[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis has been used in moyamoya disease (MD) and non-moyamoya ischemic stroke (non-MD). It is important to monitor hemodynamic changes caused by bypass surgery for postoperative management. We evaluated the bypass blood flow during STA-MCA anastomosis by using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography.
We evaluated the bypass blood flow in 13 MD and 21 non-MD patients during STA-MCA anastomosis by means of ICG angiography with injection of ICG into the anastomosed STA. The ICG perfusion area was calculated when the ICG fluorescence intensity reached maximum. We measured cortical oxygen saturation before anastomosis by means of visual light spectroscopy.
ICG angiography demonstrated bypass blood flow from the anastomosed STA to the cortical vessels in all patients. The ICG perfusion area in MD (20.7 ± 6.6 cm(2)) was significantly larger than that in non-MD (8.4 ± 9.1 cm(2), P < 0.05). The cortical oxygen saturation (58.9% ± 8.3%) in MD was significantly lower than that in non-MD (73.4% ± 9.5%, P < 0.05).
ICG angiography with injection of ICG into the bypass artery allowed quantitative assessment of bypass blood flow. The bypass supplies blood flow to a greater extent in MD than in non-MD during surgery. This might be caused by a larger pressure gradient between the anastomosed STA and recipient vessels in MD. These observations indicate that MD requires careful control of systemic blood pressure after surgery to avoid cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. ICG angiography is considered useful for facilitating safe and accurate bypass surgery and providing information for postoperative management.
No preview · Article · Jun 2010 · World Neurosurgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrated that ischemic strokes exhibit an increase of deoxyhemoglobin during activation. We evaluated the effect of revascu-larization on the abnormal evoked cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) re-sponses in these patients, employing near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We selected five patients who exhibited an increase of deoxyhemoglobin associated with increases of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin during activation for this study. These patients showed marked reductions of base-line regional cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reserve capacity, which were improved 1 week after revascularization. Postoperative NIRS demonstrated that the increase of deoxyhemoglobin during activa-tion was not observed after revascularization. This preliminary study demonstrated that the abnormal evoked-CBO response in ischemic stroke patients could be improved by revascularization.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the alterations in optical characteristics and cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) during activation and deactivation, we evaluated the changes in mean optical pathlength (MOP) and CBO induced by a verbal fluency task (VFT) and driving simulation in the right and left prefrontal cortex (PFC), employing a newly developed time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy, which allows quantitative measurements of the evoked-CBO changes by determining the MOP with a sampling time of 1 s. The results demonstrated differences in MOP in the foreheads with the subjects and wavelength; however, there was no significant difference between the right and left foreheads (p > 0.05). Also, both the VFT and driving simulation task did not affect the MOP significantly as compared to that before the tasks (p > 0.05). In the bilateral PFCs, the VFT caused increases of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin associated with a decrease of deoxyhemoglobin, while the driving simulation task caused decreases of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin associated with an increase of deoxyhemoglobin; there were no significant differences in evoked-CBO changes between the right and left PFC. The present results will be useful for quantitative measurement of hemodynamic changes during activation and deactivation in the adults by near infrared spectroscopy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis has been used to prevent stroke in patients with moyamoya disease (MD) and non-moyamoya ischaemic disease (non-MD). However, little is yet known regarding the difference between these groups of patients in the extent to which the bypass contributes to maintaining adequate cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO), or the temporal changes after surgery. In the present study, we evaluated the CBO changes induced by bypass blood flow in patients with MD and non-MD during the peri-operative periods employing optical spectroscopy.
We investigated 13 patients who underwent STA-MCA anastomosis, including 5 MD and 8 non-MD patients. We evaluated the effects of STA blood flow on the CBO in the MCA territory on the anastomosis side, employing visual light spectroscopy during surgery and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) at one week after surgery.
In 4 MD patients and one non-MD patient, the STA blood flow increased the oxyhaemoglobin and cortical oxygen saturation (CoSO2), indicating that the bypass supplied blood flow to the ischaemic brain; the CBO changes were observed more frequently in MD than in non-MD patients (p<0.02). The pre-anastomosis CoSO2 (65.4+/-5.4%) in MD was significantly lower than that (72.8+/-7.6%) in non-MD (p<0.05). Postoperative NIRS demonstrated that the bypass began to supply blood flow to the brain in 5 non-MD patients whose bypass did not supply blood flow during surgery.
Although MD has vessels of small diameter as compared to non-MD, the bypass begins to supply blood flow to the ischaemic brain earlier in MD than in non-MD after anastomosis. The fact that the CoSO2 in MD was lower than that in non-MD suggested that the perfusion pressure in MD was lower than that in non-MD, and this might account for the difference in the bypass blood supply after anastomosis between MD and non-MD. Our data suggest that, even if the bypass does not supply blood to the brain during surgery in non-MD, the bypass blood flow gradually increases after surgery.
No preview · Article · May 2006 · Acta Neurochirurgica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood oxygenation level dependent contrast functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) has been used to define the functional cortices of the brain in preoperative planning for tumor removal. However, some studies have demonstrated false-negative activations in such patients. We compared the evoked-cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) changes measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and activation mapping of BOLD-fMRI in 12 patients with brain tumors who had no paresis of the upper extremities. On the nonlesion side, NIRS demonstrated a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) with increases in oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin (Total-Hb) during a contralateral hand grasping task in the primary sensorimotor cortex (PSMC) of all patients. On the lesion side, NIRS revealed a decrease in Deoxy-Hb in five patients (Deoxy-decrease group), and an increase in Deoxy-Hb in seven patients (Deoxy-increase group); the Oxy-Hb and Total-Hb were increased during activation in both groups, indicating the occurrence of rCBF increases in response to neuronal activation. BOLD-fMRI demonstrated clear activation areas in the PSMC on the nonlesion side of all patients and on the lesion side of the Deoxy-decrease group. However, in the Deoxy-increase group, BOLD-fMRI revealed only a small activation area or no activation on the lesion side. Intraoperative brain mapping identified the PSMC on the lesion side that was not demonstrated by BOLD-fMRI. The false-negative activations might have been caused by the atypical evoked-CBO changes (i.e. increases in Deoxy-Hb) and the software employed to calculate the activation maps, which does not regard an increase of Deoxy-Hb (i.e., a decrease in BOLD-fMRI signal) as neuronal activation.