[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context. Water is a key molecule in the star formation process, but its spatial distribution in star-forming regions is not well known.
Aims: We study the distribution of dust continuum and H2O and 13CO line emission in DR21, a luminous star-forming region with a powerful outflow and a compact H ii region.
Methods: Herschel-HIFI spectra near 1100 GHz show narrow 13CO 10-9 emission and H2O 111-000 absorption from the dense core and broad emission from the outflow in both lines. The H2O line also shows absorption by a foreground cloud known from ground-based observations of low-J CO lines.
Results: The dust continuum emission is extended over 36” FWHM, while the 13CO and H2O lines are confined to ≈24” or less. The foreground absorption appears to peak further North than the other components. Radiative transfer models indicate very low abundances of ~2×10-10 for H2O and ~8×10-7 for 13CO in the dense core, and higher H2O abundances of ~4×10-9 in the foreground cloud and ~7×10-7 in the outflow.
Conclusions: The high H2O abundance in the warm outflow is probably due to the evaporation of water-rich icy grain mantles, while the H2O abundance is kept down by freeze-out in the dense core and by photodissociation in the foreground cloud.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early results from the Herschel Space Observatory revealed the water cation H2O+ to be an abundant ingredient of the interstellar medium. Here we present new observations of the H2O and H2O+ lines at 1113.3 and 1115.2 GHz using the Herschel Space Observatory toward a sample of high-mass star-forming regions to observationally study the relation between H2O and H2O+ . Nine out of ten sources show absorption from H2O+ in a range of environments: the molecular clumps surrounding the forming and newly formed massive stars, bright high-velocity outflows associated with the massive protostars, and unrelated low-density clouds along the line of sight. Column densities per velocity component of H2 O+ are found in the range of 10^12 to a few 10^13 cm-2 . The highest N(H2O+) column densities are found in the outflows of the sources. The ratios of H2O+/H2O are determined in a range from 0.01 to a few and are found to differ strongly between the observed environments with much lower ratios in the massive (proto)cluster envelopes (0.01-0.1) than in outflows and diffuse clouds. Remarkably, even for source components detected in H2O in emission, H2O+ is still seen in absorption.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: We present preliminary results of the first Herschel spectroscopic observations of NGC7129 FIRS2, an intermediate mass star-forming region. We attempt to interpret the observations in the framework of an in-falling spherical envelope. Methods: The PACS instrument was used in line spectroscopy mode (R=1000-5000) with 15 spectral bands between 63 and 185 microns. This provided good detections of 26 spectral lines seen in emission, including lines of H2O, CO, OH, O I, and C II. Results: Most of the detected lines, particularly those of H2O and CO, are substantially stronger than predicted by the spherical envelope models, typically by several orders of magnitude. In this paper we focus on what can be learned from the detected CO emission lines. Conclusions: It is unlikely that the much stronger than expected line emission arises in the (spherical) envelope of the YSO. The region hot enough to produce such high excitation lines within such an envelope is too small to produce the amount of emission observed. Virtually all of this high excitation emission must arise in structures such as as along the walls of the outflow cavity with the emission produced by a combination of UV photon heating and/or non-dissociative shocks. Comment: A&A Special Issue on Herschel
Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the framework of the Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) key program, maps in water lines of several outflows from young stars are being obtained, to study the water production in shocks and its role in the outflow cooling. This paper reports the first results of this program, presenting a PACS map of the o-H2O 179 um transition obtained toward the young outflow L1157. The 179 um map is compared with those of other important shock tracers, and with previous single-pointing ISO, SWAS, and Odin water observations of the same source that allow us to constrain the water abundance and total cooling. Strong H2O peaks are localized on both shocked emission knots and the central source position. The H2O 179 um emission is spatially correlated with emission from H2 rotational lines, excited in shocks leading to a significant enhancement of the water abundance. Water emission peaks along the outflow also correlate with peaks of other shock-produced molecular species, such as SiO and NH3. A strong H2O peak is also observed at the location of the proto-star, where none of the other molecules have significant emission. The absolute 179 um intensity and its intensity ratio to the H2O 557 GHz line previously observed with Odin/SWAS indicate that the water emission originates in warm compact clumps, spatially unresolved by PACS, having a H2O abundance of the order of 10^-4. This testifies that the clumps have been heated for a time long enough to allow the conversion of almost all the available gas-phase oxygen into water. The total water cooling is ~10^-1 Lo, about 40% of the cooling due to H2 and 23% of the total energy released in shocks along the L1157 outflow. Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysics (Herschel special issue)
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [Abridged] We present a molecular survey of the starless cores L1498 and L1517B. These cores have been selected for their relative isolation and close-to-round shape, and they have been observed in a number of lines of 13 molecular species (4 already presented in the first part of this series): CO, CS, N2H+, NH3, CH3OH, SO, C3H2, HC3N, C2S, HCN, H2CO, HCO+, and DCO+. Using a physical model of core structure and a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, we determine for each core a self-consistent set abundances that fits simultaneously the observed radial profile of integrated intensity and the emergent spectrum towards the core center (for abundant species, optically thin isopologues are used). From this work, we find that L1498 and L1517B have similar abundance patterns, with most species suffering a significant drop toward the core center. This occurs for CO, CS, CH3OH, SO, C3H2, HC3N, C2S, HCN, H2CO, HCO+, and DCO+, which we fit with profiles having a sharp central hole. The size of this hole varies with molecule: DCO+, HCN, and HC3N have the smallest holes while SO, C2S and CO have the largest holes. Only N2H+ and NH3 are present in the gas phase at the core centers. From the different behavior of molecules, we select SO, C2S, and CH3OH as the most sensitive tracers of molecular depletion. Comparing our abundance determinations with the predictions from current chemical models we find order of magnitude discrepancies. Finally, we show how the ``contribution function'' can be used to study the formation of line profiles from the different regions of a core. Comment: 22 pages, 12 figures, A&A accepted
Preview · Article · May 2006 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protostars form in regions which are deeply hidden in molecular clouds
and are surrounded by thick envelopes. Molecular outflows have the key
to investigate the earliest evolutionary stages of star formation,
especially at low luminosities where the outflow geometry can be
relatively simple. In particular, the chemical changes induced by the
passage of shocks associated with outflows can be used to try to
establish an evolutionary scheme for outflows and consequently for the
driving protostars. The main results obtained using mm-wavelength
antennas during pilot projects focused on a small number of objects are
shown. The strategy to carry on the project with the SRT is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first case of a highly collimated, extremely high velocity bipolar outflow in Taurus. It is powered by the low-luminosity (0.4 L_sun) source IRAS 04166+2706 and contains gas accelerated up to 50 km/s with respect to the ambient cloud both toward the blue and the red (uncorrected for projection). At the highest velocities, the outflow collimation factor exceeds 20, and the gas displays a very high degree of spatial symmetry. This very fast gas presents multiple maxima, and most likely arises from the acceleration of ambient material by a time-variable jet-like stellar wind. When scaled for luminosity, the outflow parameters of IRAS 04166 are comparable to those of other extremely high velocity outflows like L1448, indicating that even the very quiescent star-formation mode of Taurus can produce objects powering very high energy flows (L_mec/L_* > 0.15). Comment: 5pages, 3 figures. Accepted by Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters. v2 clarfies relation with HH390 thanks to private communication from John Bally and Josh Walawender
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L1521E seems unique among starless cores. It stands out in a distribution of a ratio (R) that we define to asses core evolution, and which compares the emission of the easily-depleted C18O molecule with that of the hard to deplete, late-time species N2H+. While all cores we have studied so far have R ratio lower than 1, L1521E has an R value of 3.4, which is 8 times the mean of the other cores. To understand this difference, we have modeled the C18O and N2H+ abundance profiles in L1521E using a density distribution derived from 1.2mm continuum data. Our model shows that the C18O emission in this core is consistent with constant abundance, and this makes L1521E the first core with no C18O depletion. Our model also derives an unusually low N2H+ abundance. These two chemical peculiarities suggest that L1521E has contracted to its present density very recently, and it is therefore an extremely young starless core. Comparing our derived abundances with a chemical model, we estimate a tentative age of 1.5 x 10^5 yr, which is too short for ambipolar diffusion models. Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures
Preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Astronomy and Astrophysics