[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells have evolved biomolecular networks that process and respond to changing chemical environments. Understanding how complex protein interactions give rise to emergent network properties requires time-resolved analysis of cellular response under a large number of genetic perturbations and chemical environments. To date, the lack of technologies for scalable cell analysis under well-controlled and time-varying conditions has made such global studies either impossible or impractical. To address this need, we have developed a high-throughput microfluidic imaging platform for single-cell studies of network response under hundreds of combined genetic perturbations and time-varying stimulant sequences. Our platform combines programmable on-chip mixing and perfusion with high-throughput image acquisition and processing to perform 256 simultaneous time-lapse live-cell imaging experiments. Nonadherent cells are captured in an array of 2,048 microfluidic cell traps to allow for the imaging of eight different genotypes over 12 h and in response to 32 unique sequences of stimulation, generating a total of 49,000 images per run. Using 12 devices, we carried out >3,000 live-cell imaging experiments to investigate the mating pheromone response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under combined genetic perturbations and changing environmental conditions. Comprehensive analysis of 11 deletion mutants reveals both distinct thresholds for morphological switching and new dynamic phenotypes that are not observed in static conditions. For example, kss1Delta, fus3Delta, msg5Delta, and ptp2Delta mutants exhibit distinctive stimulus-frequency-dependent signaling phenotypes, implicating their role in filtering and network memory. The combination of parallel microfluidic control with high-throughput imaging provides a powerful tool for systems-level studies of single-cell decision making.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular interactions provide paths for information flows. Genetic interactions reveal active information flows and reflect their functional consequences. We integrated these complementary data types to model the transcription network controlling cell differentiation in yeast. Genetic interactions were inferred from linear decomposition of gene expression data and were used to direct the construction of a molecular interaction network mediating these genetic effects. This network included both known and novel regulatory influences, and predicted genetic interactions. For corresponding combinations of mutations, the network model predicted quantitative gene expression profiles and precise phenotypic effects. Multiple predictions were tested and verified.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Molecular Systems Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signaling-protein mRNAs tend to have long untranslated regions (UTRs) containing binding sites for RNA-binding proteins regulating gene expression. Here we show that a PUF-family RNA-binding protein, Mpt5, represses the yeast MAP-kinase pathway controlling differentiation to the filamentous form. Mpt5 represses the protein levels of two pathway components, the Ste7 MAP-kinase kinase and the Tec1 transcriptional activator, and negatively regulates the kinase activity of the Kss1 MAP kinase. Moreover, Mpt5 specifically inhibits the output of the pathway in the absence of stimuli, and thereby prevents inappropriate cell differentiation. The results provide an example of what may be a genome-scale level of regulation at the interface of signaling networks and protein-RNA binding networks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meiotic cohesin serves in sister chromatid linkage and DNA repair until its subunit Rec8 is cleaved by separase. Separase is activated when its inhibitor, securin, is polyubiquitinated by the Cdc20 regulated anaphase-promoting complex (APC(Cdc20)) and consequently degraded. Differently regulated APCs (APC(Cdh1), APC(Ama1)) have not been implicated in securin degradation at meiosis I. We show that Mnd2, a factor known to associate with APC components, prevents premature securin degradation in meiosis by APC(Ama1). mnd2Delta cells lack linear chromosome axes and exhibit precocious sister chromatid separation, but deletion of AMA1 suppresses these defects. Besides securin, Sgo1, a protein essential for protection of centromeric cohesion during anaphase I, is also destabilized in mnd2delta cells. Mnd2's disappearance prior to anaphase II may activate APC(Ama1). Human oocytes may spend many years in meiotic prophase before maturation. Inhibitors of meiotic APC variants could prevent loss of chiasmata also in these cells, thereby guarding against aberrant chromosome segregation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On solid growth media with limiting nitrogen source, diploid budding-yeast cells differentiate from the yeast form to a filamentous, adhesive, and invasive form. Genomic profiles of mRNA levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast-form and filamentous-form cells were compared. Disparate data types, including genes implicated by expression change, filamentation genes known previously through a phenotype, protein-protein interaction data, and protein-metabolite interaction data were integrated as the nodes and edges of a filamentation-network graph. Application of a network-clustering method revealed 47 clusters in the data. The correspondence of the clusters to modules is supported by significant coordinated expression change among cluster co-member genes, and the quantitative identification of collective functions controlling cell properties. The modular abstraction of the filamentation network enables the association of filamentous-form cell properties with the activation or repression of specific biological processes, and suggests hypotheses. A module-derived hypothesis was tested. It was found that the 26S proteasome regulates filamentous-form growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A key aspect of meiotic chromosome segregation is that cohesin, the protein complex that holds sister chromatids together, dissociates from chromosome arms during meiosis I and from centromeric regions during meiosis II. The budding yeast protein Spo13 plays a key role in preventing centromeric cohesin from being lost during meiosis I. We have determined the molecular basis for the metaphase arrest obtained when SPO13 is overexpressed during the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of SPO13 inhibits anaphase onset by at least two mechanisms. First, Spo13 causes a transient delay in degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1. Second, Spo13 inhibits cleavage of the cohesin subunit Scc1/Mcd1 or its meiosis-specific homolog, Rec8, by the separase Esp1. The finding that Spo13 did not prevent cleavage of another Esp1 substrate, Slk19, suggests that overexpression of SPO13 is sufficient to prevent cohesin cleavage by protecting specific substrates from separase activity.
Preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Genes & Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During sporulation in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae, spindle pole bodies acquire the so-called meiotic plaque, a prerequisite for spore formation. Mpc70p is a component of the
meiotic plaque and is thus essential for spore formation. We show here that MPC70/mpc70 heterozygous strains most often produce two spores instead of four and that these spores are always nonsisters. In wild-type
strains, Mpc70p localizes to all four spindle pole bodies, whereas in MPC70/mpc70 strains Mpc70p localizes to only two of the four spindle pole bodies, and these are always nonsisters. Our data can be explained
by conservative spindle pole body distribution in which the two newly synthesized meiosis II spindle pole bodies of MPC70/mpc70 strains lack Mpc70p.
Preview · Article · May 2001 · Journal of Bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exit from mitosis requires the inactivation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by an unknown mechanism. We show that the Cdc14 phosphatase triggers mitotic exit by three parallel mechanisms, each of which inhibits Cdk activity. Cdc14 dephosphorylates Sic1, a Cdk inhibitor, and Swi5, a transcription factor for SIC1, and induces degradation of mitotic cyclins, likely by dephosphorylating the activator of mitotic cyclin degradation, Cdh1/Hct1. Feedback between these pathways may lead to precipitous collapse of mitotic CDK activity and help coordinate exit from mitosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In eukaryotic cells, a specialized proteolysis machinery that targets proteins containing destruction-box sequences for degradation and that uses a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) plays a key role in the regulation of mitosis. APC-dependent proteolysis triggers the separation of sister chromatids at the metaphase-anaphase transition and the destruction of mitotic cyclins at the end of mitosis. Recently, two highly conserved WD40-repeat proteins, Cdc20 and Cdh1/Hct1, have been identified as substrate-specific regulators for APC-dependent proteolysis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we have investigated the cell cycle regulation of Cdc20 and Cdh1/Hct1.
Whereas the levels CDH1/HCT1 RNA and Cdh1/Hct1 protein are constant throughout the cell cycle, CDC20 RNA and Cdc20 protein are present only during late S phase and mitosis and Cdc20 protein is unstable throughout the entire cell cycle. The instability of Cdc20 depends on CDC23 and CDC27, which encode components of the APC. During the G1 phase, a destruction box within Cdc20 mediates its instability, but during S phase and mitosis, although Cdc20 destruction is still dependent on CDC23 and CDC27, it does not depend on the Cdc20 destruction box.
There are remarkable differences in the regulation of Cdc20 and Cdh1/Hct1. Furthermore, the APC activator Cdc20 is itself a substrate of the Cdc27 have a role in the degradation of Cdc20 during S Phase and early mitosis that is not mediated by its destruction box.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteolysis mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) triggers chromosome segregation and exit from mitosis, yet its
regulation is poorly understood. The conserved Cdc20 and Cdh1 proteins were identified as limiting, substrate-specific activators
of APC-dependent proteolysis. CDC20 was required for the degradation of the APC substrate Pds1 but not for that of other APC substrates, such as Clb2 and Ase1.
Conversely, cdh1Δmutants were impaired in the degradation of Ase1 and Clb2 but not in that of Pds1. Overexpression of either CDC20 orCDH1 was sufficient to induce APC-dependent proteolysis of the appropriate target in stages of the cell cycle in which substrates
are normally stable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have designed a screen to isolate mutants defective during a specific part of meiotic prophase I of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes required for the repair of meiotic double-strand breaks or for the separation of recombined chromosomes are targets of this mutant hunt. The specificity is achieved by selecting for mutants that produce viable spores when recombination and reductional segregation are prevented by mutations in SPO11 and SPO13 genes, but fail to yield viable spores during a normal Rec+ meiosis. We have identified and characterized a mutation com1-1, which blocks processing of meiotic double-strand breaks and which interferes with synaptonemal complex formation, homologous pairing and, as a consequence, spore viability after induction of meiotic recombination. The COM1/SAE2 gene was cloned by complementation, and the deletion mutant has a phenotype similar to com1-1, com1/sae2 mutants closely resemble the phenotype of rad50S, as assayed by phase-contrast microscopy for spore formation, physical and genetic analysis of recombination, fluorescence in situ hybridization to quantify homologous pairing and immunofluorescence and electron microscopy to determine the capability to synapse axial elements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have studied the bipartite regulatory element UASH/URS1 in the promoter of HOP1, whose product is required for synapsis and correct pairing of homologous chromosomes during the first meiotic division.
HOP1 is transcriptionally repressed by the URS1 motif during vegetative growth and induced during meiotic prophase by the UASH motif in cooperation with the bifunctional URS1 site, which is required for full induction of HOP1. While URS1 is bound in vitro by the Buf and Ume6 repressor proteins, we demonstrate for the first time by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and interference
footprinting that the UASH site interacts in vitro with a novel factor called UBF (UASH binding factor) which is present in haploid and diploid cycling, as well as sporulating cells. Point mutations in the HOP1 UASH motif abolish UBF-dependent DNA binding activity in vitro and melotic HOP1 gene expression in vivo. Furthermore, we show that UBF binds in vitro to UASH-like sequences in the promoter regions of several meiosis-specific and non-specific genes and propose that UBF mediates gene
expression through its interaction with the UASH motif in both cycling and sporulating cells.
Full-text · Article · Oct 1995 · Nucleic Acids Research