K. Perraut

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (143)285.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Accurate stellar parameters are needed in numerous domains of astrophysics. The position of stars on the H-R diagram is an important indication of their structure and evolution, and it helps improve stellar models. Furthermore, the age and mass of stars hosting planets are required elements for studying exoplanetary systems. We aim at determining accurate parameters of a set of 18 bright exoplanet host and potential host stars from interferometric measurements, photometry, and stellar models. Using the VEGA/CHARA interferometer, we measured the angular diameters of 18 stars, ten of which host exoplanets. We combined them with their distances to estimate their radii. We used photometry to derive their bolometric flux and, then, their effective temperature and luminosity to place them on the H-R diagram. We then used the PARSEC models to derive their best fit ages and masses, with error bars derived from MC calculations. Our interferometric measurements lead to an average of 1.9% uncertainty on angular diameters and 3% on stellar radii. There is good agreement between measured and indirect estimations of angular diameters (from SED fitting or SB relations) for MS stars, but not as good for more evolved stars. For each star, we provide a likelihood map in the mass-age plane; typically, two distinct sets of solutions appear (an old and a young age). The errors on the ages and masses that we provide account for the metallicity uncertainties, which are often neglected by other works. From measurements of its radius and density, we also provide the mass of 55 Cnc independently of models. From the stellar masses, we provide new estimates of semi-major axes and minimum masses of exoplanets with reliable uncertainties. We also derive the radius, density, and mass of 55 Cnc e, a super-Earth that transits its stellar host. Our exoplanetary parameters reflect the known population of exoplanets.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Stellar rotation is a key in our understanding of both mass-loss and evolution of intermediate and massive stars. It can lead to anisotropic mass-loss in the form of radiative wind or an excretion disk. Aims. We wished to spatially resolve the photosphere and gaseous environment of 51 Oph, a peculiar star with a very high vsini of 267 km? s-1 and an evolutionary status that remains unsettled. It has been classified by different authors as a Herbig, a β Pic, or a classical Be star. Methods. We used the VEGA visible beam combiner installed on the CHARA array that reaches a submilliarcsecond resolution. Observation were centered on the Hα emission line. Results. We derived, for the first time, the extension and flattening of 51 Oph photosphere. We found a major axis of θeq = 8.08 ± 0.70 RO and a minor axis of θpol = 5.66 ± 0.23 RO. This high photosphere distortion shows that the star is rotating close to its critical velocity. Finally, using spectro-interferometric measurements in the Hα line, we constrained the circumstellar environment geometry and kinematics and showed that the emission is produced in a 5.2 ± 2 R∗ disk in Keplerian rotation. Conclusions. From the visible point of view, 51 Oph presents all the features of a classical Be star: near critical-rotation and double-peaked Hα line in emission produced in a gaseous disk in Keplerian rotation. However, this does not explain the presence of dust as seen in the mid-infrared and millimeter spectra, and the evolutionary status of 51 Oph remains unsettled.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Determining the effective temperature of Ap stars, including the roAp stellar pulsators, is a difficult task owing to their strong magnetic field and their related spotted surfaces. It is, however, an important step towards constraining models of their complex atmosphere and testing proposed pulsation excitation mechanisms. Aims. Using the unique angular resolution provided by long-baseline visible interferometry, we aim at deriving accurate angular diameters of a number of Ap targets, so as to determine their unbiased effective temperature (Teff) and their accurate position in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, to estimate their mass and age, and to test non-adiabatic pulsation models. Interferometric results on four Ap stars have been published in earlier works. Here we report the results on a fifth, significantly hotter star. Methods. We observed 78 Vir with the visible spectrograph VEGA installed at the combined focus of the CHARA long-baseline optical array. We derived the limb-darkened diameter of this Ap star from our interferometric measurements. Based on photometric and spectroscopic data available in the literature, we estimated the star's bolometric flux and used it, in combination with its parallax and angular diameter, to determine the star's luminosity and effective temperature. We then used the derived fundamental parameters to perform a non-adiabatic pulsation analysis. Results. We determined a limb-darkened angular diameter of 0.346 ± 0.006 mas and deduced a linear radius of R = 2.11 ± 0.04 RO.. Considering a bolometric flux of 2.73 ± 0.20 10-7 erg/cm2/s we obtained a luminosity of L/LO. = 27 ± 2 and an effective temperature of Teff = 9100 ± 190 K. The non-adiabatic pulsation modeling allows us to predict that high overtone pulsations could be excited in 78 Vir at frequencies ranging from 1.2 to 1.9 mHz, provided that the magnetic field is capable of suppressing envelope convection in the polar regions. Conclusions. Visible long-baseline interferometry is a unique means of deriving accurate fundamental parameters of Ap stars. The Ap star 78 Vir is found to be a promising roAp-star candidate and one that would allow us to extend recent tests on the roAp stars' excitation mechanism towards the blue edge of the instability strip. Asteroseismic data of this star would, therefore, be of strong interest.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: GRAVITY is the second generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer instrument for precision narrow-angle astrometry and interferometric imaging in the Near Infra-Red (NIR). It shall provide precision astrometry of order 10 microarcseconds, and imaging capability at a few milliarcsecond resolution, and hence will revolutionise dynamical measurements of celestial objects. GRAVITY is currently in the last stages of its integration and tests in Garching at MPE, and will be delivered to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) in 2015. We present here the instrument, with a particular focus on the components making use of fibres: integrated optics beam combiners, polarisation rotators, fibre differential delay lines, and the metrology.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The rapidly rotating Be star phi Persei was spun up by mass and angular momentum transfer from a now stripped-down, hot subdwarf companion. Here we present the first high angular resolution images of phi Persei made possible by new capabilities in longbaseline interferometry at near-IR and visible wavelengths. We observed phi Persei with the MIRC and VEGA instruments of the CHARA Array. Additional MIRC-only observations were performed to track the orbital motion of the companion, and these were fit together with new and existing radial velocity measurements of both stars to derive the complete orbital elements and distance. The hot subdwarf companion is clearly detected in the near-IR data at each epoch of observation with a flux contribution of 1.5% in the H band, and restricted fits indicate that its flux contribution rises to 3.3% in the visible. A new binary orbital solution is determined by combining the astrometric and radial velocity measurements. The derived stellar masses are 9.6+-0.3Msol and 1.2+-0.2Msol for the Be primary and subdwarf secondary, respectively. The inferred distance (186 +- 3 pc), kinematical properties, and evolutionary state are consistent with membership of phi Persei in the alpha Per cluster. From the cluster age we deduce significant constraints on the initial masses and evolutionary mass transfer processes that transformed the phi Persei binary system. The interferometric data place strong constraints on the Be disk elongation, orientation, and kinematics, and the disk angular momentum vector is coaligned with and has the same sense of rotation as the orbital angular momentum vector. The VEGA visible continuum data indicate an elongated shape for the Be star itself, due to the combined effects of rapid rotation, partial obscuration of the photosphere by the circumstellar disk, and flux from the bright inner disk.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · EAS Publications Series
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    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The European Physical Journal Conferences
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    ABSTRACT: With the new space missions dedicated to exoplanet detection and characterization, like PLATO, CHEOPS, TESS, the determination of stellar parameters with high accuracy becomes more and more essential. However, direct or indirect estimations of stellar parameters are affected by stellar activity (magnetic spots, bright plages, granulation) that introduces bias that lower those parameters accuracy. Improving the sensitivity and resolution of future interferometers will allow enlarging the number of common targets of space and ground instruments, and accessing the accuracy needed to distinguish between planetary signals and stellar activity signals. After presenting how visible interferometry contributes to the direct and accurate determination of stellar parameters and thus planetary ones, the impact of stellar activity on interferometric observables and stellar parameters will be presented. Finally, solutions to distinguish between exoplanet and spot signals will be discussed.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The VEGA instrument located at the focus of the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) array in California is a collaborating project between the Lagrange laboratory in Nice, where it has been developed (Mourard et al. 2009, 2011), the IPAG (Grenoble) and CRAL (Lyon) laboratories, and the CHARA group at Mount Wilson Observatory. The outcome from this international collaboration is to provide to the community a visible spectro-interferometer with an unprecedented angular resolution of 0.3 milli-second of arc (mas) together with a spectral resolution of 5000 or 30000. With such an instrument it becomes possible to determine simultaneously the size and the kinematic of the photosphere and/or of the circumstellar environment of the star as a function of the wavelength, which basically means for each spectral channel in the continuum and/or within spectral lines (in Hα for instance). The only limitation is to get enough signal to noise ratio in each spectral channel. We can currently reach a limiting magnitude of 8 in visible in medium spectral resolution (5000) and 4.5 in high resolution (30000). In this proceeding, we illustrate the two main subjects studied with the VEGA instrument, namely (1) how angular diameters are useful to accurately derive the fundamental parameters of stars, (2) how the spectral resolution can allow to study the kinematical structure of stars or even to derive chromatic images of stellar objects.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar activity causes difficulties in the characterization of transiting exoplanets. Studies have been performed to quantify its impact on infrared interferometry, but not in the visible domain, which however allows reaching better angular resolution and is also the one mostly used for spectroscopic and photometric measurements. We use a textbook case to make a complete analysis of the impact of an exoplanet and a spot on interferometric observables and relate it to current instruments capabilities, taking into account realistic achievable precisions. We have built a numerical code called COMETS using analytical formulae to perform a simple comparison of exoplanets and spots' signals. We explore instrumental specificities needed to detect them, like the baseline length required, the accuracy and SNR. We also discuss the impact of exoplanets and spot's parameters on squared visibility and phase. We find that the main improvement to bring is the sensitivity of instruments. The accuracy on squared visibilities has to be improved by a factor 10 to detect an exoplanet of 0.1 mas, leading to $<0.5%$ precision, along with phase measurements of ~$5^{\deg}$ accuracy beyond the first null of visibility. For a 0.05 mas exoplanet, accuracies of ~$0.1%$ and ~$1^{\deg}$ from the first null are required on squared visibilities and phases, respectively. Magnetic spots can mimic these signals, leading to false exoplanet characterization. Phases measurements from the 3rd lobe is needed to disentangle between a spot and an exoplanet if they have the same radius. Increasing interferometers sensitivity, more objects will become common between interferometric targets and photometric ones. Furthermore, new missions like PLATO, CHEOPS or TESS will provide bright exoplanets host stars. Measurements will thus overlap and provide a better characterization of stellar activity and exoplanets.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: [..abridged.] We determined the fundamental properties of HD 140283 by obtaining new interferometric and spectroscopic measurements and combining them with photometry from the literature. The interferometric measurements were obtained using the visible interferometer VEGA on the CHARA array and we determined a 1D limb-darkened angular diameter of 0.353 +/- 0.013 milliarcseconds. Using photometry from the literature we derived the bolometric flux with two solutions: a zero-reddening one of Fbol = 3.890 +/- 0.066 1E-8 erg/s/cm2 and a solution with a maximum of Av = 0.1 mag, Fbol= 4.220 +/- 0.067 1E-8 erg/s/cm2. The interferometric Teff is thus 5534 +/- 103 K or 5647 +/- 105 K and its radius is R = 2.21 +/- 0.08 Rsol. Spectroscopic measurements of HD140283 were obtained using HARPS, NARVAL, and UVES and a 1D LTE analysis of H-alpha line wings yields Teff(Halpha) = 5626 +/- 75 K. Using fine-tuned stellar models including diffusion of elements we then determined the mass M and age t of HD140283. Once the metallicity has been fixed, the age of the star depends on M, initial helium abundance Yi and mixing-length parameter alpha, only two of which are independent. We need to adjust alpha to much lower values than the solar one (~2) in order to fit the observations, and if Av = 0.0 mag then 0.5 < alpha < 1. We give an equation to estimate t from M, Yi (alpha) and Av. Establishing a reference alpha = 1.00 and adopting Yi = 0.245 we derive a mass and age of HD140283: M = 0.780 +/- 0.010 Msol and t = 13.7 +/- 0.7 Gyr (Av = 0.0) or M = 0.805 +/- 0.010 Msol and t = 12.2 +/- 0.6 Gyr (Av=0.1 mag). Our stellar models yield an initial metallicity of [Z/X]i = -1.70 and logg = 3.65 +/- 0.03. Asteroseismic observations are critical for overcoming limitations in our results.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Résumé Le mandat du groupe E concerne la prospective des moyens d'observation sur la période 2025-2035 ainsi que les développements de R&D amont correspondants. Comme la prospective spatiale européenne est clairement structurée par le programme Cosmic Vision de l'ESA et d'opportunités de vol sur des missions internationales et qu'au niveau français, la déclinaison de ces grands axes est pilotée par le CNES, il n'est pas dans les prérogatives de ce groupe de travail de discuter les recommandations issues du colloque de prospective du CNES tenu au printemps 2014. Les domaines d'observation accessibles uniquement depuis l'espace ne sont donc présentés que du point de vue R&D.
    Full-text · Chapter · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: HD 50138 is a B[e] star surrounded by a large amount of circumstellar gas and dust. Its spectrum shows characteristics which may indicate either a pre- or a post-main-sequence system. Mapping the kinematics of the gas in the inner few au of the system contributes to a better understanding of its physical nature. We present the first high spatial and spectral resolution interferometric observations of the Br-gamma line of HD~50138, obtained with VLTI/AMBER. The line emission originates from a region more compact (up to 3 au) than the continuum-emitting region. Blue- and red-shifted emission originates from the two different hemispheres of an elongated structure perpendicular to the polarization angle. The velocity of the emitting medium decreases radially. An overall offset along the NW direction between the line- and continuum-emitting regions is observed. We compare the data with a geometric model of a thin Keplerian disk and a spherical halo on top of a Gaussian continuum. Most of the data are well reproduced by this model, except for the variability, the global offset and the visibility at the systemic velocity. The evolutionary state of the system is discussed; most diagnostics are ambiguous and may point either to a post-main-sequence or a pre-main-sequence nature.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to improve the SBC relation for early-type stars in the $-1 \leq V-K \leq 0$ color domain, using optical interferometry. Observations of eight B- and A-type stars were secured with the VEGA/CHARA instrument in the visible. The derived uniform disc angular diameters were converted into limb darkened angular diameters and included in a larger sample of twenty four stars, already observed by interferometry, in order to derive a revised empirical relation for O, B, A spectral type stars with a V-K color index ranging from -1 to 0. We also take the opportunity to check the consistency of the SBC relation up to $V-K \simeq 4$ using 100 additional measurements. We determined the uniform disc angular diameter for the eight following stars: $\gamma$ Ori, $\zeta$ Per, $8$ Cyg, $\iota$ Her, $\lambda$ Aql, $\zeta$ Peg, $\gamma$ Lyr and $\delta$ Cyg with V-K color ranging from -0.70 to 0.02 and typical precision of about $1.5\%$. Using our total sample of 132 stars with $V-K$ colors index ranging from about $-1$ to $4$, we provide a revised SBC relation. For late-type stars ($0 \leq V-K \leq 4$), the results are consistent with previous studies. For early-type stars ($-1 \leq V-K \leq 0$), our new VEGA/CHARA measurements combined with a careful selection of the stars (rejecting stars with environment or stars with a strong variability), allows us to reach an unprecedented precision of about 0.16 magnitude or $\simeq 7\%$ in term of angular diameter.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: GRAVITY, a second generation instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), will provide an astrometric precision of order 10 micro-arcseconds, an imaging resolution of 4 milli-arcseconds, and low/medium resolution spectro-interferometry. These improvements to the VLTI represent a major upgrade to its current infrared interferometric capabilities, allowing detailed study of obscured environments (e.g. the Galactic Center, young dusty planet-forming disks, dense stellar cores, AGN, etc...). Crucial to the final performance of GRAVITY, the Coudé IR Adaptive Optics (CIAO) system will correct for the effects of the atmosphere at each of the VLT Unit Telescopes. CIAO consists of four new infrared Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors (WFS) and associated real-time computers/software which will provide infrared wavefront sensing from 1.45-2.45 microns, allowing AO corrections even in regions where optically bright reference sources are scarce. We present here the latest progress on the GRAVITY wavefront sensors. We describe the adaptation and testing of a light-weight version of the ESO Standard Platform for Adaptive optics Real Time Applications (SPARTA-Light) software architecture to the needs of GRAVITY. We also describe the latest integration and test milestones for construction of the initial wave front sensor.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Up to now, many techniques have been developed to detect and observe exoplanets, the radial velocity (RV) method being the most prolific one. However, stellar magnetic spots can mimic an exoplanet transit signal and lead to a false detection. A few models have already been developed to constrain the different signature of exoplanets and spots, but they only concern RV measurements or photometry. An interferometric approach, with high angular resolution capabilities, could resolve this problem.Optical interferometry is a powerful method to measure accurate stellar diameters, and derive fundamental parameters of stars and exoplanets minimum masses. We have built an analytical code able to calculate visibility moduli and closure phases of stars with a transiting exoplanet, to be compared with a star with no exoplanet. From the difference of interferometric signal, we can derive the presence of the exoplanet, but this requires that the star is resolved enough. We have tested this code with current available facilities like VEGA/CHARA and determined which already discovered exoplanets systems can be resolved enough to test this method.To make a more general study, we also tested different parameters (exoplanet and stellar diameters, exoplanet position) that can lead to a variation of the minimum baseline length required to see the exoplanet signal on the visibility modulus and the phase. Stellar spots act in the same way, but the difference of local intensity between an exoplanet transit and a spot can easily be studied thanks to the interferometric measurements.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The structure of the inner disk of Herbig Be stars is not well understood. The continuum disks of several Herbig Be stars have inner radii that are smaller than predicted by models of irradiated disks with optically thin holes. Aims: We study the size of the inner disk of the Herbig B[e] star HD 85567 and compare the model radii with the radius suggested by the size-luminosity relation. Methods: The object was observed with the AMBER instrument of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. We obtained K-band visibilities and closure phases. These measurements are interpreted with geometric models and temperature-gradient models. Results: Using several types of geometric star-disk and star-disk-halo models, we derived inner ring-fit radii in the K band that are in the range of 0.8 - 1.6 AU. Additional temperature-gradient modeling resulted in an extended disk with an inner radius of $0.67^{+0.51}_{-0.21}$ AU, a high inner temperature of $2200^{+750}_{-350}$ K, and a disk inclination of $53^{+15}_{-11}$$^\circ$. Conclusions: The derived geometric ring-fit radii are approximately 3 - 5 times smaller than that predicted by the size-luminosity relation. The small geometric and temperature-gradient radii suggest optically thick gaseous material that absorbs stellar radiation inside the dust disk.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We use a numerical model of the birefringence in the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the Gravity instrument to study the astrometric phase errors that arise when two conditions are simultaneously present: differential birefringence between two VLTI arms, and different polarizations of the science and fringe tracker sources. We present measurements of the VLTI birefringence, that are used to validate our model. We show how a suitable alignment of the eigenvectors of the optical train eliminates the phase error.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: GRAVITY1 is a 2nd generation Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) operated in the astronomical K-band. In the Beam Combiner Instrument2 (BCI) four Fiber Couplers3 (FC) will feed the light coming from each telescope into two fibers, a reference channel for the fringe tracking spectrometer4 (FT) and a science channel for the science spectrometer4 (SC). The differential Optical Path Difference (dOPD) between the two channels will be corrected using a novel metrology concept.5 The metrology laser will keep control of the dOPD of the two channels. It is injected into the spectrometers and detected at the telescope level. Piezo-actuated fiber stretchers correct the dOPD accordingly. Fiber-fed Integrated Optics6 (IO) combine coherently the light of all six baselines and feed both spectrometers. Assisted by Infrared Wavefront Sensors7 (IWS) at each Unit Telescope (UT) and correcting the path difference between the channels with an accuracy of up to 5 nm, GRAVITY will push the limits of astrometrical accuracy to the order of 10 μas and provide phase-referenced interferometric imaging with a resolution of 4 mas. The University of Cologne developed, constructed and tested both spectrometers of the camera system. Both units are designed for the near infrared (1.95 - 2.45 μm) and are operated in a cryogenic environment. The Fringe Tracker is optimized for highest transmission with fixed spectral resolution (R = 22) realized by a double-prism.8 The Science spectrometer is more diverse and allows to choose from three different spectral resolutions8 (R = [22, 500, 4000]), where the lowest resolution is achieved with a prism and the higher resolutions are realized with grisms. A Wollaston prism in each spectrometer allows for polarimetric splitting of the light. The goal for the spectrometers is to concentrate at least 90% of the ux in 2 × 2 pixel (36 × 36 μm2) for the Science channel and in 1 pixel (24 × 24 μm) in the Fringe Tracking channel. In Section 1, we present the arrangement, direction of spectral dispersion and shift of polarization channels for both spectrometers, and the curvature of the spectra in the science spectrometer. In Section 2 we determine the best focus position of the detectors. The overall contrast of images at different positions of the detector stage is computed with the standard deviation of pixel values in the spectra containing region. In Section 3 we analyze high dynamic range images for each spectrometer and resolution obtained at the afore determined best focus positions. We deduce the ensquared energy from the FWHM of Gaussian fits perpendicular to the spectra.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: In the next 2 or 3 years, the two major interferometric arrays, VLTI and CHARA, will equip their telescopes of 1.8m and 1m respectively with Adaptive Optics (AO hereafter) systems. This improvement will permit to apply with a reasonable e_ciency in the visible domain, the principle of spatial filtering with single mode fibers demonstrated in the near-infrared. It will clearly open new astrophysical fields by taking benefit of an improved sensitivity and state-of-the-art precision and accuracy on interferometric observables. To prepare this future possibility, we started the development of a demonstrator called FRIEND (Fibered and spectrally Resolved Interferometric Experiment - New Design). FRIEND combines the beams coming from 3 telescopes after injection in single mode optical fibers and provides some spectral capabilities for characterization purposes as well as photometric channels. It operates in the R spectral band (from 600nm to 750nm) and uses the world's fastest and more sensitive analogic detector OCAM2. Tests on sky at the focus of the CHARA interferometer are scheduled for December 2014. In this paper, we present the first interferometric tests of the OCAM2 detector performed on CHARA in November 2012 and the concept, the expected performance and the opto-mechanical design of FRIEND.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2014

Publication Stats

2k Citations
285.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008-2014
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, MA, United States
  • 2008-2013
    • University of Grenoble
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2012
    • IPAG Business School
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005-2011
    • University Joseph Fourier - Grenoble 1
      • Institut de Planétologie et Astrophysique de Grenoble
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France