Peter J Cowan

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (166)650.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The anaphylaxis response is frequently associated with food allergies, representing a significant public health hazard. Recently, exposure to tick bites and production of specific IgE against α-galactosyl (α-Gal)-containing epitopes has been correlated to red meat allergy. However, this association and the source of terminal, non-reducing α-Gal-containing epitopes have not previously been established in Brazil. Here, we employed the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mouse (α1,3-GalT-KO) model and bacteriophage Qβ-virus like particles (Qβ-VLPs) displaying Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc (Galα3LN) epitopes to investigate the presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes in the saliva of Amblyomma sculptum, a species of the Amblyomma cajennense complex, which represents the main tick that infests humans in Brazil. We confirmed that the α1,3-GalT-KO animals produce significant levels of anti-α-Gal antibodies against the Galα3LN epitopes displayed on Qβ-VLPs. The injection of A. sculptum saliva or exposure to feeding ticks was also found to induce both IgG and IgE anti-α-Gal antibodies in α1,3-GalT-KO mice, thus indicating the presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes in the tick saliva. The presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes was confirmed by ELISA and immunoblotting following removal of terminal α-Gal epitopes by α-galactosidase treatment. These results suggest for the first known time that bites from the A. sculptum tick may be associated with the unknown etiology of allergic reactions to red meat in Brazil.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · International journal for parasitology

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Survival of vascularized xenografts is dependent on pre-emptive inhibition of the xenoantibody response against galactosyltransferase knockout (GTKO) porcine organs. Our analysis in multiple GTKO pig-to-primate models of xenotransplantation has demonstrated that the anti-non-gal-α-1,3-gal (anti-non-Gal) xenoantibody response displays limited structural diversity. This allowed our group to identify an experimental compound which selectively inhibited induced anti-non-Gal IgM xenoantibodies. However, because this compound had an unknown safety profile, we extended this line of research to include screening small molecules with known safety profiles allowing rapid advancement to large animal models. Methods: The NIH clinical collections of small molecules were screened by ELISA for their ability to inhibit xenoantibody binding to GTKO pig endothelial cells. Serum collected from non-immunosuppressed rhesus monkeys at day 14 post-injection with GTKO pig endothelial cells was utilized as a source of elicited xenoantibody for initial screening. Virtual small molecule screening based on xenoantibody structure was used to assess the likelihood that the identified small molecules bound xenoantibody directly. As a proxy for selectivity, ELISAs against tetanus toxoid and the natural antigens laminin, thyroglobulin, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) were utilized to assess the ability of the identified reagents to inhibit additional antibody responses. The identified inhibitory small molecules were further tested for their ability to inhibit xenoantibody elicited in multiple settings, including rhesus monkeys pre-treated with an anti-non-Gal selective anti-idiotypic antibody, non-immunosuppressed rhesus monkeys immunized with wild-type fetal pig isletlike cell clusters, and non-immunosuppressed baboons transplanted with GTKO multiple transgenic pig kidneys. Results: Four clinically relevant small molecules inhibited anti-non-Gal IgM binding to GTKO pig endothelial cells in vitro. Three of these drugs displayed a limited region of structural similarity suggesting they may inhibit xenoantibody by a similar mechanism. One of these, the anti-hypertensive agent clonidine, displayed only minimal inhibition of antibodies elicited by vaccination against tetanus toxoid or pre-existing natural antibodies against laminin, thyroglobulin, or ssDNA. Furthermore, clonidine inhibited elicited anti-non-Gal IgM from all animals that demonstrated a xenoantibody response in each experimental setting. Conclusions: Clinically relevant small molecule drugs with known safety profiles can inhibit xenoantibody elicited against non-Gal antigens in diverse experimental xenotransplantation settings. These molecules are ready to be tested in large animal models. However, it will first be necessary to optimize the timing and dosing required to inhibit xenoantibodies in vivo.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Xenotransplantation
  • Peter J Cowan · Simon C Robson
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    ABSTRACT: Dysregulation of coagulation and disordered hemostasis are frequent complications in the pig-to-nonhuman primate preclinical xenotransplantation model. The most extreme manifestations are the systemic development of a life-threatening consumptive coagulopathy, characterized by thrombocytopenia and bleeding, which is balanced at the opposite extreme by local complications of graft loss due to thrombotic microangiopathy. The contributing mechanisms include inflammation, vascular injury, heightened innate, humoral and cellular immune responses, and molecular incompatibilities affecting the regulation of coagulation. There also appear to be organ-specific factors that have been linked to vascular heterogeneity. As examples, liver xenografts rapidly induce thrombocytopenia by sequestering human/primate platelets; renal xenografts cause a broader coagulopathy, linked in some cases to reactivation of porcine CMV, whereas cardiac xenografts often succumb to microvascular thrombosis without associated systemic coagulopathy but with local perturbations in fibrinolysis. Overcoming coagulation dysfunction will require a combination of genetic and pharmacological strategies. Deletion of the xenoantigen αGal, transgenic expression of human complement regulatory proteins, and refinement of immunosuppression to blunt the antibody response have all had some impact, without providing a complete solution. More recently, the addition of approaches specifically targeted at coagulation have produced promising results. As an example, heterotopic cardiac xenografts from donors expressing human thrombomodulin have survived for more than a year in immunosuppressed baboons, with no evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy or coagulopathy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · International Journal of Surgery (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Aims:Some environmental insults, such as fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair the function of stem cells. However, it is unknown if PM exposure could affect the population of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). The present study was to investigate the effects of PM on BMSCs population and related mechanism(s). MAIN METHEODS: PM was intranasally distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry with antibodies for BMSCs, Annexin V and BrdU ware used to determine the number of BMSCs and the levels of their apoptosis and proliferation in vivo. Phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt) level was determined in the BM cells with western blotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in BMSCs population, proliferation, and apotosis, experiments were repeated using N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-treated wild type mice or a triple transgenic mouse line with overexpression of antioxidant network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase-1 with decreased in vivo ROS production. KEY FINDINGS: PM treatment significantly reduced BMSCs population in association with increased ROS formation, decreased P-Akt level, and inhibition of proliferation of BMSCs without induction of apoptosis. NAC treatment or AON overexpression with reduced ROS formation effectively prevented PM-induced reduction of BMSCs population and proliferation with partial recovery of P-Akt level. SIGNIFICANCE: PM exposure significantly decreased the population of BMSCs due to diminished proliferation via ROS-mediated mechanism (could be partially via inhibition of Akt signaling).
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemia. Bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are important to preventing atherosclerosis, and significantly decreased in hyperlipidemia. This study was to demonstrate ox-LDL and hyperlipidemia could exhibit similar effect on EPC population and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production in BM and blood was significantly increased in male C57BL/6 mice with intravenous ox-LDL treatment, and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout mice with 4-month high-fat diet. ROS formation was effectively blocked with overexpression of antioxidant enzymes or N-acetylcysteine treatment. In hyperlipidemic and ox-LDL-treated mice, c-Kit(+)/CD31(+) cell number in BM and blood, and Sca-1(+)/Flk-1(+) cell number in blood, not in BM, were significantly decreased, which were not affected by inhibiting ROS production, while blood CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) cell number was significantly increased that was prevented with reduced ROS formation. However, blood CD34(+)/CD133(+) cell number increased in ox-LDL-treated mice, while decreased in hyperlipidemic mice. These data suggested that ox-LDL produced significant changes in BM and blood EPC populations similar (but not identical) to chronic hyperlipidemia with predominantly ROS-independent mechanism(s).
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Frontiers in Bioscience
  • D. Fang · B. Lu · S. Hayward · D. de Kretser · P. Cowan · K. Dwyer

    No preview · Conference Paper · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Galactosyl-transferase KO (GalT-KO) pigs represent a potential solution to xenograft rejection, particularly in the context of additional genetic modifications. We have performed life supporting kidney xenotransplantation into baboons utilizing GalT-KO pigs transgenic for human CD55/CD59/CD39/HT. Baboons received tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids and recombinant human C1 inhibitor combined with cyclophosphamide or bortezomib with or without 2-3 plasma exchanges. One baboon received a control GalT-KO xenograft with the latter immunosuppression. All immunosuppressed baboons rejected the xenografts between days 9 and 15 with signs of acute humoral rejection, in contrast to untreated controls (n = 2) that lost their grafts on days 3 and 4. Immunofluorescence analyses showed deposition of IgM, C3, C5b-9 in rejected grafts, without C4d staining, indicating classical complement pathway blockade but alternate pathway activation. Moreover, rejected organs exhibited predominantly monocyte/macrophage infiltration with minimal lymphocyte representation. None of the recipients showed any signs of porcine endogenous retrovirus transmission but some showed evidence of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) replication within the xenografts. Our work indicates that the addition of bortezomib and plasma exchange to the immunosuppressive regimen did not significantly prolong the survival of multi-transgenic GalT-KO renal xenografts. Non-Gal antibodies, the alternative complement pathway, innate mechanisms with monocyte activation and PCMV replication may have contributed to rejection. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · American Journal of Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: Bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a critical role in angiogenesis and vascular repair. Some environmental insults, like fine particulate matter (PM) exposure, significantly impair cardiovascular functions. However, the mechanisms for PM-induced adverse effects on cardiovascular system remain largely unknown. The present research was to study the detrimental effects of PM on EPCs and explore the potential mechanisms. Methods : PM was intranasal-distilled into male C57BL/6 mice for one month. Flow cytometry was used to measure the number of EPCs, apoptosis level of circulating EPCs and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Serum TNF- α and IL-1β were measured using ELISA. To determine the role of PM-induced ROS in EPC apoptosis, PM was co-administrated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in wild type mice or used in a triple transgenic mouse line (TG) with overexpression of antioxidant enzyme network (AON) composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, SOD3, and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx-1) with decreased in vivo ROS production. PM treatment significantly decreased circulating EPC population, promoted apoptosis of EPCs in association with increased ROS production and serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels, which could be effectively reversed by either NAC treatment or overexpression of AON. PM exposure significantly decreased circulating EPCs population due to increased apoptosis via ROS formation in mice. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
  • V. Roberts · B. Lu · K.M. Dwyer · P.J. Cowan
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term renal allograft survival has not improved despite improvements in short term outcomes. Graft loss is characterized histologically by the development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA). Mechanisms underlying the development of IFTA are multifactorial and include ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Therapeutic options to reduce IFTA include management of immunologic causes, such as rejection, but despite these efforts IFTA can still occur and leads to the inexorable destruction of the transplanted kidney. The adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) has recently been implicated in the development of renal fibrosis. We performed an observational study to examine the mRNA expression of the adenosine receptors after renal ischemia up to the development of renal fibrosis in a mouse model of unilateral IRI. A2BR was the only adenosine receptor that showed elevated expression following ischemia until the development of renal fibrosis 4 weeks after injury. At 2 weeks after ischemia, increased expression of the fibrotic markers transforming growth factor β and Collagen-1α was observed. Expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α and endothelin-1, which lie downstream of A2BR activation and have been recognized to promote renal fibrosis, were also significantly up-regulated at 2 weeks after ischemia. Expression of fibrotic markers returned to baseline by 4 weeks after ischemia, indicating resolution of injury with the concurrent development of renal fibrosis and reduced renal function. Our data suggest that A2BR may be a therapeutic target in reducing the development of renal fibrosis after ischemia.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: Glycosylation processes are under high natural selection pressure, presumably because these can modulate resistance to infection. Here, we asked whether inactivation of the UDP-galactose:β-galactoside-α1-3-galactosyltransferase (α1,3GT) gene, which ablated the expression of the Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R (α-gal) glycan and allowed for the production of anti-α-gal antibodies (Abs) in humans, confers protection against Plasmodium spp. infection, the causative agent of malaria and a major driving force in human evolution. We demonstrate that both Plasmodium spp. and the human gut pathobiont E. coli O86:B7 express α-gal and that anti-α-gal Abs are associated with protection against malaria transmission in humans as well as in α1,3GT-deficient mice, which produce protective anti-α-gal Abs when colonized by E. coli O86:B7. Anti-α-gal Abs target Plasmodium sporozoites for complement-mediated cytotoxicity in the skin, immediately after inoculation by Anopheles mosquitoes. Vaccination against α-gal confers sterile protection against malaria in mice, suggesting that a similar approach may reduce malaria transmission in humans. PAPERFLICK: Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Cell
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been a spectacular clinical and commercial success in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Many of these mAbs (for example, OKT3, Campath-1H, rituximab and infliximab) are against surface or secreted products of lymphocytes. However, mAbs can have a variety of adverse effects including fever, chills and nausea. This is probably a result of cytokine release, which is most seriously manifested as a 'cytokine storm' as highlighted by the TGN1412 (anti-CD28) trial. Prediction of adverse effects of mAbs would be clinically advantageous and numerous in vitro assays attempting to predict adverse effects have been reported. Here, we report an in vivo humanized mouse model to detect adverse effects in response to OKT3, Campath-1H or the polyclonal Ab preparation anti-thymocyte globulin. We found that the administration of each of these Abs to humanized mice led to acute clinical symptoms such as piloerection, hypomotility and hypothermia, particularly when delivered via the intravenous route. A cytokine storm occurred in the humanized mice receiving OKT3. This model system is a potentially useful tool to predict adverse effects and select initial doses for first-in-human trials. We would advocate this in vivo model, in addition to current in vitro preclinical testing, as a more representative and robust means of assessing potential adverse effects of mAb before their human use.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Purinergic Signalling
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: A subgroup of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of pore-forming toxins (PFTs) has an unusually narrow host range due to a requirement for binding to human CD59 (hCD59), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked complement regulatory molecule. hCD59-specific CDCs are produced by several organisms that inhabit human mucosal surfaces and can act as pathogens, including Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus intermedius. The consequences and potential selective advantages of such PFT host limitation have remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that, in addition to species restriction, PFT ligation of hCD59 triggers a previously unrecognized pathway for programmed necrosis in primary erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]) from humans and transgenic mice expressing hCD59. Because they lack nuclei and mitochondria, RBCs have typically been thought to possess limited capacity to undergo programmed cell death. RBC programmed necrosis shares key molecular factors with nucleated cell necroptosis, including dependence on Fas/FasL signaling and RIP1 phosphorylation, necrosome assembly, and restriction by caspase-8. Death due to programmed necrosis in RBCs is executed by acid sphingomyelinase-dependent ceramide formation, NADPH oxidase- and iron-dependent reactive oxygen species formation, and glycolytic formation of advanced glycation end products. Bacterial PFTs that are hCD59 independent do not induce RBC programmed necrosis. RBC programmed necrosis is biochemically distinct from eryptosis, the only other known programmed cell death pathway in mature RBCs. Importantly, RBC programmed necrosis enhances the growth of PFT-producing pathogens during exposure to primary RBCs, consistent with a role for such signaling in microbial growth and pathogenesis. Importance: In this work, we provide the first description of a new form of programmed cell death in erythrocytes (RBCs) that occurs as a consequence of cellular attack by human-specific bacterial toxins. By defining a new RBC death pathway that shares important components with necroptosis, a programmed necrosis module that occurs in nucleated cells, these findings expand our understanding of RBC biology and RBC-pathogen interactions. In addition, our work provides a link between cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) host restriction and promotion of bacterial growth in the presence of RBCs, which may provide a selective advantage to human-associated bacterial strains that elaborate such toxins and a potential explanation for the narrowing of host range observed in this toxin family.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · mBio
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    ABSTRACT: A subgroup of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of pore-forming toxins (PFTs) has an unusually narrow host range due to a requirement for binding to human CD59 (hCD59), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked complement regulatory molecule. hCD59-specific CDCs are produced by several organisms that inhabit human mucosal surfaces and can act as pathogens, including Gardnerella vaginalis and Streptococcus intermedius. The consequences and potential selective advantages of such PFT host limitation have remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that, in addition to species restriction, PFT ligation of hCD59 triggers a previously unrecognized pathway for programmed necrosis in primary erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]) from humans and transgenic mice expressing hCD59. Because they lack nuclei and mitochondria, RBCs have typically been thought to possess limited capacity to undergo programmed cell death. RBC programmed necrosis shares key molecular factors with nucleated cell necroptosis, including dependence on Fas/FasL signaling and RIP1 phosphorylation, necrosome assembly, and restriction by caspase-8. Death due to programmed necrosis in RBCs is executed by acid sphingomyelinase-dependent ceramide formation, NADPH oxidase- and iron-dependent reactive oxygen species formation, and glycolytic formation of advanced glycation end products. Bacterial PFTs that are hCD59 independent do not induce RBC programmed necrosis. RBC programmed necrosis is biochemically distinct from eryptosis, the only other known programmed cell death pathway in mature RBCs. Importantly, RBC programmed necrosis enhances the growth of PFT-producing pathogens during exposure to primary RBCs, consistent with a role for such signaling in microbial growth and pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE: In this work, we provide the first description of a new form of programmed cell death in erythrocytes (RBCs) that occurs as a consequence of cellular attack by human-specific bacterial toxins. By defining a new RBC death pathway that shares important components with necroptosis, a programmed necrosis module that occurs in nucleated cells, these findings expand our understanding of RBC biology and RBC-pathogen interactions. In addition, our work provides a link between cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) host restriction and promotion of bacterial growth in the presence of RBCs, which may provide a selective advantage to human-associated bacterial strains that elaborate such toxins and a potential explanation for the narrowing of host range observed in this toxin family.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · mBio
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    ABSTRACT: Renal fibrosis, the key histopathological lesion in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), has been the focus of much research in recent decades. The growing burden of CKD in both developed and developing nations highlights a need for novel therapies to halt the progression of renal disease. Insights into the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis and the key cellular and molecular mediators have been critical in the process of identifying potential targets of therapy. Adenosine signaling is an innate biological autocrine and paracrine cellular signaling pathway involving several key mediators: ectonucleotidases, adenosine, and adenosine receptors. Short-term activation of the adenosine A2A and A2B receptors decreases inflammation, which precedes renal fibrosis. However, in conditions of persistent, excessive adenosine exposure, such as in patients born with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, adenosine signaling via A2B receptor promotes renal fibrosis, as seen in chronic inflammation. This review will describe the increasingly recognized complex role of adenosine signaling in the development of renal fibrosis. We will speculate how the knowledge gained may be employed in the search for more effective therapies based on these complex signaling pathways.Kidney International advance online publication, 23 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.244.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Kidney International
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human corneal allografting is an established procedure to cure corneal blindness. However, a shortage of human donor corneas as well as compounding economic, cultural, and organizational reasons in many countries limit its widespread use. Artificial corneas as well as porcine corneal xenografts have been considered as possible alternatives. To date, all preclinical studies using de-cellularized pig corneas have shown encouraging graft survival results; however, relatively few studies have been conducted in pig to non-human primate (NHP) models, and particularly using genetically engineered donors.Methods In this study, we assessed the potential benefit of using either hCTLA4-Ig transgenic or α1,3-Galactosyl Transferase (GT) Knock-Out (KO) plus transgenic hCD39/hCD55/hCD59/fucosyl-transferase pig lines in an anterior lamellar keratoplasty pig to NHP model.ResultsCorneas from transgenic animals expressing hCTLA4-Ig under the transcriptional control of a neuron-specific enolase promoter showed transgene expression in corneal keratocytes of the stroma and expression was maintained after transplantation. Although a first acute rejection episode occurred in all animals during the second week post-keratoplasty, the median final rejection time was 70 days in the hCTLA4-Ig group vs. 21 days in the wild-type (WT) control group. In contrast, no benefit for corneal xenograft survival from the GTKO/transgenic pig line was found. At rejection, cell infiltration in hCTLA4Ig transgenic grafts was mainly composed of macrophages with fewer CD3+ CD4+ and CD79+ cells than in other types of grafts. Anti-donor xenoantibodies increased dramatically between days 9 and 14 post-surgery in all animals.Conclusions Local expression of the hCTLA4-Ig transgene dampens rejection of xenogeneic corneal grafts in this pig-to-NHP lamellar keratoplasty model. The hCTLA4-Ig transgene seems to target T-cell responses without impacting humoral responses, the control of which would presumably require additional peripheral immunosuppression.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Xenotransplantation
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    ABSTRACT: The instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) is a major obstacle to the engraftment of intraportal pig islet xenografts in primates. Higher expression of the galactose-α1,3-galactose (αGal) xenoantigen on neonatal islet cell clusters (NICC) than on adult pig islets may provoke a stronger reaction, but this has not been tested in the baboon model. Here, we report that WT pig NICC xenografts triggered profound IBMIR in baboons, with intravascular clotting and graft destruction occurring within hours, which was not prevented by anti-thrombin treatment. In contrast, IBMIR was minimal when recipients were immunosuppressed with a clinically relevant protocol and transplanted with NICC from αGal-deficient pigs transgenic for the human complement regulators CD55 and CD59. These genetically modified (GM) NICC were less susceptible to humoral injury in vitro than WT NICC, inducing significantly less complement activation and thrombin generation when incubated with baboon platelet-poor plasma. Recipients of GM NICC developed a variable anti-pig antibody response, and examination of the grafts 1 month after transplant revealed significant cell-mediated rejection, although scattered insulin-positive cells were still present. Our results indicate that IBMIR can be attenuated in this model, but long-term graft survival may require more effective immunosuppression or further donor genetic modification.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · American Journal of Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: Background Xenotransplantation of porcine organs holds promise of solving the human organ donor shortage. The use of α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GTKO) pig donors mitigates hyperacute rejection, while delayed rejection is currently precipitated by potent immune and hemostatic complications. Previous analysis by our laboratory suggests that clotting factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors might be elicited by the structurally restricted xenoantibody response which occurs after transplantation of either pig GTKO/hCD55/hCD59/hHT transgenic neonatal islet cell clusters or GTKO endothelial cells.MethodsA recombinant xenoantibody was generated using sequences from baboons demonstrating an active xenoantibody response at day 28 after GTKO/hCD55/hCD59/hHT transgenic pig neonatal islet cell cluster transplantation. Rhesus monkeys were immunized with GTKO pig endothelial cells to stimulate an anti-non-Gal xenoantibody response. Serum was collected at days 0 and 7 after immunization. A two-stage chromogenic assay was used to measure FVIII cofactor activity and identify antibodies which inhibit FVIII function. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations were used to predict antibody structure and the residues which contribute to antibody-FVIII interactions. Competition ELISA was used to verify predictions at the domain structural level.ResultsAntibodies that inhibit recombinant human FVIII function are elicited after non-human primates are transplanted with either GTKO pig neonatal islet cell clusters or endothelial cells. There is an apparent increase in inhibitor titer by 15 Bethesda units (Bu) after transplant, where an increase greater than 5 Bu can indicate pathology in humans. Furthermore, competition ELISA verifies the computer modeled prediction that the recombinant xenoantibody, H66K12, binds the C1 domain of FVIII.Conclusions The development of FVIII inhibitors is a novel illustration of the potential impact the humoral immune response can have on coagulative dysfunction in xenotransplantation. However, the contribution of these antibodies to rejection pathology requires further evaluation because “normal” coagulation parameters after successful xenotransplantation are not fully understood.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Xenotransplantation
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    ABSTRACT: Background Promising developments in porcine islet xenotransplantation could resolve the donor pancreas shortage for patients with type 1 diabetes. Using α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) donor pigs with multiple transgenes should extend xenoislet survival via reducing complement activation, thrombus formation, and the requirement for exogenous immune suppression. Studying the xenoantibody response to GTKO/hCD55/hCD59/hHT islets in the pig-to-baboon model, and comparing it with previously analyzed responses, would allow the development of inhibitory reagents capable of targeting conserved idiotypic regions.Methods We generated IgM heavy and light chain gene libraries from 10 untreated baboons and three baboons at 28 days following transplantation of GTKO/hCD55/hCD59/hHT pig neonatal islet cell clusters with immunosuppression. Flow cytometry was used to confirm the induction of a xenoantibody response. IgM germline gene usage was compared pre- and post-transplant. Homology modeling was used to compare the structure of xenoantibodies elicited after transplantation of GTKO/hCD55/hCD59/hHT pig islets with those induced by GTKO and wild-type pig endothelial cells without further genetic modification.ResultsIgM xenoantibodies that bind to GTKO pig cells and wild-type pig cells were induced after transplantation. These anti-non-Gal antibodies were encoded by the IGHV3-66*02 (Δ28%) and IGKV1-12*02 (Δ25%) alleles, for the immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, respectively. IGHV3-66 is 86.7% similar to IGHV3-21 which was elicited by rhesus monkeys in response to GTKO endothelial cells. Heavy chain genes most similar to IGHV3-66 were found to utilize the IGHJ4 gene in 85% of V-D regions analyzed. However, unlike the wild-type response, a consensus complementary determining region 3 was not identified.Conclusions Additional genetic modifications in transgenic GTKO pigs do not substantially modify the structure of the restricted group of anti-non-Gal xenoantibodies that mediate induced xenoantibody responses with or without immunosuppression. The use of this information to develop new therapeutic agents to target this restricted response will likely be beneficial for long-term islet cell survival and for developing targeted immunosuppressive regimens with less toxicity.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Xenotransplantation

Publication Stats

2k Citations
650.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2015
    • University of Melbourne
      • Department of Medicine
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1998-2015
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne
      • Immunology Research Centre
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2011
    • University of Adelaide
      Tarndarnya, South Australia, Australia
  • 1998-2008
    • St. Vincent's Hospital Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2007
    • Westmead Millennium Institute
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1996-2007
    • St. Vincent Hospital
      Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2004
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia