV co-infected patients included in clinical trials evaluating the hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy with telaprevir (TVR) or boceprevir (BOC) with advanced fibrosis, are scarce. We analyze data concerning the use of these drugs in a real-life clinical setting with patients affected by a more advanced degree of fibrosis in a Spanish cohort.
We evaluated safety and efficacy in an interim analysis encompassing the first 24 weeks of triple therapy with peginterferon (alfa-2a or alfa-2b), ribavirin and TVR or BOC in an observational, multicentre study. HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected patients beginning therapy from January 2012 to July 2013 were included.
Enrolled patients were 155 (144 patients on TVR and 11 on BOC), average age was 47 years, 83% were male. With respect to HCV treatment, 44% were naïve, 13% relapsers, 17% partial responders, 21% null responders, and in seven patients, the previous response was unknown. All but three (98%) were under antiretroviral therapy (ART) (other than reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the backbone was raltegravir 43%, atazanavir 35%, and etravirine 28%). Median HCV-RNA at baseline was 6.1 log10, 54% were cirrhotic and 38% F3. At week 4, 93% of patients continued on therapy, 81% at w12, and 73% at w24. Virological failure was observed more frequently in: cirrhotic patients (19% [95% CI, 11–27]) vs F3 (12% [CI, 4–20]); patients with TT allele of the IL28B polymorphism (40% [CI, 18–61]) vs CT (21% [CI, 12–31]), or CC (2,2% [CI, −2–6]); previous null responders (37.5% [CI, 21–54]) vs partial responders (15.4% [CI, 1–29]), naïve (13% [CI, 5–21]) or relapsers (0% [CI, 0–0]); and in patients with a genotype subtype 1a (23.6% [CI, 57–76]) vs 1b (8.1% [CI, −1–17]). Overall, 17% had virological failure and in 8% treatment was discontinued due to adverse events. Severe adverse events occurred in 30 patients (19%). Haematologic disorders were the most common type including severe anaemia in 12 (7.7%) patients. Erythropoietin was employed in 41 patients (26.4%) and 11 (7.1%) received blood transfusions. Nineteen patients (12.2%) were treated with G-CSF, and 17 (11%) with thrombopoietin-receptor agonists. Five patients died (3.2%), three due to hepatic decompensation, one due to pneumonia and one due to pulmonary hypertension.
In a real-life setting, therapy against HCV in co-infected patients with advanced liver fibrosis shows high virologic success at 24 weeks. However, frequent haematologic disorders are observed and a close monitoring and an intensive therapy are needed to optimize the results.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to update the 2010 recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Renal function should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients. The basic renal work-up should include measurements of serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and urinary sediment. Tubular function tests should include determination of serum phosphate levels and urine dipstick for glycosuria. In the absence of abnormal values, renal screening should be performed annually. In patients treated with tenofovir, or with risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), more frequent renal screening is recommended. In order to prevent disease progression, potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral drugs are not recommended in patients with CKD or risk factors for CKD. The document provides indications for renal biopsy and advises on the optimal time for referral of a patient to the nephrologist. The indicat6ions for and evaluation and management of dialysis and renal transplantation are also addressed.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To update the 2010 recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in HIV-infected patients.
This document was approved by a panel of experts from the AIDS Working Group (GESIDA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC), the Spanish Society of Nephrology (S.E.N.), and the Spanish Society of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Pathology (SEQC). The quality of evidence and the level of recommendation were evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system.
The basic renal work-up should include measurements of serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI, Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and urinary sediment. Tubular function tests should include determination of serum phosphate levels and urine dipstick for glucosuria. In the absence of abnormal values, renal screening should be performed annually. In patients treated with tenofovir or with risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), more frequent renal screening is recommended. In order to prevent disease progression, potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral drugs are not recommended in patients with CKD or risk factors for CKD. The document advises on the optimal time for referral of a patient to the nephrologist and provides indications for renal biopsy. The indications for and evaluation and management of dialysis and renal transplantation are also addressed.
Renal function should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients. The information provided in this document should enable clinicians to optimize the evaluation and management of HIV-infected patients with renal disease.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The strength and grade of the recommendation varies with clinical circumstances, number of CD4 cells, comorbid conditions and prevention of transmission of HIV. The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load. Initial ART should always comprise a combination of 3 drugs, including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a third drug from a different family (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, protease inhibitor, or integrase inhibitor). This update presents the causes and criteria for switching ART in patients with undetectable plasma viral load and in cases of virological failure. An update is also provided for the specific criteria for ART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, and pregnancy) and with comorbid conditions (tuberculosis or other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer).
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
We assessed the effects of sustained viral response (SVR), after treating with interferon-ribavirin (IF-RB), on mortality, liver-related (LR) events (decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma), HIV progression, and liver stiffness in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with nonadvanced liver fibrosis.
From a cohort of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with IF-RB, we selected those with baseline liver fibrosis stages F0, F1, or F2 according to METAVIR. The study started when IF-RB was stopped and ended at death or at the last follow-up visit.
A total of 695 patients were included (HCV genotype 1 or 4, 431; F0, 77; F1, 290; and F2, 328), and 274 patients achieved SVR. After a median follow-up of 4.9 years, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of LR events or overall death, for patients with SVR taking the group of patients with no SVR as a reference was 0.217 (0.079 to 0.599) (P = 0.003) for the whole cohort with F0 to F2. For patients with F0, the aHR (95% CI) was 0.514 (0.040 to 6.593) (P = 0.609), for patients with F1, the aHR (95% CI) was 0.305 (0.053 to 1.762) (P = 0.185), and for patients with F2, it was 0.075 (0.009 to 0.662) (P = 0.020). We also found that, in comparison with no SVR, SVR was followed by less frequent HIV progression for the entire population (F0 to F2) and less frequent liver stiffness across all categories of fibrosis.
SVR in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with moderate stages of liver fibrosis is associated with a reduction of mortality and LR events, and with a reduction of progression of HIV and liver fibrosis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the frequency and the characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases appeared in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients with previous sustained virological response (SVR) and to compare these cases to those diagnosed in patients without SVR.
All HIV/HCV-coinfected patients diagnosed of HCC in 26 hospitals in Spain before 31 December 2012 were analyzed. Comparisons between cases diagnosed in patients with and without previous SVR were made.
One hundred sixty seven HIV/HCV-coinfected patients were diagnosed with HCC in the participant hospitals. Sixty five (39%) of them had been previously treated against HCV. In 13 cases, HCC was diagnosed after achievement consecution of SVR, accounting for 7.8% of the overall cases. The median (Q1-Q3) elapsed time from SVR to diagnosis of HCC was 28 (20-39) months. HCC was multicentric and was complicated with portal thrombosis in nine and six patients, respectively. Comparisons with HCC cases diagnosed in patients without previous SVR only yielded a significantly higher proportion of genotype 3 infection [10 (83%) out of 13 cases versus 34 (32%) out of 107; P = 0.001)]. The median (Q1-Q3) survival of HCC was 3 (1-39) months among cases developed in patients with previous SVR, whereas it was 6 (2-20) months in the remaining individuals (P = 0.7).
HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with previous SVR may develop HCC in the mid-term and long-term. These cases account for a significant proportion of the total cases of HCC in this setting. Our findings reinforce the need to continue surveillance of HCC with ultrasound examinations in patients with cirrhosis who respond to anti-HCV therapy.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · AIDS (London, England)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background & aims:
Sustained viral response (SVR) after therapy with interferon-ribavirin (IF-RB) reduces liver-related (LR) complications and mortality in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients. Here, we assess the impact of end-of-treatment response with subsequent relapse (REL) on LR events (LR death, liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver transplantation), and liver stiffness (LS) by transient elastography.
We analyzed the GESIDA 3603 Cohort (HIV/HCV-co-infected patients treated with IF-RB in 19 centers in Spain). Response to IF-RB was categorized as SVR, REL, and no response (NR). The study started when IF-RB was stopped and ended at death or the last follow-up visit. Multivariate regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, HIV category of transmission, CDC clinical category, nadir CD4+ cell count, HCV genotype, HCV-RNA viral load, and liver fibrosis.
Of 1599 patients included, response was categorized as NR in 765, REL in 250 and SVR in 584. Median follow-up was more than 4 years in each group. Taking the group of patients with NR as reference, we found that the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of liver-related events (liver-related death, liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation) for patients with REL and for patients with SVR were 0.17 (0.05; 0.50) and 0.03 (0; 0.20), respectively. We also found that SVR was followed by less liver stiffness than both REL and NR. However, REL was associated with less liver stiffness than NR.
Best outcomes were achieved with an SVR. However, REL was associated with less LR mortality, decompensation, and liver stiffness than NR.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The latest version of the Spanish clinical practice guidelines on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected adults, developed by the Spanish AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and the National AIDS Plan, recommends initiating ART early in certain circumstances. The aim of this study was to estimate the budget impact of this recommendation by using the data from the VACH cohort. Methods: We considered a scenario in which all naive asymptomatic patients would initiate ART if they had <500 lymphocytes, or a CD4/mu L count >500/mu L if they were older than 55 years, or had high viral load, liver disease, chronic kidney disease or high cardiovascular risk. The study was designed as a cost analysis in terms of annual pharmaceutical expenditure. The only costs included were those relating to the ART combinations analyzed. To estimate these costs, we assumed that this guideline had a penetration of 80%, an adherence of 95% and 12% dropouts. Results: A total of 12,500 patients were reviewed. Of these, 1,127 (10%) had not initiated ART; CD4 lymphocyte count was 350-500 in 294 (26.1%) and > 500 in 685 (60.8%). If the new clinical practice guideline were applied, 45.2% of naive patients (95% Cl: 42.4%-48.2%) would be advised to start ART. Carrying out this recommendation in hospitals of the VACH cohort Would require an additional annual investment of 3,270,975 and would increase the overall cost of antiretroviral drugs by 3%. Conclusions: In the framework of health economics, incorporating economic impact estimates - such as those performed in this study - into clinical practice guidelines would be advisable to increase their feasibility.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Gaceta Sanitaria
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
To report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Spain.
All HIV-infected patients diagnosed of HCC in 18 hospitals in Spain before 31 December 2010 were included. The main characteristics of HCC cases are described and comparisons between cases according to the year of diagnosis are presented.
Eighty-two cases of HCC in HIV-infected patients were included, all of them related to viral hepatitis coinfection: hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 66 (81%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 6 (7%), and HBV/HCV in 10 (12%). From 1999, when the first case of HCC was diagnosed, a progressive increment in the incidence of HCC in the cohort has occurred. In patients coinfected with HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, the incidence HCC increased from 0.2 to 2.8 cases per 1000 person-years between 2000 and 2009. Death occurred in 65 patients (79%), with a median survival of 91 days (interquartile range, 31-227 days). Three of 11 patients (28%) who received potentially curative therapy died, compared with 62 of 71 patients (87%) who did not receive curative therapy (P = .0001). Compared with cases of HCC diagnosed before 2005, cases diagnosed later did not show a higher survival rate.
HCC is an emerging complication of cirrhosis in HIV-infected patients. A sharp increase in its incidence has occurred in those also infected by HCV in the recent years. Unfortunately, HCC is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage, and mortality continues to be very high, with no significant changes in recent years. Earlier diagnosis, which may allow potentially curative therapy, is necessary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sustained virological response (SVR) after therapy with interferon plus ribavirin reduces liver-related complications and mortality in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). We assessed the effect of SVR on HIV progression and mortality not related to liver disease.
An observational cohort study including consecutive HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with interferon plus ribavirin between 2000 and 2008 in 19 centers in Spain.
Of 1599 patients, 626 (39%) had an SVR. After a median follow-up of approximately 5 years, we confirmed that failure to achieve an SVR was associated with an increased risk of liver-related events and liver-related death. We also observed higher rates of the following events in nonresponders than in responders: AIDS-defining conditions (rate per 100 person years, 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), .59-1.10] vs 0.29 [.10-.48]; P= .003), non-liver-related deaths (0.65 [.42-.87] vs 0.16 [.02-.30]; P = .002), and non-liver-related, non-AIDS-related deaths (0.55 [.34-.75] vs 0.16 [.02-.30]; P = .002). Cox regression analysis showed that the adjusted hazard ratios of new AIDS-defining conditions, non-liver-related deaths, and non-liver-related, non-AIDS-related deaths for nonresponders compared with responders were 1.90 (95% CI, .89-4.10; P = .095), 3.19 (1.21-8.40; P = .019), and 2.85 (1.07-7.60; P = .036), respectively.
Our findings suggest that eradication of HCV after therapy with interferon plus ribavirin in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients is associated not only with a reduction in liver-related events but also with a reduction in HIV progression and mortality not related to liver disease.
Preview · Article · May 2012 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the most frequent resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) to lopinavir/ritonavir in a cohort of patients attended in daily practice.
We retrospectively identified 195 multitreated subjects with virological failure. Patients were classified as follows: (i) 71 (36.4%) never received lopinavir/ritonavir (lopinavir/ritonavir naive); (ii) 75 (38.5%) had previously failed on lopinavir/ritonavir; and (iii) 49 (25.1%) were on lopinavir/ritonavir at failure. RAM patterns were assessed. Medians, IQRs, percentages, Kruskal-Wallis, χ(2) or Fisher's exact test, and multinomial logistic regression were used whenever appropriate.
L10I/F, K20R, L24I, L33F, M36I, M46I/L, I47V, G48V, F53L, I54V, A71V, G73S, V82A, I84V and L90M (all with P ≤ 0.037) were protease RAMs overexpressed in patients with lopinavir/ritonavir failure. L10I, M36I, M46I, I54V, L63P, A71V, V82A, I84V and L90M were the most common in lopinavir/ritonavir-naive patients. Other IAS-USA RAMs for lopinavir/ritonavir (L10R/V, K20M, V32I, I47A, I50V, I54L/A/M/T/S, A71T, L76V and V82F/T/S) were not associated with previous or current failure to lopinavir/ritonavir. Lopinavir/ritonavir failure was associated with the number of protease RAMs (OR = 1.146, 95% CI = 1.287, 1.626), higher exposure to protease inhibitors, and the presence of E44D, L33F, I54V and I84V.
In multitreated patients with previous or current lopinavir/ritonavir failure, some protease mutations are selected at significantly greater rates. L10I, M36I, I54V, L63P, A71V, V82A and L90M were found in >50% of cases. Thus, their presence should be expected when genotypic testing results are not available. The number of protease RAMs and higher prior exposures to protease inhibitors were significantly associated with lopinavir/ritonavir failure.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of antiretroviral drugs on the response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin remain uncertain. We evaluated whether antiretroviral drugs affected the response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV).
We conducted a retrospective analysis of two cohorts of HIV/HCV-co-infected patients treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin between 2001 and 2007 in Spain. The outcome measure was sustained virological response (SVR). Logistic regression models were used to test possible associations between non-response and pre-treatment characteristics, including accompanying antiretroviral drugs.
The study sample comprised 1701 patients: 63% were infected with HCV genotype (G) 1 or 4 and 88% were taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Factors independently associated with increased odds of SVR were G2 or 3, HVC RNA <500,000 IU/mL and CDC clinical category A or B. When we adjusted for these prognostic factors and dose of ribavirin/kg, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of SVR for patients without HAART was 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.88; P = 0.144]. Taking the backbone of tenofovir and lamivudine/emtricitabine as a reference, we found that, with the exception of regimens including zidovudine, the effect of other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbones had little effect on SVR. The AOR of SVR for zidovudine and lamivudine was 0.65 (95% CI 0.46-0.93, P = 0.017). We carried out several sensitivity analyses, the results of which were consistent with the findings of the primary analysis.
Our results suggest that, with the exception of regimens including zidovudine, accompanying antiretroviral drugs have little effect on the virological response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information concerning lipid disturbances in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is scarce. The objective of the study is to describe the lipid profile in a large cohort of HIV-infected women on contemporary ART and analyse differences between regimes and patient's characteristics.
Observational, multicentre, cross-sectional study from the Spanish VACH Cohort. 922 women on stable ART without lipid-lowering treatment were included.
Median age was 42 years, median CD4 lymphocyte count was 544 cells/mm3, and 85.6% presented undetectable HIV-1 viral load. Median total cholesterol (TC) was 189 mg/dL (interquartile range, IQR, 165-221), HDL cholesterol 53 mg/dL (IQR, 44-64), LDL cholesterol 108 mg/dL (IQR, 86-134), and triglycerides 116 mg/dL (IQR, 85-163). Mean accumulated time on ART was 116 months; 47.4% were on NNRTI-based regimes, 44.7% on PI, and 6.7% on only-NRTI therapy. 43.8% were also hepatitis C (HCV) coinfected. Patients on PI treatment presented higher TC/HDL ratio than those on NNRTI (p < 0.001). Significantly higher HDL values were observed in NNRTI-treated patients. HCV-coinfected patients presented lower TC/HDL ratio than the non HCV-coinfected. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with TC/HDL ratio were age, triglyceride levels and HCV co-infection. PI treatment presented a non-significant association with higher TC/HDL ratio.
In HIV-infected women, the NNRTI-based ART is associated with a better lipid profile than the PI-based. Factors unrelated to ART selection may also exert an independent, significant influence on lipids; in particular, age, and triglyceride levels are associated with an increased TC/HDL ratio while HCV co-infection is associated with a reduced TC/HDL ratio.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · BMC Women's Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to present the most relevant musculoskeletal disorders, their diagnosis and treatment to the scientific community and the professionals in charge of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These recommendations have been agreed by a panel of experts from the National AIDS Plan (PNS) and the AIDS Study Group (GESIDA). The group have reviewed the efficacy and safety results of clinical trials, cohort studies and pharmacokinetic studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase), or presented at conferences. Three levels of evidence have been defined according to the sources of data: level A, randomized controlled trials; level B, cohort or case-control; and level C, descriptive studies and expert opinion. Based on this evidence, the authors have decided to recommend, consider or not recommend for each situation. The decrease in bone mineral density is common in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment, especially during the first year (from 2 to 4%), with a subsequent partial recovery. A dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan is recommended in patients over 50 years old with HIV infection, history of bone fractures and/or risk factors. Treatment with bisphosphonates has been shown to be effective. Osteoarticular infections are more frequent than in the non-infected population. The level of immunosuppression, risk practice, and antiretroviral treatment should be considered for a proper diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Laboratory and imaging procedures recommended for the study of musculoskeletal processes in HIV infected subjects are the same as in the general population. Osteonecrosis and decreased bone mineral density are the most frequent alterations in children. An early diagnosis of bone disorders is needed. The influence of modifiable risk factors must be avoided and initiate treatment when necessary. Bisphosphonates have been effective in osteoporosis.
No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica