[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Cells have evolved biomolecular networks that process and respond to changing chemical environments. Understanding how complex protein interactions give rise to emergent network properties requires time-resolved analysis of cellular response under a large number of genetic perturbations and chemical environments. To date, the lack of technologies for scalable cell analysis under well-controlled and time-varying conditions has made such global studies either impossible or impractical. To address this need, we have developed a high-throughput microfluidic imaging platform for single-cell studies of network response under hundreds of combined genetic perturbations and time-varying stimulant sequences. Our platform combines programmable on-chip mixing and perfusion with high-throughput image acquisition and processing to perform 256 simultaneous time-lapse live-cell imaging experiments. Nonadherent cells are captured in an array of 2,048 microfluidic cell traps to allow for the imaging of eight different genotypes over 12 h and in response to 32 unique sequences of stimulation, generating a total of 49,000 images per run. Using 12 devices, we carried out >3,000 live-cell imaging experiments to investigate the mating pheromone response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under combined genetic perturbations and changing environmental conditions. Comprehensive analysis of 11 deletion mutants reveals both distinct thresholds for morphological switching and new dynamic phenotypes that are not observed in static conditions. For example, kss1Delta, fus3Delta, msg5Delta, and ptp2Delta mutants exhibit distinctive stimulus-frequency-dependent signaling phenotypes, implicating their role in filtering and network memory. The combination of parallel microfluidic control with high-throughput imaging provides a powerful tool for systems-level studies of single-cell decision making.
Full-text Article · Feb 2009 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Molecular interactions provide paths for information flows. Genetic interactions reveal active information flows and reflect their functional consequences. We integrated these complementary data types to model the transcription network controlling cell differentiation in yeast. Genetic interactions were inferred from linear decomposition of gene expression data and were used to direct the construction of a molecular interaction network mediating these genetic effects. This network included both known and novel regulatory influences, and predicted genetic interactions. For corresponding combinations of mutations, the network model predicted quantitative gene expression profiles and precise phenotypic effects. Multiple predictions were tested and verified.
Full-text Article · Mar 2007 · Molecular Systems Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: mpt5Δ phenotype requires neither PHD1 nor RAS2. Diploid yeast of the indicated genotypes were grown under filamentous-form conditions (SLAD agar) and microscopically imaged to show their filamentation phenotypes.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation of Tec1 and Ste7 in mpt5Δ strains. N-terminally tagged Tec1 or Ste7 protein, or a tagless control, was immunoprecipitated from an mpt5Δ strain with subsequent phosphatase treatment or mock treatment and analyzed by western blot.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: fMAPK and mMAPK pathway output in haploids. Haploid MATa strains with either a minimal filamentation-MAPK-pathway output reporter (FRE-GFP) or a mating-MAPK reporter (PRE-GFP) and the indicated genotypes were grown under yeast-form conditions in the absence of alpha factor and subjected to flow cytofluorometry. As a control, PRE-GFP output of an alpha-factor stimulated strain is shown.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Signaling-protein mRNAs tend to have long untranslated regions (UTRs) containing binding sites for RNA-binding proteins regulating gene expression. Here we show that a PUF-family RNA-binding protein, Mpt5, represses the yeast MAP-kinase pathway controlling differentiation to the filamentous form. Mpt5 represses the protein levels of two pathway components, the Ste7 MAP-kinase kinase and the Tec1 transcriptional activator, and negatively regulates the kinase activity of the Kss1 MAP kinase. Moreover, Mpt5 specifically inhibits the output of the pathway in the absence of stimuli, and thereby prevents inappropriate cell differentiation. The results provide an example of what may be a genome-scale level of regulation at the interface of signaling networks and protein-RNA binding networks.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Meiotic cohesin serves in sister chromatid linkage and DNA repair until its subunit Rec8 is cleaved by separase. Separase is activated when its inhibitor, securin, is polyubiquitinated by the Cdc20 regulated anaphase-promoting complex (APC(Cdc20)) and consequently degraded. Differently regulated APCs (APC(Cdh1), APC(Ama1)) have not been implicated in securin degradation at meiosis I. We show that Mnd2, a factor known to associate with APC components, prevents premature securin degradation in meiosis by APC(Ama1). mnd2Delta cells lack linear chromosome axes and exhibit precocious sister chromatid separation, but deletion of AMA1 suppresses these defects. Besides securin, Sgo1, a protein essential for protection of centromeric cohesion during anaphase I, is also destabilized in mnd2delta cells. Mnd2's disappearance prior to anaphase II may activate APC(Ama1). Human oocytes may spend many years in meiotic prophase before maturation. Inhibitors of meiotic APC variants could prevent loss of chiasmata also in these cells, thereby guarding against aberrant chromosome segregation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: On solid growth media with limiting nitrogen source, diploid budding-yeast cells differentiate from the yeast form to a filamentous, adhesive, and invasive form. Genomic profiles of mRNA levels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast-form and filamentous-form cells were compared. Disparate data types, including genes implicated by expression change, filamentation genes known previously through a phenotype, protein-protein interaction data, and protein-metabolite interaction data were integrated as the nodes and edges of a filamentation-network graph. Application of a network-clustering method revealed 47 clusters in the data. The correspondence of the clusters to modules is supported by significant coordinated expression change among cluster co-member genes, and the quantitative identification of collective functions controlling cell properties. The modular abstraction of the filamentation network enables the association of filamentous-form cell properties with the activation or repression of specific biological processes, and suggests hypotheses. A module-derived hypothesis was tested. It was found that the 26S proteasome regulates filamentous-form growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A key aspect of meiotic chromosome segregation is that cohesin, the protein complex that holds sister chromatids together, dissociates from chromosome arms during meiosis I and from centromeric regions during meiosis II. The budding yeast protein Spo13 plays a key role in preventing centromeric cohesin from being lost during meiosis I. We have determined the molecular basis for the metaphase arrest obtained when SPO13 is overexpressed during the mitotic cell cycle. Overexpression of SPO13 inhibits anaphase onset by at least two mechanisms. First, Spo13 causes a transient delay in degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1. Second, Spo13 inhibits cleavage of the cohesin subunit Scc1/Mcd1 or its meiosis-specific homolog, Rec8, by the separase Esp1. The finding that Spo13 did not prevent cleavage of another Esp1 substrate, Slk19, suggests that overexpression of SPO13 is sufficient to prevent cohesin cleavage by protecting specific substrates from separase activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: During sporulation in diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae, spindle pole bodies acquire the so-called meiotic plaque, a prerequisite for spore formation. Mpc70p is a component of the
meiotic plaque and is thus essential for spore formation. We show here that MPC70/mpc70 heterozygous strains most often produce two spores instead of four and that these spores are always nonsisters. In wild-type
strains, Mpc70p localizes to all four spindle pole bodies, whereas in MPC70/mpc70 strains Mpc70p localizes to only two of the four spindle pole bodies, and these are always nonsisters. Our data can be explained
by conservative spindle pole body distribution in which the two newly synthesized meiosis II spindle pole bodies of MPC70/mpc70 strains lack Mpc70p.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Exit from mitosis requires the inactivation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by an unknown mechanism. We show that the Cdc14 phosphatase triggers mitotic exit by three parallel mechanisms, each of which inhibits Cdk activity. Cdc14 dephosphorylates Sic1, a Cdk inhibitor, and Swi5, a transcription factor for SIC1, and induces degradation of mitotic cyclins, likely by dephosphorylating the activator of mitotic cyclin degradation, Cdh1/Hct1. Feedback between these pathways may lead to precipitous collapse of mitotic CDK activity and help coordinate exit from mitosis.