Elisa Giuliani

Università di Pisa, Pisa, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (41)25.9 Total impact

  • Elisa Giuliani · Arianna Martinelli · Roberta Rabellotti
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    ABSTRACT: Firms from emerging countries are going global, and Europe is attracting around one-third of their direct outward investments. Growing internationalization constitutes an opportunity for technological catch up. In this paper we analyze Brazilian, Indian, and Chinese cross-border inventions with European Union (EU-27) inventors, during the period 1990-2012. Our results suggest that these inventions represent an opportunity for emerging country firms to accumulate technological capabilities, access frontier knowledge, and appropriate the property rights of co-inventions. This paper contributes to understanding catching up by emerging country firms.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · World Development
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    ABSTRACT: The phenomenon of Emerging Economy Multinational Enterprises (EMNEs) and their internationalization process have sparked the debate over the appropriateness of International Business theories to study EMNEs’ internationalization processes. The literature has extensively investigated what distinguishes EMNEs from Advanced Country Multinational Enterprises (AMNEs). This review summarizes and discusses some of the issues that have mostly attracted scholarly debate in this research area. We discuss the specificities of EMNEs: how they differ from AMNEs with respect to three very important and well studied topics: first, country-specific and firm-specific advantages; second, motivations for investing abroad; and third, different modes of entry into foreign markets. We conclude that EMNEs do differ from AMNEs, although these differences may be contingent and transitory.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Economia e Politica Industriale
  • Elisa Giuliani
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    ABSTRACT: A recent preoccupation in scholarly research is the capacity of firms in developing country industrial clusters to comply with international corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and codes of conducts. This research is at an early stage and draws on several—often quite distinct—scholarly traditions. In this paper, we argue that future work in this area would benefit from a more explicit examination of the connection between cluster firms and human rights defined according to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and subsequent covenants and treaties. We argue that cluster firms’ adoption of CSR policies, often indiscriminately imposed by global buyers, should be differentiated from firms’ actual human rights practices. Based on this distinction, we elaborate a typology of industrial clusters (low-road, window-dressing, rights-oriented) and identify a set of factors likely to influence their practice. Against this background, we discuss an agenda for future research and elaborate on the potential methodological intricacies related to research on the interface between industrial clusters and human rights.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Business Ethics
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    ABSTRACT: This paper empirically investigates how subsidiaries of multinationals from both emerging (EMNEs) and advanced (AMNEs) economies investing in Europe learn from the local context and contribute to it as much as they benefit from it. To explore this we classify the behavior of MNE subsidiaries into different typologies on the basis of how knowledge is transferred within the multinational and on the nature of the local innovative connections. The empirical analysis relies on an entirely new, subsidiary-level dataset in the industrial machinery sector in Italy and Germany. Results show that EMNEs and AMNEs undertake different strategies for tapping into local knowledge and for transferring it within the company. We identify a new typology of EMNE subsidiary that contributes through its significant local innovative efforts to development processes in the host country. This result suggests possible win-win situations from which novel policy implications may be drawn.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · International Business Review
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    ABSTRACT: This is a pre-print version of a paper that has been submitted for publication to a journal.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
  • Davide Fiaschi · Elisa Giuliani
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    ABSTRACT: Management research on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) focuses almost exclusively on the impact of CSR on profitability or corporate value. A largely neglected question is whether CSR impacts positively on society. We address this gap in the literature by exploring the relationship between CSR adoption (as reflected by corporate declarations to adopt CSR policies) and corporate involvement in alleged human rights abuses. Using information on 140 large advanced country corporations, we find that there is a relationship between CSR and alleged human rights abuses, but that the nature of this relationship varies according to the type of abuse: firms that declare to be CSR-adopters appear less likely to be involved than non-adopters in the worst of the abuses (i.e. jus cogens abuses), but more likely than non-adopters to be involved in other types of 'less serious' abuse (i.e. no–jus cogens abuses). Also, over time, the adoption of CSR reduces corporate involvement in direct abuses allegedly committed by management, or by a subsidiary, but not indirect abuses allegedly committed by complicit third parties (e.g. suppliers, clients, etc.). Our analyses contribute to the theory on the impact of business on society and have some normative implications for corporate abuses of human rights.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · SSRN Electronic Journal
  • Elisa Giuliani · Roberta Rabellotti
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    ABSTRACT: Emerging economies are now becoming more central in global competition. To achieve this, many countries have invested to develop into ‘knowledge economies’. Universities have a role to play in this transformation, both as generators of new knowledge as well as actors that can interact with the local industry and contribute to its innovativeness. This paper explores, using two case studies in the Chilean and South African wine industry, how universities connect international science to domestic industry. It finds that this connection occurs through a few ‘bridging researchers’, who display particular characteristics compared with their colleagues. Bridging researchers are more ‘talented’ than average researchers, both because they publish more in international journals and/or because they have received awards for their academic work. This finding may have significant policy implications, as policies aimed at strengthening the skills of these researchers should be welcomed in catching-up industries.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Cambridge Journal of Economics
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    Elisa Giuliani
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    ABSTRACT: Giuliani E. Role of technological gatekeepers in the growth of industrial clusters: evidence from Chile, Regional Studies. Industrial clusters are often associated with innovative success. However, there is very little research on what types of organizational models apply to clusters as they grow. This paper uses longitudinal micro-level data for a wine cluster in Chile. It shows that the most advanced firms in the cluster behave as technological gatekeepers - that is, they acquire knowledge outside cluster boundaries and contribute to diffusing knowledge to other local firms - and do so persistently over time. The results are explained by combining three theoretical perspectives: evolutionary economics theory; business studies on communities of practice and knowledge workers' know-how trade; and embeddedness theory.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Regional Studies
  • Elisa Giuliani
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    ABSTRACT: In past few years scholars of industrial dynamics and of localised production systems (LPS) (industrial districts, clusters, milieux, local innovation systems, local networks and the like) have increasingly stressed the importance of a cognitive approach as a tool for analysing and interpreting evolutionary dynamics of such agglomerated firms. Studies have emphasised the importance of the development of networks with external sources of information and knowledge as well as the diffusion and combination of external codified knowledge and tacit localised one (among others, Camagni, 1991, Freeman C., 1991, Rullani, 1994; Schiuma 2000). From one side, external sources of knowledge may serve to rejuvenate highly idiosyncratic pattern of local knowledge diffusion and avoid “lock in ” (Arthur, 1988) and “entrophic death ” (Camagni, 1991) phenomena. On the other side, there has been a growing concern in analysing the mechanism and economics of knowledge diffusion among local actors, with the final expectation of providing an interpretative framework of endogenous technological change in the cluster. In advanced countries literature diffusion and generation of knowledge in LPS have gone through at
    No preview · Article · Oct 2011
  • Anabel Marin · Elisa Giuliani
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of MNCs in emerging economies has increased substantially in recent times. This paper develops a ‘subsidiary-centred’ model for the estimation of spillovers from Foreign Direct Investments in Argentina. It conceives MNC subsidiaries as nodes of an inter-organisational network, and it analyses the degree to which different ‘positions’ in the global knowledge network influence the generation of local spillover effects. It finds that only subsidiaries that are open to extra-corporate knowledge sources (vis-à-vis intra-corporate sources) generate positive local spillovers, and shows that these subsidiaries have entrepreneurial features. The paper opens up new promising research directions.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011
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    ABSTRACT: We are currently observing an apparent paradox. On the one hand there is growing evidence about corporate misbehaviour and Multinational Corporations (MNCs)' violations of human rights. On the other, the largest MNCs are showing an unprecedented level of commitment to ?save the world? through their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives and investments. In this scenario, how much does CSR contribute to curb human rights abuses of the largest worldwide MNCs? This paper investigates this question using a novel dataset of 135 MNCs operating in several sectors over the period 1990-2006. We apply Probit estimations to our data and show that MNCs that have adopted CSR initiatives have higher probabilities of being involved in alleged human rights abuses, but such probability decreases over time, as they accumulate experience in CSR. This result is found for human rights abuses for which MNCs are directly held accountable, whereas our evidence suggests that CSR experience does not curb corporate complicity in abuses committed by third parties. The paper concludes by discussing the normative implications of this result and by suggesting directions for further research.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
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    Elisa Giuliani · Carlo Pietrobelli
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    ABSTRACT: Cluster development programs (CDPs) have been adopted widely in many countries worldwide. Many such programs aim to promote economic development by forming and strengthening inter-organizational networks. Despite their widespread diffusion, we know very little about CDP outputs or the impact CDPs have on host regions and their populations. Evaluation studies are beginning to appear, but the overall concern is that a distinct evaluation concept and method with a focus on CDPs is not yet available. The objective of this paper is to address this limitation, by proposing a novel methodological approach in the evaluation of CDPs based on the application of concepts and methods of social network analysis (SNA).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Research on University–industry (U-I) linkages and their determinants has increased significantly in the past few years. However, there is still controversy on the key factors explaining the formation of U-I linkages, and especially related to individual researcher characteristics. This paper provides new empirical evidence and, in particular, looks at the importance of researchers’ individual characteristics and their institutional environments in explaining the propensity to engage in different types of U-I linkages. Based on an original dataset, we present new evidence on three wine producing areas – Piedmont, a region of Italy, Chile and South Africa – that have successfully responded to recent structural changes in the industry worldwide. Empirical findings reveal that researchers’ individual characteristics, such as centrality in the academic system, age and sex, matter more than publishing records or formal degrees. Institutional specificities at country level also play a role in shaping the propensity of researchers to engage with industry.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Research Policy
  • Elisa Giuliani · Valeria Arza
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the literature on university–industry (U–I) linkages assumes that these linkages are beneficial per se. We question this assumption, suggesting that not all such linkages are equally helpful. In this paper, we explore the factors driving the formation of ‘valuable U–I linkages’, conceived as those linkages between universities and firms that have a higher potential to diffuse knowledge to other firms in their regional economy. Our empirical strategy combines case-study methodology with econometric techniques using data from two wine clusters in Chile and in Italy. The firm's knowledge base is found to be a key driver of ‘valuable’ U–I linkages. We conclude that selectivity should be encouraged among policy makers endeavouring to promote U–I linkages.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Research Policy
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    Elisa Giuliani
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explores the drivers of innovative output of firms that belong to emerging clusters, defined as those clusters that are not as "vibrant" or leading as e.g. Silicon Valley, but yet strive to emerge in the international competition. Using evidence of two wine clusters in Italy and Chile, this paper finds that firms' internal knowledge bases and their external openness are more significant than intra-cluster network embeddedness in explaining innovation. In particular, the paper tests for two competing structural positions within the intra-cluster knowledge network - network closure and structural holes - and finds that network closure affects innovation but with diminishing returns. However, this variable looses significance when accounting for external openness. Implications for managers of emerging clusters are noted.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2008
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explores the determinants of the linkages between industry and research organizations – including universities. We present new evidence on three wine producing areas – Piedmont, a region of Italy, Chile, South Africa - that have successfully reacted to the recent structural changes experienced in the industry worldwide. Based on an original dataset, we carry out an econometric exercise to study the microeconomic determinants of researchers’ collaborations with industry. The evidence reveals that individual researcher characteristics, such as embeddedness in the academic system, age and sex, matter more than their publishing record or formal degrees
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · SSRN Electronic Journal
  • Elisa Giuliani
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    ABSTRACT: Over recent decades, governments in industrializing countries have promoted policies to attract foreign investors, anticipating the benefits of technology transfer to host economies. During the 1990s, Costa Rica adopted an industrialization strategy based on attracting high-tech multinational companies (MNCs). Using an original survey of a sample of high-tech MNC subsidiaries, this article shows that the new wave of efficiency-seeking subsidiaries tend not to transfer knowledge to domestic firms even when they establish backward linkages with them. Instead, most of the knowledge transfer occurs between high-tech foreign subsidiaries. This has clear policy implications for host country governments.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Development and Change
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    Elisa Giuliani · Valeria Arza

    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008
  • Elisa Giuliani

    No preview · Article · Feb 2008
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    Elisa Giuliani
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the studies about industrial clusters and innovation stress the importance of firms’ geographical proximity and their embeddedness in local business networks (BNs) as factors that positively affect their learning and innovation processes. More recently, scholars have started to claim that firm-specific characteristics should be considered to be central in the process of learning and innovation in clusters. This article contributes to this latter direction of research. It applies social network analysis to explore the structural properties of knowledge networks in three wine clusters in Italy and Chile. The results show that in spite of firms’ geographical proximity and the pervasiveness of local BNs, innovation-related knowledge is diffused in clusters in a highly selective and uneven way. This pattern is found to be related to the heterogeneous and asymmetric distribution of firm knowledge bases in the clusters.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal of Economic Geography

Publication Stats

2k Citations
25.90 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2002-2016
    • Università di Pisa
      • Department of Economics and Management
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2012
    • University of Pavia
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2003-2011
    • University of Sussex
      • Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU)
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005-2009
    • European University Institute
      Fiésole, Tuscany, Italy