Publications (55)266.61 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: We explore the phenomenological consequences of general latetime modifications of gravity in the quasistatic approximation, in the case where baryons and cold dark matter have distinct couplings to the gravitational sector. Assuming spectroscopic and photometric surveys with configuration parameters similar to those of the Euclid mission, we derive constraints on our effective description from three observables: the galaxy power spectrum in redshift space, tomographic weaklensing shear power spectrum and the correlation spectrum between the integrated SachsWolfe effect and the galaxy distribution. In particular, with $\Lambda$CDM as fiducial model and a specific choice for the time dependence of our effective functions, we perform a Fisher matrix analysis and find that the unmarginalized $68\%$ CL errors on the three parameters describing the modifications of gravity are of order $\sigma\sim10^{3}$. We also consider two other fiducial models. A nonminimal coupling of CDM enhances the effects of modified gravity and reduces the above statistical errors accordingly. In all cases, we find that the parameters are highly degenerate, which prevents the inversion of the Fisher matrices. Although all three observational probes are complementary in breaking some of the degeneracies, the ISWgalaxy correlation stands out as a promising probe to constrain the modifications of gravity.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Canonical models of singlefield, slowroll inflation do not lead to appreciable nonGaussianity, unless derivative interactions of the inflaton become uncontrollably large. We propose a novel slowroll scenario where scalar perturbations propagate at a subluminal speed, leading to sizeable equilateral nonGaussianity, $f^{\rm equil}_{\rm NL}\propto 1/c_s^4$, largely insensitive to the ultraviolet physics. The model is based on a lowenergy effective theory characterized by weakly broken invariance under internal galileon transformations, $\phi\to\phi+b_\mu x^\mu$, which protects the properties of perturbations from large quantum corrections. This provides the unique alternative to models such as DBI inflation in generating strongly subluminal/nonGaussian scalar perturbations.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We introduce a new class of scalartensor theories of gravity that extend Horndeski, or "generalized Galileon," models. Despite possessing equations of motion of higher order in derivatives, we show that the true propagating degrees of freedom obey wellbehaved secondorder equations and are thus free from Ostrogradski instabilities, in contrast to standard lore. Remarkably, the covariant versions of the original Galileon Lagrangiansobtained by direct replacement of derivatives with covariant derivativesbelong to this class of theories. These extensions of Horndeski theories exhibit an uncommon, interesting phenomenology: The scalar degree of freedom affects the speed of sound of matter, even when the latter is minimally coupled to gravity. 
Article: Weakly Broken Galileon Symmetry
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ABSTRACT: Effective theories of a scalar $\phi$ invariant under the internal \textit{galileon symmetry} $\phi\to\phi+b_\mu x^\mu$ have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of \textit{weakly broken galileon invariance}, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curvedspace remnant of the galileon's quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and latetime acceleration of the universe.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present a unifying treatment of dark energy and modified gravity that allows distinct conformaldisformal couplings of matter species to the gravitational sector. In this very general approach, we derive the conditions to avoid ghost and gradient instabilities. We compute the equations of motion for background quantities and linear perturbations. We illustrate our formalism with two simple scenarios, where either cold dark matter or a relativistic fluid is nonminimally coupled. This extends previous studies of coupled dark energy to a much broader spectrum of gravitational theories.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We review and extend a novel approach that we introduced recently, to describe general dark energy or scalartensor models. Our approach relies on an ADM formulation based on the hypersurfaces where the underlying scalar field is uniform. The advantage of this approach is that it can describe in the same language and in a minimal way a vast number of existing models, such as quintessence models, $F(R)$ theories, scalar tensor theories, their Horndeski extensions and beyond. It also naturally includes HoravaLifshitz theories. As summarized in this review, our approach provides a unified treatment of the linear cosmological perturbations about a FLRW universe, obtained by a systematic expansion of our general action up to quadratic order. This shows that the behaviour of these linear perturbations is generically characterized by five timedependent functions. We derive the full equations of motion in the Newtonian gauge, and obtain in particular the equation of state for dark energy perturbations, in the Horndeski case, in terms of these functions. Our unifying description thus provides the simplest and most systematic way to confront theoretical models with current and future cosmological observations.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have recently proposed a new class of gravitational scalartensor theories free from ghost instabilities. As they generalize Horndeski theories, or "generalized" galileons, we call them G$^3$. These theories possess a simple formulation when the time hypersurfaces are chosen to coincide with the uniform scalar field hypersurfaces. We confirm that they do not suffer from Ostrogradski instabilities by presenting the details of the Hamiltonian formulation. We examine the coupling between these theories and matter. Moreover, we investigate how they transform under a disformal redefinition of the metric. Remarkably, these theories are preserved by disformal transformations, which also allow subfamilies of G$^3$ to be mapped into Horndeski theories.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We show that the prediction for the primordial tensor power spectrum cannot be modified at leading order in derivatives. Indeed, one can always set to unity the speed of propagation of gravitational waves during inflation by a suitable disformal transformation of the metric, while a conformal one can make the Planck mass timeindependent. Therefore, the tensortoscalar ratio unambiguously fixes the energy scale of inflation. Using the Effective Field Theory of Inflation, we check that predictions are independent of the choice of frame, as expected. The first corrections to the standard prediction come from two parity violating operators with three derivatives. Also the correlator $\langle\gamma\gamma\gamma\rangle$ is standard and only receives higher derivative corrections. These results hold also in multifield models of inflation and in alternatives to inflation and make the connection between a (quasi) scaleinvariant tensor spectrum and inflation completely robust. 
Article: Healthy theories beyond Horndeski
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ABSTRACT: We introduce a new class of scalartensor theories that extend Horndeski, or "generalized galileon", models. Despite possessing equations of motion of higher order in derivatives, we show that the true propagating degrees of freedom obey wellbehaved secondorder equations and are thus free from Ostrogradski instabilities, in contrast to the standard lore. Remarkably, the covariant versions of the original galileon Lagrangiansobtained by direct replacement of derivatives with covariant derivativesbelong to this class of theories. These extensions of Horndeski theories exhibit an uncommon, interesting phenomenology: the scalar degree of freedom affects the speed of sound of matter, even when the latter is minimally coupled to gravity.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We compute the full cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities after singlefield inflation. By integrating the photon temperature at second order along a perturbed geodesic in Newtonian gauge, we derive an expression for the observed temperature fluctuations that, for the first time, clarifies the separation of the gravitational lensing and timedelay effects from the purely secondorder contributions. We then use the secondorder Boltzmann code CosmoLib2nd to calculate these contributions and their bispectrum. Including the perturbations in the photon path, the numerically computed bispectrum exactly matches the expected squeezed limit. Moreover, the analytic squeezedlimit formula reproduces well the signaltonoise ratio and shape of the full bispectrum, potentially facilitating the subtraction of the bias induced by secondorder effects. For a cosmicvariance limited experiment with lmax=2000, the bias on a local signal is fNLloc=0.73 negligible for equilateral and orthogonal signals. The signaltonoise ratio is unity at lmax̃3000, suggesting that secondorder effects may hopefully be measured in the future.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The recently derived consistency relations for Large Scale Structure do not hold if the Equivalence Principle (EP) is violated. We show it explicitly in a toy model with two fluids, one of which is coupled to a fifth force. We explore the limits that galaxy surveys can set on EP violation looking at the squeezed limit of the 3point function involving two populations of objects. We find that one can explore EP violations of order 10^{3}  10^{4} on cosmological scales. Chameleon models are already very constrained by the requirement of screening within the Solar System and only a very tiny region of the parameter space can be explored with this method. We show that no violation of the consistency relations is expected in Galileon models. 
Article: SingleField Consistency Relations of Large Scale Structure. Part II: Resummation and Redshift Space
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ABSTRACT: We generalize the recently derived singlefield consistency relations of Large Scale Structure in two directions. First, we treat the effect of the long modes (with momentum q) on the short ones (with momentum k) nonperturbatively, by writing resummed consistency relations which do not require k/q??q 1. These relations do not make any assumptions on the shortscales physics and are extended to include (an arbitrary number of) multiple long modes, internal lines with soft momenta and soft loops. We do several checks of these relations in perturbation theory and we verify that the effect of soft modes always cancels out in equaltime correlators. Second, we write the relations directly in redshift space, without assuming the singlestream approximation: not only the long mode affects the short scales as a homogeneous gravitational field, but it also displaces them by its velocity along the lineofsight. Redshift space consistency relations still vanish when short modes are taken at equal time: an observation of a signal in the squeezed limit would point towards multifield inflation or a violation of the equivalence principle.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We derive consistency relations for the late universe (CDM and \Lambda CDM): relations between an npoint function of the density contrast \delta and an (n+1)point function in the limit in which one of the (n+1) momenta becomes much smaller than the others. These are based on the observation that a long mode, in singlefield models of inflation, reduces to a diffeomorphism since its freezing during inflation all the way until the late universe, even when the long mode is inside the horizon (but out of the sound horizon). These results are derived in Newtonian gauge, at first and second order in the small momentum q of the long mode and they are valid nonperturbatively in the shortscale \delta. In the nonrelativistic limit our results match with (Kehagias and Riotto '12) and (Peloso and Pietroni '12). These relations are a consequence of diffeomorphism invariance; they are not satisfied in the presence of extra degrees of freedom during inflation or violation of the Equivalence Principle (extra forces) in the late universe.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effective field theory of cosmological perturbations stems from considering a cosmological background solution as a state displaying spontaneous breaking of time translations and (adiabatic) perturbations as the related NambuGoldstone modes. With this insight, one can systematically develop a theory for the cosmological perturbations during inflation and, with minor modifications, also describe in full generality the gravitational interactions of dark energy, which are relevant for latetime cosmology. The formalism displays a unique set of Lagrangian operators containing an increasing number of cosmological perturbations and derivatives. We give an introductory description of the unitary gauge formalism for theories with broken gauge symmetrythat allows to write down the most general Lagrangianand of the Stueckelberg "trick"that allows to recover gauge invariance and to make the scalar field explicit. We show how to apply this formalism to gravity and cosmology and we reproduce the detailed analysis of the action in the ADM variables. We also review some basic applications to inflation and dark energy.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose a minimal description of single field dark energy/modified gravity within the effective field theory formalism for cosmological perturbations, which encompasses most existing models. We start from a generic Lagrangian given as an arbitrary function of the lapse and of the extrinsic and intrinsic curvature tensors of the time hypersurfaces in unitary gauge, i.e. choosing as time slicing the uniform scalar field hypersurfaces. Focusing on linear perturbations, we identify seven Lagrangian operators that lead to equations of motion containing at most two (space or time) derivatives, the background evolution being determined by the time dependent coefficients of only three of these operators. We then establish a dictionary that translates any existing or future model whose Lagrangian can be written in the above form into our parametrized framework. As an illustration, we study Horndeski'sor generalized Galileontheories and show that they can be described, up to linear order, by only six of the seven operators mentioned above. This implies, remarkably, that the dynamics of linear perturbations can be more general than that of Horndeski while remaining second order. Finally, in order to make the link with observations, we provide the entire set of linear perturbation equations in Newtonian gauge, the effective Newton constant in the quasistatic approximation and the ratio of the two gravitational potentials, in terms of the timedependent coefficients of our Lagrangian.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We compute the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities at recombination on all scales. We use CosmoLib2nd, a numerical Boltzmann code at second order to compute cosmic microwave background bispectra on the full sky. We consistently include all effects except gravitational lensing, which can be added to our result using standard methods. The bispectrum is peaked on squeezed triangles and agrees with the analytic approximation in the squeezed limit at the few percent level for all the scales where this is applicable. On smaller scales, we recover previous results on perturbed recombination. For cosmicvariance limited data to l_{max}=2000, its signaltonoise ratio is S/N=0.47, corresponding to f_{NL}^{eff}=2.79, and will bias a local signal by f_{NL}^{loc}≃0.82.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We use the socalled eikonal approximation, recently introduced in the context of cosmological perturbation theory, to compute power spectra for multicomponent fluids. We demonstrate that, at any given order in standard perturbation theory, multipoint power spectra do not depend on the largescale adiabatic modes. Moreover, we employ perturbation theories to decipher how nonadiabatic modes, such as a relative velocity between two different components, damp the smallscale matter power spectrum, a mechanism recently described in the literature. In particular, we do an explicit calculation at oneloop order of this effect. While the oneloop result eventually breaks down, we show how the damping effect can be fully captured by the help of the eikonal approximation. A relative velocity not only induces mode damping but also creates largescale anisotropic modulations of the matter power spectrum amplitude. We illustrate this for the Local Group environment.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We compute the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum generated by nonlinearities at recombination on all scales. We use CosmoLib$2^{\rm nd}$, a numerical Boltzmann code at secondorder to compute CMB bispectra on the full sky. We consistently include all effects except gravitational lensing, which can be added to our result using standard methods. The bispectrum is peaked on squeezed triangles and agrees with the analytic approximation in the squeezed limit at the few per cent level for all the scales where this is applicable. On smaller scales, we recover previous results on perturbed recombination. For cosmicvariance limited data to $l_{\rm max} =2000$, its signaltonoise is $S/N=0.47$ and will bias a local signal by $f_{\rm NL}^{\rm loc}\simeq 0.82$.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose a universal description of dark energy and modified gravity that includes all singlefield models. By extending a formalism previously applied to inflation, we consider the metric universally coupled to matter fields and we write in terms of it the most general unitary gauge action consistent with the residual unbroken symmetries of spatial diffeomorphisms. Our action is particularly suited for cosmological perturbation theory: the background evolution depends on only three operators. All other operators start at least at quadratic order in the perturbations and their effects can be studied independently and systematically. In particular, we focus on the properties of a few operators which appear in nonminimally coupled scalartensor gravity and galileon theories. In this context, we study the mixing between gravity and the scalar degree of freedom. We assess the quantum and classical stability, derive the speed of sound of fluctuations and the renormalization of the Newton constant. The scalar can always be demixed from gravity at quadratic order in the perturbations, but not necessarily through a conformal rescaling of the metric. We show how to express covariant fieldoperators in our formalism and give several explicit examples of dark energy and modified gravity models in our language. Finally, we discuss the relation with the covariant EFT methods recently appeared in the literature.  [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Euclid is a European Space Agency medium class mission selected for launch in 2019 within the Cosmic Vision 20152025 programme. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the Universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and redshifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research. In this review we focus on cosmology and fundamental physics, with a strong emphasis on science beyond the current standard models. We discuss five broad topics: dark energy and modified gravity, dark matter, initial conditions, basic assumptions and questions of methodology in the data analysis. This review has been planned and carried out within Euclid's Theory Working Group and is meant to provide a guide to the scientific themes that will underlie the activity of the group during the preparation of the Euclid mission.
Publication Stats
2k  Citations  
266.61  Total Impact Points  
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Institutions

2015

Université ParisSaclay
Lutetia Parisorum, ÎledeFrance, France


20032015

French National Centre for Scientific Research
 Institut d'astrophysique spatiale (IAS)
Lutetia Parisorum, ÎledeFrance, France


20122014

Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration
Peping, Beijing, China 
University of Barcelona
 Instituto de Ciencias del Cosmos (ICCUB)
Barcino, Catalonia, Spain


2013

Columbia University
 Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics
New York, New York, United States 
Université ParisSud 11
Orsay, ÎledeFrance, France


20112013

Cea Leti
Grenoble, RhôneAlpes, France


20012012

University of Geneva
 Department of Theoretical Physics
Genève, Geneva, Switzerland 
University of Oxford
 Department of Physics
Oxford, England, United Kingdom


20072008

Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics
Trst, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy


20042007

University of Helsinki
 Department of Physical Sciences
Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
