Jinku Bao

Sichuan University, Hua-yang, Sichuan, China

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Publications (22)82.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are the main carriers of glucose that facilitate the diffusion of glucose in mammalian cells, especially GLUT1. Notably, GLUT1 is a rate-limiting transporter for glucose uptake, and its overexpression is a common characteristic in most cancers. Thus, the inhibition of GLUT1 by novel small compounds to lower glucose levels for cancer cells has become an emerging strategy. Herein, we employed high-throughput screening approaches to identify potential inhibitors against the sugar-binding site of GLUT1. Firstly, molecular docking screening was launched against the specs products, and three molecules (ZINC19909927, ZINC19908826, and ZINC19815451) were selected as candidate GLUT1 inhibitors for further analysis. Then, taking the initial ligand β-NG as a reference, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) method were applied to evaluate the binding stability and affinity of the three candidates towards GLUT1. Finally, we found that ZINC19909927 might have the highest affinity to occupy the binding site of GLUT1. Meanwhile, energy decomposition analysis identified several residues located in substrate-binding site that might provide clues for future inhibitor discovery towards GLUT1. Taken together, these results in our study may provide valuable information for identifying new inhibitors targeting GLUT1-mediated glucose transport and metabolism for cancer therapeutics.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Molecular Structure
  • Lei Wu · Tao Liu · Yan Xiao · Xing Li · Yanan Zhu · Yan Zhao · Jinku Bao · Chuanfang Wu
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    ABSTRACT: Polygonatum odoratum lectin (POL), a mannose-binding specific Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectin has been reported with remarkable anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects against several tumor cells. Our previous research revealed that POL can induce apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. However, whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether miRNAs were involved in POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis on A549 cells to identify altered miRNAs after POL treatment. We found that miR-1290 was down-regulated after POL treatment and down-regulated miR-1290 amplifies POL-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Moreover, we revealed that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) was a direct target of miR-1290 and POL treatment could result in Wnt pathway down regulation. We also found that miR-15a-3p was up-regulated after POL treatment and over-expression of miR-15a-3p resulted in A549 cells apoptosis and autophagy. In addition, we confirmed that a miR-15a-3p mediated ROS-p53 pathway was involved in POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. Taken together, these data provide evidence that POL induces A549 cells apoptosis and autophagy by regulation of miR-1290 and miR-15a-3p.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of biological macromolecules
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    Jianzong Li · Yu Feng · Xiaoyun Wang · Jing Li · Wen Liu · Li Rong · Jinku Bao
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    ABSTRACT: The sequence-structure-function paradigm of proteins has been changed by the occurrence of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Benefiting from the structural disorder, IDPs are of particular importance in biological processes like regulation and signaling. IDPs are associated with human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, amyloidoses, and several other maladies. IDPs attract a high level of interest and a substantial effort has been made to develop experimental and computational methods. So far, more than 70 prediction tools have been developed since 1997, within which 17 predictors were created in the last five years. Here, we presented an overview of IDPs predictors developed during 2010–2014. We analyzed the algorithms used for IDPs prediction by these tools and we also discussed the basic concept of various prediction methods for IDPs. The comparison of prediction performance among these tools is discussed as well.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: cAMP, intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate, is a ubiquitous second messenger that plays a key role in many physiological processes. PDE4B which can reduce the cAMP level by hydrolyzing cAMP to 5'-AMP has become a therapeutic target for the treatment of human diseases like respiratory disorders, inflammation diseases, neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the use of currently available PDE4B inhibitors is restricted due to serious side effects caused by targeting PDE4D. Hence, we are attempting to find out subfamily-selective PDE4B inhibitors from natural products, using computer aided approaches like virtual screening, docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Finally, four potential PDE4B-selective inhibitors (ZINC67912770, ZINC67912780, ZINC72320169 and ZINC28882432) were found. Compared to the reference drug (roflumilast), they scored better during the virtual screening process. Binding free energy for them was -317.51, -239.44, -215.52 and -165.77 kJ/mol, better than -129.05 kJ/mol of roflumilast. The pharmacophore model of the four candidate inhibitors comprised six features, including one hydrogen bond donor, four hydrogen bond acceptors, and one aromatic ring feature. It is expected that our study will pave the way for the design of potent PDE4B-selective inhibitors of new drugs to treat a wide variety of diseases such as asthma, COPD, psoriasis, depression, etc.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Journal of biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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    ABSTRACT: Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is a metabolic enzyme which catalyzes the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate in the glycolysis pathway, thus playing key roles in aerobic glycolysis. The inhibition of LDHA by small molecules has become an attractive strategy for anticancer therapy in recent years. However, very few LDHA inhibitors have been reported, even though a great deal of effort has directed into identifying LDHA inhibitors using structure-based approaches. Therefore, high-throughput and high-accuracy screening approaches are still urgently needed in order to target LDHA effectively. In the present work, after establishing that our docking strategies performed well using test datasets, we screened 32791 Specs products for their docking scores with the substrate-binding pocket and, separately, the cofactor-binding pocket of LDHA. We subsequently identified 76 hits (i.e., ligands that show low docking scores) for the cofactor-binding pocket and 27 hits for the substrate-binding pocket. Two representative compounds, ZINC20036549 and ZINC19369718, were then chosen for further MD simulation analysis, and we found that these compounds maintained their inhibitory activity during the MD simulations. Meanwhile, we found that ZINC19369718 interacts with a novel binding site close to the active site, and that this interaction may inhibit the catalytic activity of LDHA. Together, these results offer not only a new paradigm for identifying Specs drug-like products for novel therapeutic use but they also provide further opportunity to adopt LDHA inhibition as a strategy for cancer therapy.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Molecular Modeling
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    ABSTRACT: Clematis montana lectin (CML), a novel mannose-binding lectin purified from C. montana Buch.-Ham stem (Ranunculaceae), has been proved to have hemagglutinating activity in rabbit erythrocytes and apoptosis-inducing activity in tumor cells. However, the biochemical properties of CML have not revealed and its structural information still needs to be elucidated. In this study, it was found that CML possessed quite good thermostability and alkaline resistance, and its hemagglutinating activity was bivalent metal cation dependent. In addition, hemagglutination test and fluorescence spectroscopy proved that GuHCl, urea, and sodium dodecyl sulfate could change the conformation of CML and further caused the loss of hemagglutination activity. Moreover, the changes of fluorescence spectrum indicated that the tryptophan (Trp) microenvironment conversion might be related to the conformation and bioactivities of CML. In addition, it was also found that Trp residues, arginine (Arg) residues, and sulfhydryl were important for the hemagglutinating activity of CML, but only Trp was proved to be crucial for the CML conformation. Furthermore, the Trp, Arg, and sulfhydryl-modified CML exhibited 97.17%, 76.99%, and 49.64% loss of its anti-proliferative activity, respectively, which was consistent with the alterations of its hemagglutinating activity. Given these findings, Trp residues on the surface of CML are essential for the active center to form substrate-accessible conformation and suitable environment for carbohydrate binding.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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    Jing Li · Nan Zhou · Kun Luo · Wei Zhang · Xinru Li · Chuanfang Wu · Jinku Bao
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is the growth of new capillaries from existing blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients and provide gateways for immune surveillance. Abnormal vessel growth in term of excessive angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer, inflammatory and eye diseases. VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) dominating the process of angiogenesis has led to approval of therapeutic inhibitors and is becoming a promising target for anti-angiogenic drugs. Notwithstanding these successes, the clinical use of current VEGFR-2 blockers is more challenging than anticipated. Taking axitinib as a reference drug, in our study we found three potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors (ZINC08254217, ZINC08254138, and ZINC03838680) from natural derivatives. Each of the three inhibitors acquired a better grid score than axitinib (-62.11) when docked to VEGFR-2. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that ZINC08254217- and ZINC08254138-VEGFR-2 complexes were more stable than axitinib. Similar to bind free energy for axitinib (-54.68 kcal/mol), such for ZINC03838680, ZINC08254217, and ZINC08254138 was -49.37, -43.32, and -32.73 kcal/mol respectively. These results suggested these three compounds could be candidate drugs against angiogenesis, with comparable VEGFR-2 binding affinity of axitinib. Hence findings in our study are able to provide valuable information on discovery of effective anti-angiogenesis therapy.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: Polygonatum odoratum lectin (POL), isolated from traditional Chinese medicine herb (Mill.) Druce, has drawn rising attention due to its wide biological activities. In the present study, anti-tumor effects, including apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing properties of POL, were determined by a series of cell biology methods such as MTT, cellular morphology observation, flow cytometry, immunoblotting. Herein, we found that POL could simultaneously induce apoptosis and autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. POL initiated apoptosis through inhibiting Akt-NF-κB pathway, while POL triggered autophagy via suppressing Akt-mTOR pathway, suggesting the molecular switch role of Akt in regulating between POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Moreover, ROS was involved in POL-induced inhibition of Akt expression, and might therefore mediate both apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. In addition, POL displayed no significant cytotoxicity toward normal human embryonic lung fibroblast HELF cells. Due to the anti-tumor activities, POL might become a potent anti-cancer drug in future therapy, which might pave the way for exploring GNA-related lectins into effective drugs in cancer treatment.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor (ER)-α has long been a potential target in ER-α-positive breast cancer therapeutics. In this study, we integrated ER-α-related bioinformatic data at different levels to systematically explore the mechanistic and therapeutic implications of ER-α. Firstly, we identified ER-α-interacting proteins and target genes of ER-α-regulating microRNAs (miRNAs), and analyzed their functional gene ontology (GO) annotations of those ER-α-associated proteins. In addition, we predicted ten consensus miRNAs that could target ER-α, and screened candidate traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compounds that might hit diverse conformations of ER-α ligand binding domain (LBD). These findings may help to uncover the mechanistic implications of ER-α in breast cancer at a systematic level, and provide clues of miRNAs- and small molecule modulators- based strategies for future ER-α-positive breast cancer therapeutics.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis, a type of cell death, is necessary for maintaining tissue homeostasis and removing malignant cells. Interrupted apoptosis process contributes to carcinogenesis, developmental defects, autoimmune diseases and neurological disorders. Due to the complexity of the process, the molecular dynamics and relative interactions of individual proteins responsible for the activation or inhibition of apoptosis should be researched systematically. In this study, we integrate known protein interactions from databases DIP, IntAct, MINT, HPRD and BioGRID by Naïve Bayes classifier. The receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.797 indicates it has a good performance in prediction. Then, we predict the global human apoptotic protein interactions network. Within it, we not only identify the already known interactions of caspases (caspase-8/-10, caspase-9, caspase-3/-6/-7) and Bcl-2 family, but also reveal that Bid can interact with casein kinases (CSK21/22/2B, KC1A, KC1E); both of B2LA1 and B2CL2 can interact with Bid, Bax and Bak; caspase-8 interacts with autophagic proteins (MLP3B, MLP3A and LRRk2). Consequently, we make an initial step to develop the web service IntApop that provides an appropriate platform for apoptosis researchers, systems biologists and translational clinician scientists to predict apoptotic protein interactions in human. In addition, the interaction network can be visualized online, making it a widely applicable systems biology tool for apoptosis and cancer researchers.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Bio Systems
  • Feng Gao · Jinku Bao
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza virus is a major viral respiratory pathogen that causes yearly epidemics in temperate climates. The H3N2 subtype is one of the major causative agents of severe epidemics and plays a critical role in vaccine development. The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir are two commercially available NA-targeted competitive antiviral drugs. However, their effectiveness has been compromised by the rapid emergence of resistance. Q136K is a novel mutation in NA which confers resistance to zanamivir. In this study, a Q136K mutant N2 protein was expressed in a baculovirus system and crystals were obtained. The crystal of N2 belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 109.5, b = 112.8, c = 165.2 Å. Data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Four monomers were found in the asymmetric unit. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 3.0 Å(3) Da(-1) and 59.0%, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications
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    ABSTRACT: The newly emergent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) can cause severe pulmonary disease in humans, representing the second example of a highly pathogenic coronavirus, the first being SARS-CoV. CD26 (also known as dipeptidyl peptidase 4, DPP4) was recently identified as the cellular receptor for MERS-CoV. The engagement of the MERS-CoV spike protein with CD26 mediates viral attachment to host cells and virus-cell fusion, thereby initiating infection. Here we delineate the molecular basis of this specific interaction by presenting the first crystal structures of both the free receptor binding domain (RBD) of the MERS-CoV spike protein and its complex with CD26. Furthermore, binding between the RBD and CD26 is measured using real-time surface plasmon resonance with a dissociation constant of 16.7 nM. The viral RBD is composed of a core subdomain homologous to that of the SARS-CoV spike protein, and a unique strand-dominated external receptor binding motif that recognizes blades IV and V of the CD26 β-propeller. The atomic details at the interface between the two binding entities reveal a surprising protein-protein contact mediated mainly by hydrophilic residues. Sequence alignment indicates, among betacoronaviruses, a possible structural conservation for the region homologous to the MERS-CoV RBD core, but a high variation in the external receptor binding motif region for virus-specific pathogenesis such as receptor recognition.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Nature
  • Feng Gao · Jinku Bao
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term nonprogression during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been strongly associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allele Mamu-B*17. Here, a complex of rhesus macaque Mamu-B*17 with rhesus macaque β2-microglobulin (β2m) and an immunodominant peptide (SIVmac239 Env241-251; LRCNDTNYSGF; Env LF11) derived from the SIV Env protein was crystallized by the hanging-drop method using PEG 3350 as a precipitating agent. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P2, with unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 45.0, c = 81.5 Å, β = 96.5°. Assuming the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit, the Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 2.96 Å(3) Da(-1) and 58.5%, respectively.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to determine the therapeutic effect of Agaricus bisporus lectins (ABL) by the regeneration of β-cells in mice following 70% partial pancreatectomy (PPx), and to explore the mechanisms of ABL-induced β-cell proliferation. Adult C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a 70% PPx operation or a sham operation, and mice received 10 mg/kg body weight of ABL or saline immediately after surgery. Blood glucose concentrations and insulin secretion levels were measured. To determine the growth rates of β-cells and duct cells, immunohistological analysis of pancreatic tissues was performed. Key cell cycle proteins and β-cell specific genes were measured by realtime polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistological staining. In this study, a significant decrease in blood glucose concentrations, increase in glucose tolerance and expanded β-cell mass were observed in the ABL-treated mice. At the same time, after ABL treatment, increased β-cell proliferation rates were observed. Further studies on the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D2 and Cdk4 demonstrated that these genes were significantly up-regulated in the ABL-treated mice. Meanwhile, Cdk4 activity was also enhanced. Moreover, the expression of PDX-1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1), Ngn3 (neurogenin 3), insulin, GLUT-1 (glucose transporter 1) and glucokinase was also increased in the ABL-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that ABL administration could partially reverse the impaired β-cell growth potential by regulating cell cycle proteins. Induction of islet β-cell proliferation by ABL suggests the therapeutic potential in preventing and/or treating diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Experimental Biology and Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Polygonatum cyrtonema Hua. lectins (PCLs) were extracted from plantlets regenerated from rhizome explants of P. cyrtonema. Rhizome explants demonstrated a high frequency of callus induction (72.5%) and adventitious shoots differentiation (83.7%) on Murashige Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0mgl−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.0mgl−1 6-benzyladenine. The adventitious shoots could root readily on 1/2 MS medium+0.5mgl−1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid and regenerate plantlets with a survival rate of 75.0%. Regenerated rhizomes were freeze-dried, macerated and prepared for total RNAs and proteins extraction. The PCL gene was cloned and its expression level was measured by RT-PCR. Western blot using a lectin-specific antibody revealed a similar amount in regenerated rhizomes compared to wild rhizomes, Furthermore, lectin derived from regenerated rhizomes retained its ability to haemagglutinate rabbit blood cells.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture
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    ABSTRACT: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has long been considered as a principal force for an organism to gain novel genes in genome evolution. Homology search, phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide composition analysis are three major objective approaches to arguably determine the occurrence and directionality of HGT. Here, 21 genes that possess the potential to horizontal transfer were acquired from the whole genome of Magnaporthe grisea according to annotation, among which three candidate genes (corresponding protein accession numbers are EAA55123, EAA47200 and EAA52136) were selected for further analysis. According to BLAST homology results, we subsequently conducted phylogenetic analysis of the three candidate HGT genes. Moreover, nucleotide composition analysis was conducted to further validate these HGTs. In addition, the functions of the three candidate genes were searched in COG database. Consequently, we conclude that the gene encoding protein EAA55123 is transferred from Clostridium perfringens. Another HGT event is between EAA52136 and a certain metazoan's corresponding gene, but the direction remains uncertain. Yet, EAA47200 is not a transferred gene.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Genomics Proteomics & Bioinformatics
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    ABSTRACT: A novel mannose-binding lectin (designated OJL) was purified from rhizomes of Ophiopogon japonicus by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-100. This novel lectin was a homodimer consisting of approximately 12 kDa subunits linked by non-covalent bonds. The hemagglutination activity of OJL was inhibited by Man-α(1,3:1,6)-mannotriose, Man-α(1,3)-Man, Man-α(1,6)-Man, Man-α(1,2)-Man, Me α-d-man and d-mannose. The hemagglutination activity was stable in the pH range of 5.0–9.0 and at temperatures below 60 °C. It was inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type II (HSV-II) with an EC50 of 3.93 μg/mL and showed antifungal activity against Gibberella saubinetii and Rhizoctonia solani. The full-length cDNA of OJL contained 704 bp with an open reading frame encoding a precursor protein of 170 amino acid residues. Molecular modeling studies demonstrated that OJL exhibits a very similar three-dimensional structure of the mannose-binding sites with other monocot mannose-binding lectins. Docking experiments further revealed that two of three putative mannose-binding sites of OJL are active. These results can be used to further explain the carbohydrate-binding activity and specific hemagglutinating activity. A model of the molecular evolution of the monocot mannose-binding lectins is proposed.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Plant Science
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    ABSTRACT: A lectin with a novel N-terminal amino acid sequence was purified from the rhizomes of Aspidistra elatior Blume by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose and carboxymethyl-Sepharose and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-100. The A. elatior Blume lectin (AEL) is a heterotetramer with a molecular mass of 56 kDa and composed of two homodimers consisting of two different polypeptides of 13.5 kDa and 14.5 kDa held together by noncovalent interactions. Hapten inhibition assay indicated that hemagglutinating activity of AEL towards rabbit erythrocytes could be inhibited by D-mannose, mannan, thyroglobulin and ovomucoid. The lectin was stable up to 70 degrees C, and showed maximum activity in a narrow pH range of 7.0-8.0. Chemical modification and spectrum analysis indicated that tryptophan, arginine, cysteine and carboxyl group residues were essential for its hemagglutinating activity. However, they might not be present in the active center, except some carboxyl group residues. AEL also showed significant in vitro antiproliferative activity towards Bre-04 (66%), Lu-04 (60%) and HepG2 (56%) of human cancer cell lines.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
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    ABSTRACT: A novel mannose-binding tuber lectin with in vitro antiproliferative activity towards human cancer cell lines and antiviral activity against HSV-II was isolated from fresh tubers of a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Typhonium divaricatum (L.) Decne by a combined procedure involving extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-SEPHAROSE, CM-SEPHAROSE and gel-filtration on sephacryl S-200. The apparent molecular mass of the purified Typhonium divaricatum lectin (TDL) was 48 kDa. TDL exhibits hemagglutinating activity toward rabbit erythrocytes at 0.95 microg/ml, and its activity could be strongly inhibited by mannan, ovomucoid, asialofetuin and thyroglobulin. TDL showed antiproliferative activity towards some well established human cancer cell lines, e.g. Pro-01 (56.7 +/- 6.8), Bre-04 (41.5 +/- 4.8), and Lu-04 (11.4 +/- 0.3). The anti-HSV-II activity of TDL was elucidated by testing its HSV-II infection inhibitory activity in Vero cells with TC(50) and EC(50) of 5.176 mg/ml and 3.054 microg/ml respectively. The full-length cDNA sequence of TDL was 1145 bp and contained an 813-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 271 amino acid precursor of 29-kDa. Homology analysis showed that TDL had high homology with many other mannose-binding lectins. Secondary and three-dimensional structures analyses showed that TDL is heterotetramer and similar with lectins from mannose-binding lectin superfamily, especially those from family Araceae.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology
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    ABSTRACT: The mannose-binding agglutinin from bulbs of Lycoris aurea (LAA) agglutinates rabbit but not human erythrocytes. The molecular mass of the monomer in SDS/PAGE is 12 kDa while the apparent molecular mass in gel filtration is 48 kDa, indicating that LAA is a homotetramer. The full-length cDNA of LAA contains 683 bp with an open reading frame encoding a protomer of 162 amino-acid residues. Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis and molecular modeling of the 109-residue mature polypeptide suggested a similar secondary and tertiary structure to those of Narcissus pseudonarcissus agglutinin (NPA). Molecular docking revealed that, besides the three mannose-binding sites common among Amaryllidaceae lectins, LAA also contains a fourth unique mannose-binding site formed by a tryptophan cluster. The existence of four mannose-binding sites in each monomer of LAA is very unusual and has only been reported for NPA earlier.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Acta biochimica Polonica