[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Treatment for head and neck cancer can reduce peripheral sensory input and impair oropharyngeal swallow. This study examined the effect of enhanced bolus flavor on liquid swallows in these patients.
Fifty-one patients treated for head and neck cancer with chemoradiation or surgery and 64 healthy adult control subjects served as subjects. All were randomized to receive sour, sweet, or salty bolus flavor. Patients were evaluated at 7-10 days, 1 month, and 3 months after completion of tumor treatment. Control subjects received 1 assessment.
All bolus flavors affected oropharyngeal swallow; sour flavor significantly shortened pharyngeal transit time across all evaluations.
Sour flavor influenced the swallow of patients treated for head and neck cancer, as well as that of control subjects in a manner similar to those with neurologic impairment observed in an earlier study. Sour flavor may improve the speed of pharyngeal transit regardless of whether a patient has suffered peripheral or central sensory damage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate detection and classification of aspiration is a critical component of videofluoroscopic swallowing evaluation, the most commonly utilized instrumental method for dysphagia diagnosis and treatment. Currently published literature indicates that interjudge reliability for the identification of aspiration ranges from poor to fairly good depending on the amount of training provided to clinicians. The majority of extant studies compared judgments among clinicians. No studies included judgments made during the use of a postural compensatory strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of judgments made by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) practicing in hospitals compared with unblinded expert judges when identifying aspiration and using the 8-point Penetration/Aspiration Scale. Clinicians received extensive training for the detection of aspiration and minimal training on use of the Penetration/Aspiration Scale. Videofluoroscopic data were collected from 669 patients as part of a large, randomized clinical trial and include judgments of 10,200 swallows made by 76 clinicians from 44 hospitals in 11 states. Judgments were made on swallows during use of dysphagia compensatory strategies: chin-down posture with thin liquids and head-neutral posture with thickened liquids (nectar-thick and honey-thick consistencies). The subject population included patients with Parkinson's disease and/or dementia. Kappa statistics indicate high accuracy for all interventions by SLPs for identification of aspiration (all kappa > 0.86) and variable accuracy (range = 69-76%) using the Penetration/Aspiration Scale when compared to expert judges. It is concluded that while the accuracy of identifying the presence of aspiration by SLPs is excellent, more extensive training and/or image enhancement is recommended for precise use of the Penetration/Aspiration Scale.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment decisions in head and neck cancer (HNC) might involve consideration of uncertain tradeoffs of one late effect against another or increasing toxicity or residual impairment for increased chance of survival. Understanding how patients prioritize potential outcomes, as well as whether these preferences are similar to those of nonpatients, is important to informed decision making and treatment planning.
Two hundred forty-seven newly diagnosed HNC patients from nine institutions and 131 nonpatients rank ordered a set of 12 potential treatment outcomes (eg, cure; being able to swallow; normal voice) from highest (1) to lowest (12).
Patients and nonpatients were similar with respect to the three items most frequently ranked in the top three, that is, "being cured of cancer," "living as long as possible," and "having no pain" in that order. In contrast, patients more frequently ranked "cure" (90% vs 80%) and less frequently ranked "no pain" (34% vs 52%) in the top three.
Survival seems to be of paramount importance to both patient and nonpatient groups, overshadowing associated toxicities and potential dysfunction. At the same time, patients might be more willing than nonpatients to undergo aggressive treatments and endure acute distress in the interest of potential long-term gains (ie, cure or longer survival).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Singing requires exquisite coordination between the respiratory and phonatory systems to efficiently control glottal airflow. Asymptomatic singing students underwent pulmonary function testing (PFT), videostrobolaryngoscopic examination, and measures of glottal efficiency (maximum phonation time [MPT], glottal flow rate [GFR], and phonation quotient [PQ]) performed in both a sung and spoken tone. Pulmonary function and glottal efficiency values were within reported normative data for professional singers. However, sung tones were made with significantly higher GFR and PQ and lower PQ than spoken tones. The mean GFR was not related to the degree of glottal closure (by videostrobolaryngoscopy) or underlying pulmonary support.
No preview · Article · Jul 2000 · Journal of Voice
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine, pretreatment, how head and neck cancer (HNC) patients prioritize potential treatment effects in relationship to each other and to survival and to ascertain whether patients' preferences are related to demographic or disease characteristics, performance status, or quality of life (QOL).
One hundred thirty-one patients were assessed pretreatment using standardized measures of QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck) and performance (Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer). Patients were also asked to rank a series of 12 potential HNC treatment effects.
Being cured was ranked top priority by 75% of patients; another 18% ranked it second or third. Living as long as possible and having no pain were placed in the top three by 56% and 35% of patients, respectively. Items that were ranked in the top three by 10% to 24% of patients included those related to energy, swallowing, voice, and appearance. Items related to chewing, being understood, tasting, and dry mouth were placed in the top three by less than 10% of patients. Excluding the top three rankings, there was considerable variability in ratings. Rankings were generally unrelated to patient or disease characteristics, with the exception that cure and living were of slightly lower priority and pain of higher priority to older patients compared with younger patients.
The data suggest that, at least pretreatment, survival is of primary importance to patients, supporting the development of aggressive treatment strategies. In addition, results highlight individual variability and warn against making assumptions about patients' attitudes vis-à-vis potential outcomes. Whether patients' priorities will change as they experience late effects is currently under investigation.
No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abnormalities in the mucosal lining of the vocal folds may interfere with the normal vibratory patterns and result in vocal limitations, especially for singers whose demands are great. A prospective, longitudinal study was undertaken to investigate the incidence of laryngeal abnormalities in asymptomatic singing students.
Sixty-five singing students at the school of music underwent videostroboscopic evaluation and completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Videos were rated by 3 experienced clinicians, and interrater reliability was calculated. Results were correlated with demographic factors, background medical history, and singing history.
Five students (8.3%) exhibited early signs of benign vocal fold lesions (2 with nodules and 3 with cysts). A high incidence of posterior erythema (n = 44; 73.4%), suggesting possible reflux, was found.
A surprisingly high number of otherwise asymptomatic singing students demonstrated abnormal laryngeal findings. Their relationship with vocal performance will be addressed as well as implications for preventative measures.
No preview · Article · Aug 1999 · Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the overall prevalence of aspiration in dysphagic individuals referred for a modified barium swallow and the underlying anatomic and/or physiologic causes. A total of 166 patients were seen during a 1-month period at 5 participating institutions. Aspiration was detected in 51.2% of the patients. The most common causes were decreased laryngeal elevation and delayed triggering of the pharyngeal motor response. A history of aspiration pneumonia was significantly associated with the presence of aspiration on modified barium swallow study. The presence of a protective cough was present in only 53% of patients who aspirated, reinforcing the need for appropriate radiologic assessment in patients with suspected dysphagia.
No preview · Article · May 1999 · Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery